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The evolution of evidence-based medicine: where Cochrane fits in

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Information about The evolution of evidence-based medicine: where Cochrane fits in

Published on November 2, 2007

Author: cmaverga

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Gordon Guyatt speaking at plenary session 1 at the XV Cochrane Colloquium in Sao Paulo, Brasil
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The evolution of EBM: Where Cochrane fits in brief history of EBM Cochrane’s contribution to date Cochrane’s contribution in future

brief history of EBM

Cochrane’s contribution to date

Cochrane’s contribution in future

 

1990 McMaster University internal medicine residency different practice of medicine less trust of personal observations less trust of physiological reasoning less trust of experts more emphasis on controlled clinical observations strategies to reduce bias reliance on critical use of published literature demand of experts/teachers: what is the evidence? what to call it? scientific medicine evidence-based medicine

different practice of medicine

less trust of personal observations

less trust of physiological reasoning

less trust of experts

more emphasis on controlled clinical observations

strategies to reduce bias

reliance on critical use of published literature

demand of experts/teachers: what is the evidence?

what to call it?

scientific medicine

evidence-based medicine

First principle: Hierarchy of Evidence Randomized Trials Observational studies patient-important outcomes Basic research test tube, animal, human physiology Clinical experience

 

Model of evidence based clinical decisions clinical circumstances patient preference research evidence Clinical expertise

clinical circumstances

patient preference research evidence

 

21 5 10 1 1 2 8 7 8 12 4 3 1 1 2 8 7 2 1 1 1 2 8 1 5 15 6 Not Mentioned Routine Experimental Rare/Never Specific M M M M M M Textbook/Review Recommendations Odds Ratio (Log Scale) 0.5 1.0 2.0 Favours Treatment Favours Control RCTs Pts 1 23 2 65 3 149 4 316 7 1793 10 2544 11 2651 15 3311 17 3929 22 5452 P<.01 23 5767 27 6125 30 6346 33 6571 43 21 059 54 22 051 67 47 531 65 47 185 70 48 154 P<.001 P<.00001 Cumulative Year 1960 1965 1970 1980 1985 1990 Thrombolytic Therapy

Prophylactic Lidocaine in MI 1970 2 304 1974 9 1451 1976 11 1686 1978 12 1986 1985 14 8412 1988 15 8745 9 1 1 8 0 2 5 0 2 8 0 3 14 4 6 4 2 1 1989 - 1st meta-analysis published Recommendations Yes No Not mentioned Favors treatment Favors placebo Outcome = death Relative risk (CI) 0.5 1 1.5 2 Cumulative Year # RCTs Subjects

Additional principle of EBM systematic summaries of best evidence should inform clinical decisions need for systematic reviews need for practice guidelines

systematic summaries of best evidence should inform clinical decisions

need for systematic reviews

need for practice guidelines

Limitations of Cochrane Reviews for clinicians long, complex, confusing, inaccessible for guideline developers best estimate of effect of alternatives on all patient-important outcomes often don’t include all outcomes when they do, difficult to efficiently access evidence summaries

for clinicians

long, complex, confusing, inaccessible

for guideline developers

best estimate of effect of alternatives on all patient-important outcomes

often don’t include all outcomes

when they do, difficult to efficiently access evidence summaries

 

GRADE system for rating quality of evidence and grades of recommendations system for developing recommendations system to guide interpretation of systematic reviews to inform clinical guidelines and clinical decisions

system for rating quality of evidence and grades of recommendations

system for developing recommendations

system to guide interpretation of systematic reviews to inform clinical guidelines and clinical decisions

Rating quality of evidence categories of quality high, moderate, low, very low RCTs start high 5 factors can lower quality? detailed design and execution inconsistency indirectness imprecision reporting bias

categories of quality

high, moderate, low, very low

RCTs start high

5 factors can lower quality?

detailed design and execution

inconsistency

indirectness

imprecision

reporting bias

 

Role of Cochrane within EBM systematic summaries of best evidence should guide clinical decision-making Cochrane central to EBM enormous impact and contribution but hasn’t met full potential full potential may soon be met

systematic summaries of best evidence should guide clinical decision-making

Cochrane central to EBM

enormous impact and contribution

but hasn’t met full potential

full potential may soon be met

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