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The diversity of Teleost fishes

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Information about The diversity of Teleost fishes
Science-Technology

Published on November 8, 2008

Author: eskandari2000

Source: authorstream.com

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Ecology of Teleost FishesChapter one : Ecology of Teleost FishesChapter one R.J.Wootton Armin Eskandari The Diversity of Teleost Fishes : The Diversity of Teleost Fishes 1-Mesozoic(155-70m) evolved Teleost fishes. 2-teleost Now Dominate both Marine and Freshwater. 3-Approximatly 20 000 living Species.(half of all vertebrate Species). 4- Marine Spacies=58%, Fresh water=41% , migrate between salt and fresh water =1%. 5-Fishes found at 4000 m↑ on Tibet Plateau and Andes(o₂ pressure ↓,temprature↓ and light ↑ ) 6-Teleost Adapted to Turbulent waters, sedimant-laden and meandering rivers. 7-Teleost ecologic distribution: in Afica,Malawiand and Tanganyika(until 200m- o₂ ↓),Amazon River asidic (ph 3.8 - 4-6) and cichlid species in saline NAKURU-Kenya, Littoral and Stuarin water (transitional habitats),Depths of saes, in 40˚C lakes in East Africa,Antratic Ocean 0 ˚C. 8-associated with wide habitats → Different Shape of Body 9- The Smallest Vertebrate → Teleosts 10- Sexuall Maturaty at lenght of 8 mm( Arapaima giga → 4.5mm). Table 1.1 Orders of living Teleost ... The Diversity of Teleost Fishes : 11-Teleost ecologic Habitats: Open Sea,Littoral zone of sea,Coral Reef(mercan),Lake and Rivers. 12-twe central questions in ecology are: - What factor cuse fluctuation in abundance of a population of animal? - how many different specise occur in in the assemblage of species found in a habitat? 13-The crucial problem of ecology : - Environmental factors that influance in number of offspring that an individual productes in its lifetime. 14-a key to understanding the ecology of fishes: -How individual fish allcate resources and time among activities related to maintanance,growth and reproduction in the face of a chanching environment. 15-the physical character of invaironment and morphological,physiological and biochemical of vertebrates are constrain on responses to a changing environment. 16- for response to this constrain, low o₂ in water, water medium transmission of info to sense organs, fishes have diffrent body shape(Fig. 1.1) ... The Diversity of Teleost Fishes Adaptive Response to Environmental Change : 1-Vertebrates tend to buffer the effect of environmental changes by a variety of HOMEOSTATİC mechanisms. 2-Teleost do not regulate body Temprature. 3-Fishes can show great flexibility in their response to environment change (Short-term or long-term cheng in environment)such as : growth,age at first reproduction and maximum life span. 4-The fishes must make some sort of Adaptive Response to environmetal changes.this response will depend on the time scale of this change in relation to the generation length of the organsm. 5-in long-term changes will be seen in changes in the demographiccharacteristicof population(Birth and Death rate) and change in gene and genotype frequency and gene pool of the population through the prosses of natural selection.(Fig. 1.4) 6-Either directly through their neurosensory system, or indirectly though effect on biochemical and physiological prosses. 7-Temperature and its effect on chemical reactionsand thermal homeostasis expert a significant cost through a higher rate of metabolism.(exception of Tunas and their relatives) Adaptive Response to Environmental Change Adaptive Response to Environmental Change : Adaptive Response to Environmental Change 8-Water has greater density than air and is a medium maintain a constant body temperature and act as a heat sink. 9-Changes in temperature occur less suddenly in water than in air(high specific heat of water)and fishe can be exposed to large temperature variation. 10-In shallow water,temperature can fluctuate by several degrees during the dial cycle(Fig. 1.5)(therocline Layer) 11-fish can be show behavioural thermoregulation,and have thermosensory reseptos to detect gradient temperature by innervation of the skin,some species detected temp. Small as 0.03˚C. 12-thermoregulation able by behavioural response ,structural component(lipid membrane)and biochemical mechanisms include changees within cells in the concentrations of micromolecules with enzyme effect on metabolism. 13-these multiple enzymes are coded by different genetic loci and my have evolved by gene duplication. 14-some fish thst live at high latitudes producce Antifreeze under control of the pituitary organ. (Photo period and temperature effect on control and disappearance of antifreeze) ... Adaptive Response to Environmental Change : 16- the locus that codes for the enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH-B) in killifish Fundulus hetroclitus suggestes differenet allels at a given locus may not be neutral (biasar) to the effect of a temperature change. Ex: Cyprinidont species in eastern seaboard of North America. ... Adaptive Response to Environmental Change

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