The Diverse Ecosystems APBio

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Information about The Diverse Ecosystems APBio

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

The Earth’s Diverse Ecosystems

Factors That Influence Climate The distribution of life on Earth is dramatically affected by weather and climate Weather: short-term fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation; affects individual organisms Climate: long-term patterns of weather; limits distribution of species

The distribution of life on Earth is dramatically affected by weather and climate

Weather: short-term fluctuations in temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation; affects individual organisms

Climate: long-term patterns of weather; limits distribution of species

The Sun Solar energy drives both weather and climate It drives the wind, ocean currents, and global water cycle Solar energy reaching outer atmosphere includes Ultraviolet (UV): short wavelengths; high energy Visible light: intermediate wavelengths; used for photosynthesis, vision Infrared (IR): long wavelengths; low energy; radiant heat

Solar energy drives both weather and climate

It drives the wind, ocean currents, and global water cycle

Solar energy reaching outer atmosphere includes

Ultraviolet (UV): short wavelengths; high energy

Visible light: intermediate wavelengths; used for photosynthesis, vision

Infrared (IR): long wavelengths; low energy; radiant heat

The Sun Before solar energy reaches Earth's surface it is modified by the atmosphere Ozone layer : stratosphere (middle layer) rich in ozone (O 3 ) absorbs much of sun's UV, converting it to heat Dust, water vapor, and clouds scatter light, reflecting some back into space Greenhouse gases selectively absorb IR energy and trap heat in atmosphere

Before solar energy reaches Earth's surface it is modified by the atmosphere

Ozone layer : stratosphere (middle layer) rich in ozone (O 3 ) absorbs much of sun's UV, converting it to heat

Dust, water vapor, and clouds scatter light, reflecting some back into space

Greenhouse gases selectively absorb IR energy and trap heat in atmosphere

Satellite Image of Antarctic Ozone Hole Antarctica South America The “hole”

Physical Factors that Affect Climate Include Earth’s curvature and tilt Air currents Ocean currents Continent and mountain position

Include

Earth’s curvature and tilt

Air currents

Ocean currents

Continent and mountain position

Curvature and Tilt The amount of sunlight that strikes a given area of Earth’s surface has a major effect on average yearly temperatures

The amount of sunlight that strikes a given area of Earth’s surface has a major effect on average yearly temperatures

Earth’s Curvature, Tilt Make Seasons & Climate Short days; Long nights; Winter Long days; Short nights; Summer Reversed when on other side of Sun

Air Currents and Climatic Regions Air rises & cools near equator Causes much rain Tropical rain forests Rising air travels N & S from equator Descends @ 30° N & S Very dry air causes deserts there Repeated again at 60° & 90° (poles)

Air rises & cools near equator

Causes much rain

Tropical rain forests

Rising air travels N & S from equator

Descends @ 30° N & S

Very dry air causes deserts there

Repeated again at 60° & 90° (poles)

Air Currents and Climatic Regions Saharan & Arabian deserts are @ 30° N South African Desert is @ 30° S Congo rain forest is @ 0°

Saharan & Arabian deserts are @ 30° N

South African Desert is @ 30° S

Congo rain forest is @ 0°

Ocean Currents Water heats and cools more slowly than land or air Reduces temperature extremes in coastal areas Ocean currents are driven by winds and by direct heating of water by the sun

Water heats and cools more slowly than land or air

Reduces temperature extremes in coastal areas

Ocean currents are driven by winds and by direct heating of water by the sun

Ocean Currents Continents and Earth's rotation produce circular gyres Gyres rotate clockwise in Northern Hemisphere; opposite in South Gulf Stream moves warm water from Caribbean up eastern shore of North America and over to Western Europe; warmer, moister climate as result

Continents and Earth's rotation produce circular gyres

Gyres rotate clockwise in Northern Hemisphere; opposite in South

Gulf Stream moves warm water from Caribbean up eastern shore of North America and over to Western Europe; warmer, moister climate as result

Ocean Circulation Patterns: Gyres N. Pacific Gyre S. Pacific Gyre N. Atlantic Gyre S. Atlantic Gyre

Continents and Mountains Regular bands of uniform climate would form if not for presence of continents Continents heat and cool more quickly than surrounding oceans Continents have irregular shapes These factors alter flow of wind and water, resulting in irregular ecosystem distribution

Regular bands of uniform climate would form if not for presence of continents

Continents heat and cool more quickly than surrounding oceans

Continents have irregular shapes

These factors alter flow of wind and water, resulting in irregular ecosystem distribution

Continents and Mountains Variations in elevation within continents further complicate climate zones At higher altitudes air is thinner and retains less heat Temperature drops about 3.5 ºF for every 1000 feet rise in elevation

Variations in elevation within continents further complicate climate zones

At higher altitudes air is thinner and retains less heat

Temperature drops about 3.5 ºF for every 1000 feet rise in elevation

Effects of Elevation on Temperature Low ( Altitude) High Equatorial (Latitude) Polar

Continents and Mountains Mountains also modify rainfall patterns When moist air is forced over a mountain, it expands and cools Cooler air holds less moisture, thus rain or snow falls on windward side As air moves down far side of mountain, it warms but stays dry, forming a local dry area called a rain shadow

Mountains also modify rainfall patterns

When moist air is forced over a mountain, it expands and cools

Cooler air holds less moisture, thus rain or snow falls on windward side

As air moves down far side of mountain, it warms but stays dry, forming a local dry area called a rain shadow

 

The Sierra Nevada Rain Shadow West East 100 50 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Average Annual Precipitation (cm) Altitude (m) 150

Conditions Required for Life Four fundamental resources are required for life Nutrients from which to construct living tissue Energy to power that construction Liquid water to serve as medium for metabolic reactions Appropriate temperatures in which to carry out these processes

Four fundamental resources are required for life

Nutrients from which to construct living tissue

Energy to power that construction

Liquid water to serve as medium for metabolic reactions

Appropriate temperatures in which to carry out these processes

How Is Life on Land Distributed? Distribution of terrestrial organisms is limited primarily by water availability and temperature Water and temperature are unevenly distributed in space and time

Distribution of terrestrial organisms is limited primarily by water availability and temperature

Water and temperature are unevenly distributed in space and time

Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial communities are dominated and defined by their plant life Plants are precisely adapted to climate of region (they can't escape their conditions) Large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities are called biomes

Terrestrial communities are dominated and defined by their plant life

Plants are precisely adapted to climate of region (they can't escape their conditions)

Large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities are called biomes

The Distribution of 11 Biomes

Rainfall & Temp. Affect Biome Distribution High ( Temperature) Low Dry (Rainfall) Wet

Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical Rain Forest Biome Temp 77-86 °F (25-30 °C) Rainfall 100-160 in (25-40 cm)/y Biodiversity: 50-67% of all Earth’s species 6% of land area 40% now gone losing 70 acres/min > 25000 species go extinct annually Dominated by large, broadleaf, evergreen trees Vertically structured

Temp 77-86 °F (25-30 °C)

Rainfall 100-160 in (25-40 cm)/y

Biodiversity: 50-67% of all Earth’s species

6% of land area

40% now gone

losing 70 acres/min

> 25000 species go extinct annually

Dominated by large, broadleaf, evergreen trees

Vertically structured

Tropical Deciduous Forest Further from equator Pronounced wet & dry seasons; deciduous trees

Further from equator

Pronounced wet & dry seasons; deciduous trees

Savanna

The African Savanna Grasses dominate; scattered trees and thorn forests Short rainy season <12 in. (30 cm) annually Long, severe droughts African savanna with many large animals Many species in danger of extinction

Grasses dominate; scattered trees and thorn forests

Short rainy season

<12 in. (30 cm) annually

Long, severe droughts

African savanna with many large animals

Many species in danger of extinction

Deserts

The Desert Biome Usually found between 20-30° N & S latitude Less than 10 in. (25 cm) rain annually Plants often spaced very evenly Boom & bust population growth after rain Very fragile ecology

Usually found between 20-30° N & S latitude

Less than 10 in. (25 cm) rain annually

Plants often spaced very evenly

Boom & bust population growth after rain

Very fragile ecology

Chaparral

The Chaparral Biome Often in coastal regions bordering deserts Up to 30 in. rain annually, but all during cool months Summers hot & dry Small trees & large bushes

Often in coastal regions bordering deserts

Up to 30 in. rain annually, but all during cool months

Summers hot & dry

Small trees & large bushes

Grasslands

Grasslands 10-30 in. (25-75 cm) rain annually Usually in centers of continents No trees except along rivers Periodic severe droughts Frequent fires Most fertile soil in world Destroyed by overgrazing Shortgrass Prairie Sagebrush Desert or Shortgrass Prairie

10-30 in. (25-75 cm) rain annually

Usually in centers of continents

No trees except along rivers

Periodic severe droughts

Frequent fires

Most fertile soil in world

Destroyed by overgrazing

Temperate Deciduous Forests

The Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome 30-60 in. (75-150 cm) rain annually, most during summer Mostly deciduous trees, bare in winter Leaf litter on soil High diversity of animals

30-60 in. (75-150 cm) rain annually, most during summer

Mostly deciduous trees, bare in winter

Leaf litter on soil

High diversity of animals

Temperate Rain Forest

The Temperate Rain Forest Biome Abundant rain Soil seldom frozen Usually coastal

Abundant rain

Soil seldom frozen

Usually coastal

Taiga

The Taiga (or Northern Coniferous Forest) Biome Northern coniferous forests Northern Canada and Eurasia Winters long and cold Evergreen coniferous trees with needle-like leaves Plant & animal diversity low

Northern coniferous forests

Northern Canada and Eurasia

Winters long and cold

Evergreen coniferous trees with needle-like leaves

Plant & animal diversity low

Tundra

The Tundra Biome Treeless region bordering Pacific Ocean < 10 in. rain annually Permanently frozen soil (permafrost) Very fragile, scars last for centuries

Treeless region bordering Pacific Ocean

< 10 in. rain annually

Permanently frozen soil (permafrost)

Very fragile, scars last for centuries

Survey of Aquatic Ecosystems 71% of Earth's surface Water moderates temperature Energy (top) and nutrients (bottom) affect life

71% of Earth's surface

Water moderates temperature

Energy (top) and nutrients (bottom) affect life

Freshwater Ecosystems Less than 1% of Earth's surface Rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, marshes Life zones: based on access to lights/nutrients vary by depth/clarity of water Human impact Eutrophication Accelerated via addition of nutrient wastes Results in oxygen depletion Acid rain Creates appearance of oligotrophy Almost sterile

Less than 1% of Earth's surface

Rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, marshes

Life zones:

based on access to lights/nutrients

vary by depth/clarity of water

Human impact

Eutrophication

Accelerated via addition of nutrient wastes

Results in oxygen depletion

Acid rain

Creates appearance of oligotrophy

Almost sterile

Lake Life Zones Littoral Shallow Well lit Communities most diverse Limnetic Too deep for roots Well lit, so supports phytoplankton Profundal Too deep for photosynthesis Decomposers Littoral Zone Limnetic Zone Profundal Zone

Littoral

Shallow

Well lit

Communities most diverse

Limnetic

Too deep for roots

Well lit, so supports phytoplankton

Profundal

Too deep for photosynthesis

Decomposers

Marine ecosystems 70% of Earth's surface Bays, wetlands (salt marshes, estuaries), open ocean Coastal marine ecosystems Support the most abundant life and Commercially important (crabs, shrimp, fish, recreation, petroleum) Human impact Wetland destruction equals rain forest destruction Half of U.S. wetlands have been destroyed

70% of Earth's surface

Bays, wetlands (salt marshes, estuaries), open ocean

Coastal marine ecosystems

Support the most abundant life and

Commercially important (crabs, shrimp, fish, recreation, petroleum)

Human impact

Wetland destruction equals rain forest destruction

Half of U.S. wetlands have been destroyed

Ocean Life Zones Photic zone (photosynthesis) Intertidal; Alternately covered Near tidal; below low tide but shallow Pelagic; open ocean to 200 ft Aphotic zone (no photosynthesis) Below 200 ft Supported by drift from photic zone Hydrothermal vents

Photic zone (photosynthesis)

Intertidal; Alternately covered

Near tidal; below low tide but shallow

Pelagic; open ocean to 200 ft

Aphotic zone (no photosynthesis)

Below 200 ft

Supported by drift from photic zone

Hydrothermal vents

Near-Shore Ecosystems Estuaries: where rivers meet the ocean Kelp beds: in photic zone

Coral Reefs & Open Ocean Coral Reefs: Bodies of corals & algae Many fish & invertebrates Delicate Open Ocean: Most life in photic zone Swim or float

Coral Reefs:

Bodies of corals & algae

Many fish & invertebrates

Delicate

Open Ocean:

Most life in photic zone

Swim or float

Hydrothermal Vent Communities Found where sea floor is spreading (>250 m deep) First discovered in 1977 Vents spew superheated, nutrient-rich water Chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria primary producers One survives @ 248°F Sulfur is oxidized for energy Others eat the bacteria, etc. 248 new species and 22 new families

Found where sea floor is spreading (>250 m deep)

First discovered in 1977

Vents spew superheated, nutrient-rich water

Chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria primary producers

One survives @ 248°F

Sulfur is oxidized for energy

Others eat the bacteria, etc.

248 new species and 22 new families

The End

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