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The Development Of Cultural Nationalism

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Information about The Development Of Cultural Nationalism
Education

Published on January 25, 2009

Author: samuelvalko

Source: slideshare.net

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The development of cultural nationalism

Why was there a growth in cultural nationalism in the 1890s? A vacuum in constitutional nationalism with the failure of the second Home Rule Bill Discontent with the corrupt nature of nationalist politics European influences indicated that if political nationalism was to succed it needed a clear cultural identity

A vacuum in constitutional nationalism with the failure of the second Home Rule Bill

Discontent with the corrupt nature of nationalist politics

European influences indicated that if political nationalism was to succed it needed a clear cultural identity

contd Was a reaction against the modernisation of society and part of a search for cultural and historical roots. Constitutional nationalists had been identified with modernisation and “progress”

Was a reaction against the modernisation of society and part of a search for cultural and historical roots. Constitutional nationalists had been identified with modernisation and “progress”

contd Petty bourgeois class was now bigger and more important but felt excluded from political life by forces of old nationalism They had political ambition but were more or less excluded from politics. So they turned to cultural nationalism Struggle between old and new nationalism was part of a generational conflict

Petty bourgeois class was now bigger and more important but felt excluded from political life by forces of old nationalism

They had political ambition but were more or less excluded from politics. So they turned to cultural nationalism

Struggle between old and new nationalism was part of a generational conflict

contd Cultural nationalism was one of the few opportunities for women to become involved in political life Lower middle classes frustrated that job prospects were blocked by protestants and so cultural nationalism developed a populist Catholic aspect

Cultural nationalism was one of the few opportunities for women to become involved in political life

Lower middle classes frustrated that job prospects were blocked by protestants and so cultural nationalism developed a populist Catholic aspect

Origins of cultural nationalism Young Ireland: Davis had promoted a romantic view of nationalism that emphasised unity of all Irishmen irrespective of religion or class

Young Ireland: Davis had promoted a romantic view of nationalism that emphasised unity of all Irishmen irrespective of religion or class

Thomas Davis Reacted against O’Connell’s narrow sectarianism His view of nationality elitist, because….. … Only way for Protestants to remain in positions of political leadership was through cultural nationalism

Reacted against O’Connell’s narrow sectarianism

His view of nationality elitist, because…..

… Only way for Protestants to remain in positions of political leadership was through cultural nationalism

Apparent demise of cultural nationalism in mid-century due to: Davis’s death in 1845 Young Ireland’s drift into revolutionary nationalism Impact of the famine

Davis’s death in 1845

Young Ireland’s drift into revolutionary nationalism

Impact of the famine

BUT….. Some signs of life in cultural nationalism Phoenix Societies, formed by O’Donovan Rossa were literary societies attracting the petty bourgeoisie and they provided a forum for discussing nationalist ideas Kept alive Davis’s new approach to nationalism Were eventually swallowed up by the Fenians

Some signs of life in cultural nationalism

Phoenix Societies, formed by O’Donovan Rossa were literary societies attracting the petty bourgeoisie and they provided a forum for discussing nationalist ideas

Kept alive Davis’s new approach to nationalism

Were eventually swallowed up by the Fenians

The GAA Founded by Michael Cusack 1884 Aimed to promote Irish sports instead of English A mainly rural movement Backed by Archbishop Croke

Founded by Michael Cusack 1884

Aimed to promote Irish sports instead of English

A mainly rural movement

Backed by Archbishop Croke

GAA Although a sporting movement, it secured Fenian support and Fenians dominated its ruling executive within three years. Also drew support from constitutional nationalists Benefited from the increase in rural self-confidence which was the result of Parnell’s work Promotion of Irish sport gave opportunity to articulate anti-English sentiment

Although a sporting movement, it secured Fenian support and Fenians dominated its ruling executive within three years.

Also drew support from constitutional nationalists

Benefited from the increase in rural self-confidence which was the result of Parnell’s work

Promotion of Irish sport gave opportunity to articulate anti-English sentiment

Anglo-Irish literary revival 1892: Yeats founded National Literary Society Wrote in English but drew inspiration from Celtic past Protestant gentry background

1892: Yeats founded National Literary Society

Wrote in English but drew inspiration from Celtic past

Protestant gentry background

Yeats Like Davis, tried to promote a sense of Irish identity that would stress an inclusive culture Literary revival was elitist and never appealed to the mass of Irishmen Yeats and associates (Synge, Lady Gregory) knew they were a tiny minority, but they played a crucial role in raising awareness of a distinct Irish culture.

Like Davis, tried to promote a sense of Irish identity that would stress an inclusive culture

Literary revival was elitist and never appealed to the mass of Irishmen

Yeats and associates (Synge, Lady Gregory) knew they were a tiny minority, but they played a crucial role in raising awareness of a distinct Irish culture.

Gaelic Revival Douglas Hyde, son of Church of Ireland rector, member of National Literary Society Played pivotal role in giving cultural nationalism a broader appeal

Douglas Hyde, son of Church of Ireland rector, member of National Literary Society

Played pivotal role in giving cultural nationalism a broader appeal

Hyde Denounced the slavish imitation of English manners Called for immediate action to halt decline of Gaelic language Vision of cultural revival that would be non-sectarian and non-political

Denounced the slavish imitation of English manners

Called for immediate action to halt decline of Gaelic language

Vision of cultural revival that would be non-sectarian and non-political

The Gaelic League Founded in 1893 by Eoin MacNeill to revive Gaelic as spoken and literary language Was Ulster Catholic and professor of history in UCD

Founded in 1893 by Eoin MacNeill to revive Gaelic as spoken and literary language

Was Ulster Catholic and professor of history in UCD

Gaelic League Third key figure in founding League was Father Eugene O’Growney, professor of Irish at Maynooth 3 founders: Southern Protestant, Northern Catholic, Southern Catholic

Third key figure in founding League was Father Eugene O’Growney, professor of Irish at Maynooth

3 founders: Southern Protestant, Northern Catholic, Southern Catholic

Work of the Gaelic League Promoted national identity based exclusively on Gaelic culture Promoted revival of the Gaelic language By the 1890s less than 1% of the population spoke monolingual Irish and only 14% spoke Irish at all. Successfully campaigned for envelopes addressed in Irish to be accepted by post offices and the acceptance of bilingual street names Main task was to ensure that Gaelic became a compulsory school subject

Promoted national identity based exclusively on Gaelic culture

Promoted revival of the Gaelic language By the 1890s less than 1% of the population spoke monolingual Irish and only 14% spoke Irish at all.

Successfully campaigned for envelopes addressed in Irish to be accepted by post offices and the acceptance of bilingual street names

Main task was to ensure that Gaelic became a compulsory school subject

Success of the League By 1904 had 600 branches with 50,000 members Attracted small number of Protestant enthusiasts and Catholic intelligentsia. Success due to centenary celebrations for 1798 and Boer War. All shades of nationalism identified with the Boers in the struggle for independence from the Empire Success also due to the collapse of constitutional nationalism and the split after Parnell’s death.

By 1904 had 600 branches with 50,000 members

Attracted small number of Protestant enthusiasts and Catholic intelligentsia.

Success due to centenary celebrations for 1798 and Boer War. All shades of nationalism identified with the Boers in the struggle for independence from the Empire

Success also due to the collapse of constitutional nationalism and the split after Parnell’s death.

Success of the League (contd) Huge influx of petty bourgeoisie who became interested in their cultural past. League organised social gatherings which allowed them to engage with their own class and exclude undesirables. Prominent leaders were schoolmasters.

Huge influx of petty bourgeoisie who became interested in their cultural past.

League organised social gatherings which allowed them to engage with their own class and exclude undesirables. Prominent leaders were schoolmasters.

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