The Events Leading to the American Revolution

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Information about The Events Leading to the American Revolution

Published on October 9, 2007

Author: Mee12


The Events Leading to the American Revolution:  The Events Leading to the American Revolution Presentation by Marc Baldwin Text by Baldwin & Heartland Fourth Grade Teacher Geyser Road Elementary Introduction:  Introduction This presentation provides a brief description of the events leading to the American Revolution. After each description, a question is asked to encourage students to participate in class discussions. Each question is intended to allow students to judge the participants’ actions. The Events:  The Events The French and Indian War Pontiac’s Rebellion The Proclamation of 1763 The Stamp Act TheTownshend Acts The Boston Massacre The Boston Tea Party The Intolerable Acts The Battle of Lexington The French and Indian War:  The French and Indian War The French and Indian War was fought from 1754 to 1763. The French and the British fought over land in North America and the rich fur trade. The war was very costly to both countries. In 1763, the two countries signed a peace treaty known as the Treaty of Paris. This treaty ended the war. France was forced to give up all her land in North America to Britain. Britain won the war. Still the government spent a lot of money. How were they going to pay their war debt? Britain decided to tax the colonists. They were British subjects and should help pay the debt. What do you think the colonists reaction will be? THE COLONISTS WERE DISGUSTED!:  THE COLONISTS WERE DISGUSTED! Pontiac’s Rebellion:  Pontiac’s Rebellion In August of 1763, after the French-Indian War, an Ottawa Indian chief named Pontiac went to other Indian chiefs along the Ohio River Valley to start a rebellion. He wanted to start a rebellion, because the British fur trappers and traders were on the land where the French and Indians lived. The British had moved the French off the land and the Indians didn't receive any more presents from the French. Then the Indians took over the British forts and burned the colonists' settlements in the country. King George III wanted to end Pontiac's rebellion so he issued a proclamation that gave all the land west of the Appalachians to the Indians. This proclamation helped bring peace to the Ohio River Valley. Although the white people there who wanted the land got extremely angry because the land west of the Appalachians was off limits to them. Do you agree with the King’s decision? THE COLONISTS WERE DISPLEASED!:  THE COLONISTS WERE DISPLEASED! The Proclamation of 1763:  The Proclamation of 1763 It took place in 1763 in England but affected the colonists and the Indians in the Ohio River Valley from Georgia to Ontario, Canada. At the end of the French and Indian War, Britain had control over all of North America to the east of the Mississippi River. The colonists wanted to move westward toward the Ohio Valley area. The Indians were used to receiving presents from the French and were upset that their friends were no longer there, which is what started Pontiac's Rebellion. King George III wanted to establish a stronger government in the Colonies. To keep peace with the Indians, he issued the Proclamation of 1763. The Proclamation gave the land west of the Appalachian Mountains to the Indians for their Hunting Grounds. Any colonists who were already settled in this area were forced to return to the eastern side of the Appalachians. The territory given to the Indians was not to be a part of any colony and the colonists could not buy or trade for land in that area. This made a boundary limiting the colonists to the east side of the Appalachians. King George III did not realize how much territory he was giving the Indians. Should the King have consulted the Colonies about this decision? YES, THEY SHOULD HAVE WORKED TOGETHER!:  YES, THEY SHOULD HAVE WORKED TOGETHER! The Stamp Act :  The Stamp Act To pay for some of the costs of the French and Indian War, in March of 1765, Lord George Grenville asked the English Parliament to impose the Stamp Act. This was the first direct tax on the American colonies. All printed materials were taxed, including; newspapers, pamphlets, bills, legal documents, licenses, almanacs, dice and playing cards. The law would go into effect November 1, 1765. Britain thought they would collect 60,000 pounds a year from this tax. Even though each stamp would only cost from 1/2 penny to 10 pounds, the colonists were afraid that England would not stop at just this tax. The colonists were infuriated over this decision by King George III. The colonists felt they should be taxed only by their own government, they didn't like the British troops in their land, and they didn't like that the tax had to be paid in silver. In May, Patrick Henry presents seven resolutions to the House of Burgesses that basically say only the Virginia assembly can legally tax Virginia residents. He is quoted as saying, "If this be treason, make the most of it.“ Does anyone know Patrick Henry’s next quote? GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!:  GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH! The Stamp Act (Con’t):  The Stamp Act (Con’t) In July, the first group of Sons of Liberty is formed in a number of colonial towns. It is an underground organization of people who oppose the Stamp Act. The members decided to use violence and intimidation to fight against the Stamp Act. The Sons of Liberty burned the stamps. They threatened the stamp agents. Most stamp agents were scared of the Sons of Liberty. Samuel Adams lead the group in Boston. He attacked the Act in the city's newspapers. One time they hung a puppet that looked like the stamp agent to a tree. That tree is known as the Liberty Tree. On August 26, a mob in Boston attacks the home of Thomas Hutchinson, Chief Justice of Massachusetts, as Hutchinson and his family narrowly escape. On October 7, 1765, representatives from nine colonies attend the Stamp Act Congress in New York City. This Congress passes a resolution to be sent to King George III and the English Parliament. The petition requests the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Acts of 1764. The petition stated only colonial legislatures could tax residents of the colonies and taxation without representation violates their basic civil rights. Do you agree? Why? On November 1, 1765, almost all daily business and transactions in the colonies came to a stop when the Stamp Act went into effect because the colonists refused to use the stamps. In New York City, a mob made a stuffed image of its royal governor, burned it, harassed the British troops, and then looted homes. Do you agree with colonists decision or Parliament? Why? The Townshend Acts:  The Townshend Acts In June 1767 the English Parliament decided to cut British land taxes. In order to make up for the difference and to continue to finance their troops in the Colonies, Charles Townshend, the British Treasurer, promised he would tax the colonists. Unlike the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts created a tax on goods the colonists imported, such as paper, red and white lead, glass, paints, and tea shipped from England. The Act also established a board of customs collectors in Boston. The money collected from these import taxes was used to pay the salaries of these British colonial officials. This made them more independent of the colonial legislatures and better able to enforce British orders and laws. The Townshend Acts were very unpopular with the colonists, who criticized the Acts and demonstrated in protest. In October, the colonists in Boston decided to restart the boycott of English items. In February 1768, Samuel Adams of Massachusetts wrote a letter to oppose the taxation without representation. This letter became known as the "circular" letter. He asked the colonists to rise up against the British government. He told what the Massachusetts general court was doing to oppose the Townshend Acts and sent his letter to all the colony legislatures. In April 1768, Lord Hillsborough, Secretary of State for the Colonies, ordered the governors of all the colonies to stop their assemblies from hearing Adam's circular letter. Lord Hillsborough ordered the Massachusetts governor to revoke the letter or he would stop their general court from meeting. By the end of April, New Hampshire, Connecticut and New Jersey had all agreed to approve Samuel Adam's method of opposition. The Townshend Acts (Con’t):  The Townshend Acts (Con’t) In July 1768, the Massachusetts governor shut down the general court because the legislature had refused to repeal their approval of Adams' circular letter. In August, merchants in Boston and New York begin their boycott of most British goods until the Townshend Acts are repealed. In September, a town meeting is held in Boston, Massachusetts and the residents were told to bear arms in case they were needed to fight the British soldiers who were increasing all the time. British warships arrived in Boston Harbor in September and two regiments of infantry moved permanently into Boston neighborhoods. In March 1769, merchants in Philadelphia joined the boycott of British goods. In May George Mason wrote a set of resolutions that were presented to the Virginia House of Burgesses by George Washington. The resolutions opposed taxation without representation, opposed British reaction to the colonists acceptance of Samuel Adams' circular letter, and opposed British plans to try colonists in England. Ten days later, Virginia's royal governor stopped the House of Burgesses from meeting again. But the members met the next day and decided to join the boycott of British goods. In October 1769 the merchant boycott spread to New Jersey, Rhode Island and North Carolina. The colonists united in their opposition to the Townshend Acts. King George III had to send more troops to the colonies to keep his control. The Townshend Acts except for the taxes on tea were finally repealed in March of 1770. Was this a good idea for Parliament to do? How do you think the colonists reacted? CONFUSED? :  CONFUSED? The Boston Massacre:  The Boston Massacre In February 1770, eleven year old Christopher Sneider was shot and killed by a British merchant during a riot. His funeral drew thousands of people and was probably still on the minds of all the residents of Boston on March 5th. On Monday, March 5, 1770, the conflicts between the colonists and the Boston Garrison soldiers grew. A merchant and one of the soldiers were arguing and some of the townspeople gathered. They began to throw snowballs and rocks at the soldiers. Soon Captain Thomas Preston and a small group of soldiers arrived. Private Hugh Montgomery of the British troops was hit by a club thrown from the crowd. When he got up, he fired into the crowd. Soon other British soldiers started firing wildly with their guns. Three colonists died instantly and two more died later from the injuries they received during the shooting. The people who were killed were: Crispus Attucks, a freed black slave; Samuel Gray, a worker at rope walk; James Caldwell, a mate on a American ship; Samuel Maverick, a seventeen year old male; and Patrick Carr, a feather maker. Six other people were injured. Crispus Attucks was either black or Native American. He had escaped from slavery. He was probably the first man killed in the Boston Massacre. In the Boston Commons, there is a statute of him. After the incident, Sam Adams insisted the British troops leave Boston. The Massachusetts governor moved the soldiers to Castle William on one of the nearby islands. The captain of the soldiers, Thomas Preston, and six of his men were arrested and charged with murder. John Adams, who later became president, and Josiah Quincy were their attorneys. Two soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. Their punishment was to be branded on their thumbs and then they were released. Captain Preston and the others were not found guilty. Do you think the Boston Massacre increased the hatred between the Americans and the British? YES, THEY WERE ENRAGED!:  YES, THEY WERE ENRAGED! The Boston Tea Party:  The Boston Tea Party In 1773, the East India Company had a lot of tea it could not sell in England and was almost ready to close down its business. To help save the company, the British Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773. This allowed the company to sell its goods to the colonies without paying taxes. This meant the East India Company could sell their tea cheaper than the American merchants. The Tea Act of 1773 did not impose any new tax on tea. It would still be taxed the three-penny per pound like it had been for the last six years. The British didn't think the colonists would be upset about the Act since by letting the East India Company not pay taxes, the price of tea would go down. But the colonists were angry because the Act would give the East India Company a monopoly on tea sales in the colonies. The colonists became angry again about being taxed without representation. They decided to restart the boycott of tea. This time even more people joined the boycott. The women who drank most of the tea joined the boycott. The colonies united in a way they hadn't before. Some of the colonies decided to stop the East India Company from docking their ships in colonial ports. In some ports East India Company agents were scared into resigning. Tea was returned to England or put in warehouses. In October 1773, colonists in Philadelphia met to discuss what they are going to do to oppose the tax. A committee then forced British tea agents to leave their positions. In November the townspeople of Boston met and decided to follow what they did in Philadelphia. They tried to get their British tea agents to resign, but they refused to leave their positions. Then three weeks later, three ships carrying tea from the East India Company sailed into Boston harbor. The Boston Tea Party (Con’t):  The Boston Tea Party (Con’t) On November 29 and 30, 1773, the townspeople met two times to try to decide what to do about tea on three East India Company ships docked in the harbor. They decided to send the tea on one ship, the Dartmouth, back to England without paying the taxes. The Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson, didn't agree and ordered the customs officials not to let the ship sail from the harbor unless the taxes are paid. On December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams led three groups of fifty men dressed like Mohawk Indians and walked through the streets of Boston. Then someone blew a whistle. The men headed for the harbor and boarded the three ships with hatchets. They broke into 342 chests and threw all the tea overboard. (Most of the tea was a mixture of Ceylon and Darjeeling teas.) The amount of tea dumped into the harbor would make 24,000,000 cups of tea. Today, that much tea would cost about $1,000,000.00! When they finished, they marched back through the city and headed for the Liberty Tree. Other colonists followed and together they sang "The Liberty Song." The tea washed up on the shore. The next morning the colonists went to the shore and crushed the tea leaves. Paul Revere rode through the cities telling everyone what had happened at the Boston Tea Party. As news traveled through the Colonies, other colonists decided to follow the example. Soon this became the destiny of most East India Company's ships that decided to force their way into harbors. The people of Boston refused to pay for the tea they had destroyed. This angered King George III. To punish the colonies, especially Massachusetts, the Parliament acted by creating the Coercive or Intolerable Acts. Do you think it is a good idea for the King to punish the colonists? NO, BECAUSE THE COLONISTS WOULD REBEL!:  NO, BECAUSE THE COLONISTS WOULD REBEL! The Intolerable Acts:  The Intolerable Acts The Intolerable Acts were passed in 1774 to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. There were three major acts involved that angered the colonists. The first was the Boston Port Bill and it closed the Boston Harbor until the people of Boston paid for the tea that they threw into the harbor. It went into effect on June 1, 1774. The Administration of Justice Act became effective May 20th and it did not allow British soldiers to be tried in the colonies for any crimes they might commit. This meant the soldiers could do anything they wanted since they would probably not be punished for their crimes. The Massachusetts Government Act which also took effect on May 20, 1774, restricted town meetings to one a year unless the governor approved any more. The Massachusetts assembly could not meet. The governor would appoint all the officials, juries and sheriffs. The Quebec Act was established May 20, 1774. This act extended the Canadian borders to cut some of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia. There was also the Quartering Act that was established on March 24th. It required the colonial authorities to provide housing and supplies for the British troops. The Impartial Administration of Justice Act gave British troops freedom from the Massachusetts law. So just like Administration of Justice Act, British troops could do whatever they wanted without worrying about consequences. These laws made the people in Massachusetts and all the colonists very angry. The Boston Port Act helped to bond the colonies because the Bostonians needed supplies until the port opened back up. The Intolerable Acts also helped the colonies bond together. They joined together in boycotting British goods. This prepared the colonists for their war with the British and to declare their independence. What do you think about the King’s decision now? BAD MOVE, GEORGE!:  BAD MOVE, GEORGE! Battle of Lexington:  Battle of Lexington After the First Continental Congress, King George III told General Thomas Gage, the Governor of Massachusetts and the commander of all the British soldiers in North America, to use force when necessary to make certain the British rule in the colonies was maintained. In February of 1775, Massachusetts, the colony the British considered most rebellious, was declared in rebellion and the British soldiers were told to be strict with those who showed disrespect for the British rule. This did not improve the relations between the British and colonies. The colonies were more convinced than ever to bear arms and be prepared for war at any time. In Massachusetts, the men became known as Minutemen, because they were known to be ready at a minute's notice. The colonists called themselves Patriots. By April of 1775, British General Thomas Gage learned heard that the Patriots had gathered together an arsenal of weapons in Concord, sixteen miles from Boston. He ordered his soldiers to go to Concord and capture the weapons. They decided to go through Lexington to look for Sam Adams who they wanted to arrest. What do you think the colonists’ reaction will be? LET’S GO TO WAR!:  LET’S GO TO WAR! Battle at Lexington (Con’t):  Battle at Lexington (Con’t) Somehow the Minutemen learned about the British troops going to Concord to take their weapons. So they went to Lexington and waited for the British to march through the city. The British marched into Lexington early in the morning of April 19 and were met by seventy Minutemen drawn upon in two lines. There were between 600 and 700 British soldiers. When the Minutemen saw that they were outnumbered, they started to back down. It was then that the shot heard around the world was fired. Even today, no one knows who fired first, the British or the Patriots? But that shot caused the British to fire two volleys. The first went over the Minutemen's heads and the second was fired right into their midst. The Minutemen scattered, but not before eighteen of them were killed. What war had begun? The American Revolution had begun. Other Cool Sites :  Other Cool Sites Battle of Saratoga Revolutionary Game 5th Graders Essays First Continental Congress New York’s Involvement Another Saratoga Site The Assignment:  The Assignment You and a partner will need to choose an event that interested the two of you most. The group will research the topic using the Internet and Encyclopedias. The group will need to find at least 2 Internet sites and locate the topic in an Encyclopedia. The group will give a presentation on the research one week from today. The group will be graded using a checklist and a rubric. The checklist is as follows: Two site’s URL, presentational skills, understanding of topic, and effort. Also, each individual will be assigned to write about another group’s presentation. You will be given more information on this soon. Happy Hunting and Good Luck! Assessment Checklist:  Assessment Checklist Source List: ________ Encyclopedia (5)   ________ Internet Site (5)   ________ Internet Site (5)   Presentation Skills: ________ Clarity (5) ________ Eye Contact (10)   ________ Posture (5)   ________ Voice Level (5)   ________ Event Summary (20)   Effort: ________ U / S / O (20)   Paper: ________ Stamp Act (20)

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