The Emergence of Symbol Based Communication in a C

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Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Fenwick

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The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures:  The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures Angelo Loula, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel Nino El-Hani, and Joao Queiroz KIMAS 2005 WALTHAM, MA, USA Index:  Index 1. Introduction 2. C.S. Peirce’s Semiotics 3. The Meaning of Emergence 4. Simulating Communicative Creature 5. Creatures in Operation 6. Self-Organization and Emergence of Symbol-based Communication 1. Introduction:  1. Introduction Simulate the emergence of self-organized symbol-based communication among artificial creatures C.S.Peirce Semiotics Ethological case study of communication among animals Creatures, assuming the role of sign users and learners, behave collectively as a complex system Self organization of communicative interactions plays a major role in the emergence of symbol-based communication 2. C.S. Peirce’s Semiotics:  2. C.S. Peirce’s Semiotics Semiosis (meaning process) Pattern of behaviors that emerges through the intra/intercooperation between agents in a communication act Involves a self-corrective process whose structure exhibits an irreducible relation between sign, object and interpretant Three fundamental kinds of signs – icons, indexes, and symbols 3. The Meaning of Emergence:  3. The Meaning of Emergence ‘emergence’ in a technical sense in the sciences of complexity Emergent properties or processes can be defined as a certain class of higher-level properties or processes related in a certain way to the microstructure of a class of systems. 4. Simulating Communicative Creature:  4. Simulating Communicative Creature Biological motivations, inspired by ethological case studies of intra-specific communication for predator warning. Alarm calls from vervet monkeys - use vocal signs Preys: teachers (sign vocalizers) and learners (sign apprentices) Predators: (terrestrial, aerial and ground predators), Trees (climbable objects) Bushes (used to hide) Teachers emitting predefined alarms for predators Learners trying to find out without explicit feedback with which predators each alarm is associated 4. Simulating Communicative Creature:  4. Simulating Communicative Creature What would happen if there were no previous alarm calls and the creatures needed to create their own repertoire of alarms Special type of prey (self-organizers) Which is a teacher and a learner at the same time Able to create, vocalize, and learn alarms, even simultaneously Sign learning depends on sign usage, which in turn depends on sign learning Aim of the experiment Observe the self-organizing dynamics of signs Starting with no specific signs to predators, a common repertoire of symbol-based alarm calls can emerge via local communicative interaction 4. Simulating Communicative Creature:  4. Simulating Communicative Creature The control mechanism is composed of drives, motivations, and behaviors Connection between sensors and actuators Control architecture inspired by behavior based approaches 4. Simulating Communicative Creature:  4. Simulating Communicative Creature Predators - Adjustment of sensors, movement, attack Behaviors: wandering, prey chasing, and resting Drives: hunger and tiredness Preys - Climb on tree, hide under bush, and vocalize alarms Communicative acts, vocalizing, interpreting and learning alarms. Behaviors (along with associative learning): vocalizing, scanning, following Behaviors: wandering, fleeing, and resting Drives: boredom, tiredness, fear, solitude, and curiosity 4. Simulating Communicative Creature:  4. Simulating Communicative Creature Self-organizers don’t have a pre-defined repertoire of alarm-predator associations Their vocalizing repertoire depends on associative memory When a predator is seen, they use the alarm with the highest association strength to that predator, or create a new alarm if none is known Alarms are created by randomly choosing one among the possible alarms that preys can emit Hebbian learning principles When sensorial data enters the work memories, the associative memory creates, or reinforces, the association between the visual item and the hearing item When an item is dropped from the work memory, related associations can be weakened, if it was not already reinforced These positive (reinforcement) and negative (weakening) adjustment cycles in the associative memory allow preys to self-organize their repertoire, and common alarm-predator associations to emerge 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation Convergence to a common repertoire of associations between alarms and predators Repertoire of symbols make the preys escape when an alarm is heard, even in the absence of visual cues 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation Alarms related with terrestrial predator 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation Alarms related with aerial predator 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation Alarms related with ground predator 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation The individual association values of the associations between alarms and ground predator – Prey1, Prey2 5. Creatures in Operation:  5. Creatures in Operation The individual association values of the associations between alarms and ground predator – Prey3, Prey4 6. Self-Organization and Emergence of Symbol-based Communication:  6. Self-Organization and Emergence of Symbol-based Communication Complex system Composed of many elements with nonlinear local interactions Typically conducting to a global pattern Self-organizers with local interactions of communicative acts Vocalizing adjust sign repertoire to adapt to the vocalized alarm and the context Vocalizing is affected as it relies on the learned sign associations Internal circularity leads to the self-organization of their repertoires This circularity is characterized by positive and negative feedback loops the more a sign is used the more the creatures reinforce it the less a sign is used the less it is reinforced In this self-organizing system, a systemic process (symbol-based communication), as much as a global pattern (a common repertoire of symbols), emerges from local (communicative) interactions, without any external or central control.

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