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The Design of Mobile Social Applications

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Information about The Design of Mobile Social Applications

Published on February 6, 2008

Author: bentley79

Source: slideshare.net

Description

An overview of 4 studies conducted in the Social Media Research Lab at Motorola. These studies investigated location and context sharing in mobile environments.
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Frank Bentley Principal Staff Research Scientist Motorola Labs the design of mobile social applications: a case study from motorola

designing for mobility… http://www.flickr.com/photos/artamnesia/135744020/

design problem How to use context to aid mobile communication and enhance existing social communities

user-centered processes Begin with understanding of space (ethnographic studies) Build out key concepts to understand usage/technology limitations in the world Iteratively modify and test prototypes Test final UI concepts Build real product

Begin with understanding of space (ethnographic studies)

Build out key concepts to understand usage/technology limitations in the world

Iteratively modify and test prototypes

Test final UI concepts

Build real product

overview Ethnographic: Context Sharing in Phone Calls Concept 1: Motion Presence Concept 2: Music Presence Concept 3: Photo Presence Common findings/lessons for design

Ethnographic: Context Sharing in Phone Calls

Concept 1: Motion Presence

Concept 2: Music Presence

Concept 3: Photo Presence

Common findings/lessons for design

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Research Questions: During communications with others, what location and activity information is provided? How does context affect activity and location information disclosure? What are the purposes of disclosing location/activity information? How are disclosures of activity and location similar?

Research Questions:

During communications with others, what location and activity information is provided?

How does context affect activity and location information disclosure?

What are the purposes of disclosing location/activity information?

How are disclosures of activity and location similar?

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Methods: Recruited 7 diverse participants Recorded mobile phone calls for one week Coded instances of location or activity disclosure Analyzed qualitative data using grounded theory affinity Analyzed quantitative data for correlations

Methods:

Recruited 7 diverse participants

Recorded mobile phone calls for one week

Coded instances of location or activity disclosure

Analyzed qualitative data using grounded theory affinity

Analyzed quantitative data for correlations

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Findings: 352 disclosures in 176 calls No significant correlations to location, recipient, requesting/offering and information disclosed 8 main purposes for disclosure

Findings:

352 disclosures in 176 calls

No significant correlations to location, recipient, requesting/offering and information disclosed

8 main purposes for disclosure

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Social Awareness: Informing others of your current surroundings “ We’re just getting ready to go to Meijer’s and then pick [our daughter] up and then go get a Christmas tree.” (LA7) “ Now I’m on the train, I wasn’t before” (LA5) “ I’m in the cab right now” (LA7)

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Availability: Deciding if someone is available for communication “ Do you have a couple of minutes right now?” (LA4) “ Are you on the road or still in the office?” (LA1) “ Did [your sister] get up?” (LA2)

study 1: context sharing in phone calls Take aways: People share a LOT of context with each other Opportunities for availability awareness and for helping others Environmental cues create social presence

study 2: motion presence How to help with social awareness and availability? (top two uses) Inspired by large amount of context sharing Problems of absolute location (technical and user) First a little bit on mobile location…

mobile location Cell ID Available on all GSM phones Localization to zip-code level Requires translation to semantically meaningful location GPS Needs special hardware Not available indoors/in cities Minutes to get first fix

Cell ID

Available on all GSM phones

Localization to zip-code level

Requires translation to semantically meaningful location

GPS

Needs special hardware

Not available indoors/in cities

Minutes to get first fix

cell id In GSM networks, all cells in the world have a globally unique ID made up of four numbers: cell id, lac, mnc, and mmc Databases are being made that map cell IDs into locations Cells can be manually mapped to semantic locations (e.g. Campus, Home, Downtown Boston, etc.)

In GSM networks, all cells in the world have a globally unique ID made up of four numbers: cell id, lac, mnc, and mmc

Databases are being made that map cell IDs into locations

Cells can be manually mapped to semantic locations (e.g. Campus, Home, Downtown Boston, etc.)

cell density Cell topology scales with population density http://www.intel-research.net/Publications/Seattle/100920061625_366.pdf

Cell topology scales with population density

gps 30 satellites in earth orbit 6 satellites always in line of site of any place on earth Receivers must find 4 or more satellites for a fix First fix usually in 1.5 minutes Typical phone can last for four hours with GPS turned on Can get you accurate position within 10m with altitude People in GPS coverage 4.5% of the day

30 satellites in earth orbit

6 satellites always in line of site of any place on earth

Receivers must find 4 or more satellites for a fix

First fix usually in 1.5 minutes

Typical phone can last for four hours with GPS turned on

Can get you accurate position within 10m with altitude

People in GPS coverage 4.5% of the day

study 2: motion presence Augmented phone book See when close friends and family are moving or in one place Used GSM Cell ID transitions to determine when people transitioned between moving and at a place Expected users to be able to infer location/activity/availability using previous contextual knowledge

Augmented phone book

See when close friends and family are moving or in one place

Used GSM Cell ID transitions to determine when people transitioned between moving and at a place

Expected users to be able to infer location/activity/availability using previous contextual knowledge

study 2: motion presence Methods: Recruited 10 participants 3 couples, 1 group of 4 friends Used application for two weeks Left nightly voicemail diaries Interview after one week and at end of study

Methods:

Recruited 10 participants

3 couples, 1 group of 4 friends

Used application for two weeks

Left nightly voicemail diaries

Interview after one week and at end of study

study 2: motion presence Participants inferred: Location Activity Availability Arrival Time “ George, I knew he was going to work, but I wasn’t sure if he got there already and I saw that he was not moving for 12 minutes. So judging by that I’m getting that he was already at work so I didn’t bother calling him.” (Harold)

Participants inferred:

Location

Activity

Availability

Arrival Time

“ George, I knew he was going to work, but I wasn’t sure if he got there already and I saw that he was not moving for 12 minutes. So judging by that I’m getting that he was already at work so I didn’t bother calling him.” (Harold)

study 2: motion presence Participants used the application to: - Moderate availability - Micro-coordinate - Arrive at the same time - Get more time at their current activity - See people were following through on commitments - Check on other’s safety - Social awareness – know what’s going on with others

Participants used the application to:

- Moderate availability

- Micro-coordinate

- Arrive at the same time

- Get more time at their current activity

- See people were following through on commitments

- Check on other’s safety

- Social awareness – know what’s going on with others

study 2: motion presence “ If you knew someone was going to go pick you up or if someone was going to go someplace and you knew that and you know about what time, you could see if they were actually on their way or if they were running late. … Kind of lets you know when you should be ready or things like that. ” (James) “ I could tell when he was leaving work by when he went off of ‘not moving.’ … It was like, ok, I saw that he was already on his way and we’d get there about the same time.” (Harold) “ Oh, he’s not in class, he’s moving, he must be on his way home, I need milk!” (Beatriz)

“ If you knew someone was going to go pick you up or if someone was going to go someplace and you knew that and you know about what time, you could see if they were actually on their way or if they were running late. … Kind of lets you know when you should be ready or things like that. ” (James)

“ I could tell when he was leaving work by when he went off of ‘not moving.’ … It was like, ok, I saw that he was already on his way and we’d get there about the same time.” (Harold)

“ Oh, he’s not in class, he’s moving, he must be on his way home, I need milk!” (Beatriz)

study 2: motion presence Feeling Connected Learn more about patterns of friends and family “ Check up” on others safety (e.g. still moving when they were on a long road trip, etc.) Find out when friends were going out at night, even if they were not going to join them Stay connected to home events while traveling (e.g. walking dog) “ I’ve been working a lot and I’m not with Ebony, so I’ve been looking at it just to see the motion on the phone.” (Farisa)

Feeling Connected

Learn more about patterns of friends and family

“ Check up” on others safety (e.g. still moving when they were on a long road trip, etc.)

Find out when friends were going out at night, even if they were not going to join them

Stay connected to home events while traveling (e.g. walking dog)

“ I’ve been working a lot and I’m not with Ebony, so I’ve been looking at it just to see the motion on the phone.” (Farisa)

study 3: music presence Concept study to find usefulness of sharing music metadata with friends Initial prototype: Home computers posting to last.fm, Mobile phones receive SMS of updates Initial study: one group of 4 friends for two weeks 2 nd Prototype: Richer J2ME application to receive feed of updates, listen to 30 second clips, lightweight communication Follow up study: 3 social groups Technical issues limited data collection in 2 nd study

Concept study to find usefulness of sharing music metadata with friends

Initial prototype: Home computers posting to last.fm, Mobile phones receive SMS of updates

Initial study: one group of 4 friends for two weeks

2 nd Prototype: Richer J2ME application to receive feed of updates, listen to 30 second clips, lightweight communication

Follow up study: 3 social groups

Technical issues limited data collection in 2 nd study

study 3: music presence Findings: Used music playing to infer other presence information (at home, bored, etc.) Explicitly played music so that other people would notice (e.g. a song a friend had given) “ I was looking at her [music updates] to see when she’d gotten back from going out.”

Findings:

Used music playing to infer other presence information (at home, bored, etc.)

Explicitly played music so that other people would notice (e.g. a song a friend had given)

“ I was looking at her [music updates] to see when she’d gotten back from going out.”

study 3: music presence Times of use: Glanced at presence in quick spurts throughout the day – continuous partial attention Spent more time interacting at breaks, on public transport, etc. – digging into details of songs, artists, friends

Times of use:

Glanced at presence in quick spurts throughout the day – continuous partial attention

Spent more time interacting at breaks, on public transport, etc. – digging into details of songs, artists, friends

study 3: music presence Issues with study: SMS based app useful as initial concept, but interfered with participants existing usage J2ME application not always visible, no reminder on home screen that new data is available J2ME application connectivity issues, open sockets are hard

Issues with study:

SMS based app useful as initial concept, but interfered with participants existing usage

J2ME application not always visible, no reminder on home screen that new data is available

J2ME application connectivity issues, open sockets are hard

study 4: photo presence How can photos be used to share experiences? “ Lightweight visual communication” (Garau et al) J2ME application - Feeds of updates from friends - Lightweight messaging, comments, notifications

How can photos be used to share experiences?

“ Lightweight visual communication” (Garau et al)

J2ME application

- Feeds of updates from friends

- Lightweight messaging, comments, notifications

study 4: photo presence Methods: 10 participants (2 groups of 3, one group of 4) Three weeks using TileFile on their primary phone Nightly voicemails (varied questions) In-depth interviews at the end

Methods:

10 participants (2 groups of 3, one group of 4)

Three weeks using TileFile on their primary phone

Nightly voicemails (varied questions)

In-depth interviews at the end

study 4: photo presence Telepresence Being able to log on and see what she was doing, like when we were at work and couldn’t talk – B2 When I’m out and on a trip it would be really cool to be able to show people what you’re doing. – C3 There’s something kind of satisfying about the immediacy of right now in California my brother is doing this – B1 Automatic I like it cause I can just take pictures and I don’t have to fuss with it and it gets uploaded. –C3 I was just walking around on the street and I just opened it up and looked at it. If I think of photos I just open TileFile – B3 Communication Looking at people’s tiles and looking at people’s comments on mine. It shows that they were interested in what I liked. Took enough time out of their day to make a comment. To some people that might make their day or brighten up their day – A2

Telepresence

Being able to log on and see what she was doing, like when we were at work and couldn’t talk – B2

When I’m out and on a trip it would be really cool to be able to show people what you’re doing. – C3

There’s something kind of satisfying about the immediacy of right now in California my brother is doing this – B1

Automatic

I like it cause I can just take pictures and I don’t have to fuss with it and it gets uploaded. –C3

I was just walking around on the street and I just opened it up and looked at it. If I think of photos I just open TileFile – B3

Communication

Looking at people’s tiles and looking at people’s comments on mine. It shows that they were interested in what I liked. Took enough time out of their day to make a comment. To some people that might make their day or brighten up their day – A2

common findings Micromoments - Small breaks throughout the day (~10 seconds) Quick interactions just to check in, out of curiosity Breaks in conversation – “we were just casually talking..it’s appropriate to check then” “I might be with people but not actively engaged in conversation, then I could like go through [the messages].” Small breaks during work – “I’d constantly go to my purse and check my phone [to see the music that was being played].” “at work when I don’t feel like doing my actual work”

Micromoments - Small breaks throughout the day (~10 seconds)

Quick interactions just to check in, out of curiosity

Breaks in conversation – “we were just casually talking..it’s appropriate to check then” “I might be with people but not actively engaged in conversation, then I could like go through [the messages].”

Small breaks during work – “I’d constantly go to my purse and check my phone [to see the music that was being played].” “at work when I don’t feel like doing my actual work”

common findings Boredom Longer interactions with application Something to do when bored “ It was only when I was bored that I like went out of my way to see what they were listening to” In transit, on trains, buses, etc. When doing low-importance tasks, e.g. checking email

Boredom

Longer interactions with application

Something to do when bored

“ It was only when I was bored that I like went out of my way to see what they were listening to”

In transit, on trains, buses, etc.

When doing low-importance tasks, e.g. checking email

common findings Inferences Music -> Location, Activity, Availability Motion -> Location, Activity, Availability, Destination, Time to Destination Photo -> Location, Activity, People “ I was looking at her [music updates] to see when she’d gotten back from going out.” “ If she didn’t leave yet, that means I can go do whatever I’m doing, like at work stay later.” “ I could tell when he was leaving work by when he want off of ‘not moving’.”

Inferences

Music -> Location, Activity, Availability

Motion -> Location, Activity, Availability, Destination, Time to Destination Photo -> Location, Activity, People

“ I was looking at her [music updates] to see when she’d gotten back from going out.”

“ If she didn’t leave yet, that means I can go do whatever I’m doing, like at work stay later.”

“ I could tell when he was leaving work by when he want off of ‘not moving’.”

implications for design Take advantage of the context people already know Design technology to help people help each other Availability is subjective and conditional Allow people to experience bits of each others worlds – selective and richer than traditional “presence”

Take advantage of the context people already know

Design technology to help people help each other

Availability is subjective and conditional

Allow people to experience bits of each others worlds – selective and richer than traditional “presence”

principles for mobile testing… Lab testing will not get you social usage Early field testing to validate use/concept Reliability important – keep initial concept simple Use participant’s own SIM whenever possible Use existing social groups for social applications – small, diverse groups Two weeks is generally enough time to start to overcome novelty, 3-4 ideal Rapid analysis of qualitative data using affinity techniques

Lab testing will not get you social usage

Early field testing to validate use/concept

Reliability important – keep initial concept simple

Use participant’s own SIM whenever possible

Use existing social groups for social applications – small, diverse groups

Two weeks is generally enough time to start to overcome novelty, 3-4 ideal

Rapid analysis of qualitative data using affinity techniques

questions…

References… Practical Metropolitan-Scale Positioning for GSM Phones (Chen et al ’06) http://www.intel-research.net/Publications/Seattle/100920061625_366.pdf Place-Its: A Study of Location-Based Reminders on Mobile Phones (Sohn et al ’05) http://www.cse.ucsd.edu/users/k2li/placeits-ubicomp05.pdf Mobility Detection Using Everyday GSM Traces (Sohn et al ’06) http://www.placelab.org/publications/pubs/mobility-ubicomp2006.pdf Distant Closeness, Cameraphones and public image sharing (VanHouse ’06) http://groups.sims.berkeley.edu/pics/vanhouse_distant_closeness.pdf Sharing Motion Information with Close Family and Friends (Bentley and Metcalf ’07) http://web.mit.edu/bentley/www/papers/paper724-bentley.pdf Location and Activity Sharing in Everyday Mobile Communication (Bentley and Metcalf ’08) (to appear) TileFile http://www.tilefile.com/ Speaking in Pictures: Visual Conversation Using Radar (Garau et al ’06) MIT Class 21w.780 http://web.mit.edu/21w.780/www/spring2007

Practical Metropolitan-Scale Positioning for GSM Phones (Chen et al ’06) http://www.intel-research.net/Publications/Seattle/100920061625_366.pdf

Place-Its: A Study of Location-Based Reminders on Mobile Phones (Sohn et al ’05) http://www.cse.ucsd.edu/users/k2li/placeits-ubicomp05.pdf

Mobility Detection Using Everyday GSM Traces (Sohn et al ’06) http://www.placelab.org/publications/pubs/mobility-ubicomp2006.pdf

Distant Closeness, Cameraphones and public image sharing (VanHouse ’06) http://groups.sims.berkeley.edu/pics/vanhouse_distant_closeness.pdf

Sharing Motion Information with Close Family and Friends (Bentley and Metcalf ’07) http://web.mit.edu/bentley/www/papers/paper724-bentley.pdf

Location and Activity Sharing in Everyday Mobile Communication (Bentley and Metcalf ’08) (to appear)

TileFile http://www.tilefile.com/

Speaking in Pictures: Visual Conversation Using Radar (Garau et al ’06)

MIT Class 21w.780 http://web.mit.edu/21w.780/www/spring2007

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