The Digestive System [2010].pptm

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Information about The Digestive System [2010].pptm
Education

Published on February 16, 2014

Author: dantescience

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: 1 PowerPoint Presentation: 2 Digestive System: group of organs which processes food mechanically & chemically, so it can be absorbed into the circulatory system. P rocessing of food takes place across the alimentary canal in distinct stages. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 3 Events taking place can be classified as: M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 4 The stages are: Ingestion: Food enters into the system. Digestion: Break down of food into simpler forms, allowing for absorption. Is both mechanical & chemical. Absorption: The movement of nutrients into the circulatory system. Means nutrients have entered into the blood. Egestion / Excretion: The elimination of waste materials. Any food material not processed is eliminated as fecal matter. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 5 PowerPoint Presentation: 6 After ingestion, carries food through digestion until excretion Food is moved through the canal via smooth muscle Various enzymes will enter into the tube at different points to process food chemically. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 7 The digestive system processes nutrients into more usable forms. N utrients: any material needed by an organism to live and grow. Think of nutrients as providing the building materials & energy to make and sustain life. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 8 PowerPoint Presentation: 9 Nutrients can be classified as: Materials used by living organisms for growth & energy . S ubstances which help carry out metabolism including: Vitamins Minerals Water Macronutrients Micronutrients M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 10 Macronutrients are broken down into 3 basic groups. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 11 Preferred energy source. Known as saccharides (sugars: simple vs complex) Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Broken down into amino acids Used for growth, repair, and in life function. Known as lipids Used in making tissue & hormones. Important for body’s insulation and protection. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 12 Breakdown of food into simpler forms by chemical means. For Example: Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars Proteins are broken down into peptides and amino acids Fats become emulsified, eventually forming fatty acids Chemical digestion is made possible by biological catalysts referred to as enzymes which are specific. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) 13 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 14 Enzymes Nutrients PowerPoint Presentation: 15 Enzymes are protein molecules which assist in carrying out metabolic activity (chemical reactions), including chemical digestion. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 16 Enzymes are involved in the catabolic (break down) and anabolic (building) reactions which take place in metabolism. Catabolism Anabolism M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 17 Anabolism M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 18 The speed at which a chemical reaction takes place is referred to as a rate of reaction . Reaction rates can be increased or decreased… M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 19 Using HEAT to speed up reactions M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 20 SURFACE AREA & Chemical Reactions M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 21 Problem: Why can’t we use heat to speed up chemical reactions in the body? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 22 An enzyme’s 3 dimensional shape is key to enzymes completing activities. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 23 A protein whose shape has changed, loses its ability to function. This is called denaturation Human proteins denature at _______________ M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 24 At what temperature is enzyme activity optimal? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 25 What can you conclude about a thermophiles natural environment? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 26 The physical break down of food into smaller pieces. Purpose: to increase surface area, which increases reaction rates. Surface Area? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 27 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 28 Ingestion takes place once food enters into the mouth. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 29 Mechanical Digestion begins in the mouth with mastication M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 30 Many organisms use teeth to masticate food with the purpose of increasing surface area. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 31 There are different types of teeth… M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 32 T ypes of teeth found in an organism are a reflection of diet. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 33 The classes of teeth are: Canine Molars Pre-Molars Incisors Functions? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 34 PowerPoint Presentation: 35 The release of saliva, begins chemical digestion . PowerPoint Presentation: 36 Saliva secretion is under the control of the autonomic nervous system. It is produced by the salivary gland . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 37 P roduced by the salivary gland . Saliva is a mixture of water, mucus, saliva, enzymes, and antibacterial compounds Tissue involved? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 38 Main functions include: Chemical digestion of carbohydrates. Lubrication & Binding of Food into a Bolus Allows for tasting? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 39 Other functions, can include evaporative cooling and oral hygiene depending on species. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) Food Leaves The Mouth: Food Leaves The Mouth 40 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 41 The tongue shapes the food into a bolus The bolus is pushed into the esophagu s PowerPoint Presentation: 42 A muscular tube which connects the pharynx to the stomach. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 43 Made of smooth muscle. Peristalsis: the contraction of smooth muscle pushing food down into stomach. Voluntary or Involuntary? M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) DIGESTION & THE STOMACH: DIGESTION & THE STOMACH 44 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 45 A muscular bag (3 layers) lined with epithelial cells. Mechanical Digestion takes place as the food is churned. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 46 Rugae allow the stomach to stretch… M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 47 Rugae Folds of stomach wall lining Allows for increase in stomach volume The stomach has the ability to stretch. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 48 As the stomach fills, receptors send impulses to the brain to indicate “fullness” M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 49 Protease enzymes are released for the chemical digestion of proteins Hydrochloric Acid: destroys bacteria, activates enzymes. Gastric glands in the stomach wall release gastric juice , so the stomach contains: The stomach is lined with protective mucus . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 50 The digested bolus is now called chyme , and is slowly released into the small intestine. The movement of chyme is regulated by sphincter muscles . Note: some absorption does occur M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) ABSORPTION: ABSORPTION 51 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 52 The intestines are classified into the small intestine and large intestine. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 53 The small intestine continues digestion and begins the process of absorption . The liver & pancreas help maximize absorption. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 54 Has 3 separate sections, each with unique function, they are the: Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 55 Chemical breakdown of chyme continues with the release of secretions from the pancreas and liver. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 56 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 57 Secretions released include Responsible for emulsifying lipids. Produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder An alkaline mixture secreted by the pancreas, consists of: Enzymes Bicarbonate Bile Pancreatic Juice M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 58 Bile contains various chemicals which can lead to the formation of gallstones . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 59 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 60 2 nd largest organ in the body, with many additional functions, including: Waste Regulation Blood Regulation M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 61 A multifunctional organ involved in the digestive and endocrine systems. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 62 Specific functions include: Secretions complete the digestion of protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Secretions neutralize stomach acid. Secretes hormones that control blood sugar levels. Glucagon Insulin Somatostatin Digestive System Endocrine System Pancreatic Juice M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 63 The location of the majority of absorption. Absorption is the movement of nutrients into the circulatory system M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 64 PowerPoint Presentation: 65 Inner surface of the small intestine are built to maximize absorption, they contain villi . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) 66 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 67 Contain blood vessels and lacteals: Lacteals: Blood Vessels: M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 68 PowerPoint Presentation: 69 Final portion of the small intestine, absorption continues through villi. Leftovers (waste) are compacted, passing through the cecum into the large intestine . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 70 Main function is the absorption of water & electrolytes from the indigestible food. Vitamins: ___________ are absorbed. Mucus is secreted, binding the dehydrated waste into feces. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) EGESTION: EGESTION 71 M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 72 PowerPoint Presentation: 73 After approximately 50 hours, egestion occurs at which point defecation occurs. W aste materials are eliminated in the form of feces . M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com) PowerPoint Presentation: 74 F inal portion of large intestine, which is a temporary storage area for feces. When full, the anal sphincter looses, allowing feces to pass through the anus exiting the body. M.Bregar (mbregar@gmail.com)

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