The Consistency and Changes in Japanese Society

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Published on February 5, 2008

Author: Marietta1

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The Consistency and Changes in Japanese Society 日本社会・文化の不変性と可変性: 2008/2/4 1 The Consistency and Changes in Japanese Society 日本社会・文化の不変性と可変性 集団・家族主義志向の労働倫理 Group and family-oriented work ethic 和魂洋才Wa Kon You Sai もののあわれ・無常観 View of Life as Something transient and empty (The law of universal change) 仏教と神道の共存 The Coexistence of Buddhism and Shintoism from 平和主義 Pacifism 1 春夏秋冬  Four Seasons          : 2008/2/4 2 1 春夏秋冬  Four Seasons 和と協力を尊重する稲作文化  Rice-growing Race for Harmony : 2008/2/4 3 和と協力を尊重する稲作文化 Rice-growing Race for Harmony  和をもって尊し   聖徳太子 Harmony is the first priority in Japan.: 2008/2/4 4 和をもって尊し   聖徳太子Harmony is the first priority in Japan. 神道は人と自然と宇宙との融和を目指し、この和の精神が日本最初の憲法である「17条の憲法」の核である。 Wa is the basic code of Japanese society 和をもって尊しの精神は日本社会の基本 Prince Shoutoku, under Empress Suiko, established so called Constitution of 17 articles, in 604. Wa was regarded as one of the foundation of Japanese society. Wa was constantly the momentum of Japanese education and business success. We can see the result of Wa in the cooperative relationship between teachers and students, management and labor. : 2008/2/4 5 Wa is the basic code of Japanese society和をもって尊しの精神は日本社会の基本 Prince Shoutoku, under Empress Suiko, established so called Constitution of 17 articles, in 604. Wa was regarded as one of the foundation of Japanese society.Wa was constantly the momentum of Japanese education and business success. We can see the result of Wa in the cooperative relationship between teachers and students, management and labor. 和と調和を優先する家族主義 Family-oriented Dynamism for Strength and Group Harmony & Group Competition : 2008/2/4 6 和と調和を優先する家族主義Family-oriented Dynamism for Strength and Group Harmony & Group Competition 1 Rice-growing culture in the East Asia Family members, relatives, neighbors work together and they form a community 2 School education based on Family-oriented Dynamism for strength and harmony 3 Business companies and city halls based on family-oriented dynamism for strength and harmony 4 Group consciousness and competitive group consciousness for effective production Family-oriented music days at school Group Harmony and Strength: 2008/2/4 7 Family-oriented music days at school Group Harmony and Strength Family- oriented group harmony/competition Athletic Meet in Japanese Schools: 2008/2/4 8 Family- oriented group harmony/competition Athletic Meet in Japanese Schools Family- oriented group harmony and group competition: 2008/2/4 9 Family- oriented group harmony and group competition Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools Uniformity, Harmony, Cooperation: 2008/2/4 10 Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schoolsUniformity, Harmony, Cooperation Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schools The Slogan is Self-independence, Creativity and Strong Will : 2008/2/4 11 Athletic Meet in Japanese junior high schoolsThe Slogan is Self-independence, Creativity and Strong Will The Basic Nature of Japanese Society : 2008/2/4 12 The Basic Nature of Japanese Society 1. Competitive Groupism.(競争的集団主義)Inter and intra-group competition and consciousness. * Conformism, harmony and peer pressure. 村八分 * Totalitarian agreement ignoring individual and minority opinions * Vertical society  集団内部がたて・上下関係 Ex. school life, social life and company life…   2. This worldliness (現世主義) 彼岸を無視するし此岸主義. Clinging to the present and realistic life without committing oneself to different or another world. 3 Living today without thinking much about the past and future. (National amnesia) The Basic Nature of Japanese Society: 2008/2/4 13 The Basic Nature of Japanese Society 4 Extreme Formality to adjust and control group harmony 集団内部の調整装置としての象徴の体系の極端な形式主義・名目主義 The name of Japanese traditional cakes (饅頭) is more aesthetic and literary than any other country. Ex.(夜の梅、Plums in the night,春の月 The moon in spring, 梅琥珀 plum amber、金の夢 The dream of gold)                                              加藤修一 Formality and Rules for Group Harmony  集団の調和のための儀式と規則 (式典): 2008/2/4 14 Formality and Rules for Group Harmony 集団の調和のための儀式と規則 (式典) 書初め Special New Year Calligraphy: 2008/2/4 15 書初めSpecial New Year Calligraphy The Basic Nature of Japanese Society: 2008/2/4 16 The Basic Nature of Japanese Society 5 Closing society and a sense of innovating enterprise as the backlash of extreme closeness from the outer world . 外の世界に対する極端な閉鎖性とその反動としての進取の精神 The self-contradiction of international education encouraged by the Ministry of Education and the Foreign Affairs and strict Japanese Immigration Laws and regulations. Unsatisfactory citizenship of foreign residents in Japan. 例 文部省や外務省の推進する国際化のための国際理解教育の内容と法務省の移民法の矛盾在日外国人の市民権や権利保障の問題 The Basic Nature of Japanese Society: 2008/2/4 17 The Basic Nature of Japanese Society 6 Extreme Alternatives and Ambivalence in cultural layers  両極端な矛盾と文化の重層性: Ex. *Samurai dominance and keeping court nobles even in the feudalistic society 武家支配と公家の温存、 *Human Declaration of Emperor and still the symbol of the Japanese people 天皇の人間宣言と国民の象徴  * Appointment of the former Tokugawa samurai in The Meiji New Government. 明治新政府における旧幕臣の登用  ルースベネデイクトの日本人描写 (Benedict’s view of the Japanese)  “Japanese are honest and sneaky, aesthetic and militaristic、honest and liar” (Sward and Chrysanthemum) 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai): 2008/2/4 18 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) This tradition has been influenced by the idea of "和魂洋才" "Wakon Yousai" advocated by Shozan Sakuma (1811-1864) since the Meiji Restoration. The idea "Wakon Yosai" means : Japanese spirit combined with Western learning. The idea of learning Western knowledge, technology, institution and systems without losing Japanese cultural identity. 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) Japanese spirit combined with Western learning (Old and New): 2008/2/4 19 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) Japanese spirit combined with Western learning (Old and New) Cultural Hybridity and Japan 文化混合と日本: 2008/2/4 20 Cultural Hybridity and Japan文化混合と日本 Since Japan opened her feudalistic door in 1868 after a 250 year-isolation policy, Japan has modernized herself by learning Western systems and technologies without losing her own cultural strength and spirit, this time in the name of “Wakon Yosai. ” The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines “Wakon Yosai” as Japanese spirit combined with Western learning. White (1987) states that in Japan, to be modern is not, in any pervasive sense, to be Western Japanizing Chinese and Western cultures with an extremely high level of receptivity: 2008/2/4 21 Japanizing Chinese and Western cultures with an extremely high level of receptivity Japan has a unique history of always Japanizing Chinese and Western culture. In this context, it appears as though the strength of Japan’s cultural base is quite formidable. (Chie Nakane:1997) Ex. Confucian ideas have been modified in Japan from their source in China. 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai): 2008/2/4 22 和(wa)魂(kon)洋(yo)才(sai) This tradition has been influenced by the idea of "和魂洋才" "Wakon Yousai" advocated by Shozan Sakuma (1811-1864) since the Meiji Restoration. The idea "Wakon Yosai" means : Japanese spirit combined with Western learning. The idea of learning Western knowledge, technology, institution and systems without losing Japanese cultural identity. Modern Japanese houses The combination of Japanese rooms and Western living rooms : 2008/2/4 23 Modern Japanese housesThe combination of Japanese rooms and Western living rooms Modern Japanese Electric Toilet with warm seat and warm water& drier: 2008/2/4 24 Modern Japanese Electric Toiletwith warm seat and warm water& drier All the trains are on time. Punctuality and Good Service: 2008/2/4 25 All the trains are on time.Punctuality and Good Service Speed, Punctuality, Precision and Accuracy, Elaboration and Delicacy: 2008/2/4 26 Speed, Punctuality, Precision and Accuracy, Elaboration and Delicacy Speed, Punctuality, Precision and Accuracy, Elaboration and Delicacy are considered important in Japanese society. Ex. The time table for national railways and all kinds of private lines, the program schedules for NHK and commercial TV and radio. The elaboration of Japanese bullet trains and cars as well the delicacy of Japanese cuisine Student’s demonstration class in a multi-media classroom.: 2008/2/4 27 Student’s demonstration class in a multi-media classroom. Christmas in Japan: 2008/2/4 28 Christmas in Japan 結婚式Wedding Ceremonies and Parties A Bride change her wedding clothes three times at the parties in the hotel. : 2008/2/4 29 結婚式Wedding Ceremonies and PartiesA Bride change her wedding clothes three times at the parties in the hotel. Japan’s great changes can be seen as a process of modernization rather than westernization. : 2008/2/4 30 Japan’s great changes can be seen as a process of modernization rather than westernization. The Japanese are now completely at home with the styles and fads of international culture, mixing them at will with their own traditional traits and proving themselves a prolific source of cultural influences on other countries both West and East. They wisely examine what others are doing in facing the problems of modern times (the countries of the West could learn a lot from them on this score), but they are not blindly imitative and usually come up with a result superior to what can be found abroad. (Reischauer:1977) Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery: 2008/2/4 31 Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery Then, what has been the secret of Japan's modernization after a long period of national isolation? Japan’s modest and intellectual attitude of being on the periphery and Japan’s willingness to learn and borrow from others, respecting group harmony and balance (equilibrium), have often had an energizing effect on Japan’s modernization as well as on her economic and technological progress. This must be a kernel of Japan's cultural strength and the heart of the Japanese system. Japan’s Powerful Pop Culture 日本の大衆文化の力: 2008/2/4 32 Japan’s Powerful Pop Culture 日本の大衆文化の力 Powerful transition from manufacturing Japan by postwar generation to cultural Japan by the young. Japan’s days as an industrial powerhouse may well be on the wane, but its role as a global trendsetter-in cutting–edge music, art, fashion, design, and other pop-is only now just getting started. From being a Corporate Manufacturing and Industrial society to a Pop-Culture Society: 2008/2/4 33 From being a Corporate Manufacturing and Industrial society to a Pop-Culture Society In the wreckage of Japan’s increasing inability to compete against the lower labor costs and rekindled ambitions of its rivals, however, a number of observers both inside the country and out are turning to the nation’s creative and cultural enterprises as a source of potential salvation. Animated-cartoon series, Nintendo’s Game Cube, High-end Japanese fashion, Hanae Mori, Japanese films, TV series, music, lifestyle magazines. Cellular (Portable) Phone Culture: 2008/2/4 34 Cellular (Portable) Phone Culture 日本人の自然観と神 The Japanese View of Nature and God : 2008/2/4 35 日本人の自然観と神The Japanese View of Nature and God Since ancient times, Japanese people recognized every natural phenomenon as a manifestation of the Kami (Gods). In Japanese polytheism Kami lived in the sea, mountains, forests, lands, and in the sky……… Even in each individual house there is a family (Buddhist) altar, honoring their dead family members. People become a Buddha for the cycle of reincarnation (transmigration of the soul). The Coexistence of Buddhism and Shinto 仏教と神道の共存: 2008/2/4 36 The Coexistence of Buddhism and Shinto 仏教と神道の共存 The beautiful natural landscape of Japan created Japanese polytheism in her long history, unlike monotheism in the West and Middle East. Frequent earthquakes and typhoons made Japanese people realize the power of nature which is beyond human power, and sense of uncertainty, mutability and a view of life as something transient and empty(無常観), and the necessity of group and family- oriented work ethics.(家族・集団の和と協力、労働倫理). もののあはれ Mono no Aware A purified and exalted feeling, close to the innermost heart of man and nature: 2008/2/4 37 もののあはれ Mono no AwareA purified and exalted feeling, close to the innermost heart of man and nature 人生の機微やはかなさなどに触れたときに感じるしみじみとした情趣 無常観 (Mujoukan )と もののあはれ A view of life as something transient and empty. The idea that everything is uncertain, transient and mortal makes us more sensitive to the wonder of life and beauty of nature in each moment. 和歌・短歌に表象される もののあはれ・無常観: 2008/2/4 38 和歌・短歌に表象されるもののあはれ・無常観 花のいろは移りにけりないたづらに我が身よにふる詠めせしまに       小野小町  しのぶれど色に出にけりわが恋は物や思ふと人の問ふまで         平兼盛 君がためおしからざりし命さへながくもがなとおもひぬる哉          藤原義孝 あひ見ての後の心にくらぶればむかしは物を思はざりけり        権中納言敦忠 こぬ人をまつほの浦の夕なぎにやくやもしほの身もこがれつゝ     権中納言定家 禅の心: 2008/2/4 39 禅の心 座禅と悟り 精神を安定、統一させることによって宗教的叡智、悟りに達しようとする修行法 仏教の真髄は座禅によって体得される。 禅宗 臨済宗(栄西) 曹泂宗(道元) 人間には百八つの煩悩があり、新年を迎えるにあたり、煩悩を取り除く。 (除夜の鐘) Dr. Donald Keene’s Observations Of the Japanese View of Life: 2008/2/4 40 Dr. Donald Keene’s ObservationsOf the Japanese View of Life While European artists built palaces and statues made of marble for the purpose of eternity and immortality, Japanese people gave up everlasting or universal beauty and looked for beauty in mortality, transience and mutability. 「西洋の芸術家が不滅性を狙って大理石で宮殿や立像を建てたが、日本人は不滅の美を断念し、消えゆくものの美を求めた。」( Keene: 1987) 「われわれは永遠を信じて建築物を造るが、日本人は最初から永続しないものとして造る」(Lafcadio Hearn) The beauty of a radiant and perishing fate and the idea of reincarnation: 2008/2/4 41 The beauty of a radiant and perishing fate and the idea of reincarnation All the beautiful flowers will inevitably wither and fade away when fall and winter come. So will even the most beautiful young woman and the most powerful young man when they get older. Buddhist ideas imply that all forms of life reincarnate and alternate between life and death. All the creatures will one day die no matter how prosperous they are. Life is but a fleeting moment, and that moment is sometimes more beautiful, which produced aesthetic poetries and literature in Japan.      侘びと茶道     Wabi and Tea Ceremony: 2008/2/4 42 侘びと茶道    Wabi and Tea Ceremony The Heart of Japanese Calligraphy: 2008/2/4 43 The Heart of Japanese Calligraphy The ultimate beauty of Japanese Calligraphy is derived from running hands, curvaceous and vivacious lines, swinging from side to side and instability, fragility and emptiness influenced by the tone and shade of ink.  Japanese Calligraphy is a refined art which has two faces, representing the world of aesthetic sensibility and elegant simplicity known as "wabi, sabi and yugen" and profound and passionate expressions. 一座建立 Ichiza Konryu: 2008/2/4 44 一座建立 Ichiza Konryu In order that a gathering be pleasant and comfortable in feeling to its conclusion, one should behave toward the others with wholehearted sincerity, as though that gathering were to be the only encounter with them in one’s entire lifetime- even with close acquaintances one meets daily. (Murai 1992) 一期一会 Ichigo Ichie: 2008/2/4 45 一期一会 Ichigo Ichie The most important element in Tea ceremony is the aesthetic of wabi born out of the special relationship between the practitioner and the utensils in chanoyu, and the concept of “one meeting in a lifetime” which was conceived as the ideal relationship between the participants in the tea gathering. In short, the gist of chanoyu exists in both the form and the spirit. 懐石料理Tea Ceremony Dishes Served as vegetarian food with impeccable presentation. : 2008/2/4 46 懐石料理Tea Ceremony DishesServed as vegetarian food with impeccable presentation. 華道(活け花)Flower Arrangement Flowers were originally arranged where gods were welcomed or used as offerings at Buddhist altars. Flowers were arranged in tea ceremony. : 2008/2/4 47 華道(活け花)Flower ArrangementFlowers were originally arranged where gods were welcomed or used as offerings at Buddhist altars. Flowers were arranged in tea ceremony. Japanese Chivalry (Bushido)武士道 The Seven Moral Code of Bushido: 2008/2/4 48 Japanese Chivalry (Bushido)武士道The Seven Moral Code of Bushido Rectitude 義 Respect  礼 Courage  勇 Benevolence 仁 Honor 名誉 Honesty 誠 Loyalty 忠義 Bushido-the soul of Japan (1900) by Inazou Nitobe Japan’s Fastest Modernization and Pacifism 日本近代化と平和主義: 2008/2/4 49 Japan’s Fastest Modernization and Pacifism 日本近代化と平和主義 Japan’s long periods of peace: Heian Period (794-1156) 362 years Edo Period (1603-1867) 264 years After World War II (1945--) 58 years Japan’s domestic unification (1603)and innovative modernization in order to internationalize Japan in the late 19th century (1868) and the beginning of the 20th century (1945), catching up with Western Civilization. Hiroshima Before the Atomic Bomb: 2008/2/4 50 Hiroshima Before the Atomic Bomb Hiroshima After the Atomic Bomb: 2008/2/4 51 Hiroshima After the Atomic Bomb Millions of paper cranes for peace made by school children from inside and outside Japan. : 2008/2/4 52 Millions of paper cranes for peace made by school children from inside and outside Japan. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Dome : 2008/2/4 53 Hiroshima Peace Memorial Dome Japan’s Pacifism and Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution 日本の平和主義: 2008/2/4 54 Japan’s Pacifism and Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution 日本の平和主義 Article 9 of The Japanese Constitution “No-War”Clause “ Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes….. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.” According to a survey by NHK (2003),70% of the people feel that Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is useful in maintaining safety and peace in Japan. 30% of people feel there is a need for revision. 52% say there is no need for revision. Do you participate in a war when your country is involved in a war? 2000: 2008/2/4 55 Do you participate in a war when your country is involved in a war? 2000 Country Yes   No   Don’t Know 1 Turkey 94.7 %   3.7 %     0.9% 4 China   89.9   3.1 5.7 20 Korea   74.4   25.3 0.3 36 USA   63.3   25.5 11.2 41 France   58.6   41.4 0.0 56 Germany   44.0   56.0 0.0 59 Japan   15.6  46.7   37.7 The Survey of Value System in the World 2000 The questionnaire was conducted for 1000 adults in each country. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution and Peace Education in Japan reveal their influence through this questionnaire. Are you proud of your country? 2000: 2008/2/4 56 Are you proud of your country? 2000 Country Very Yes Little No 1. Egypt 81.6 % 17.4 % (99.1%) 0.6% 0.1% 15 USA 71.4 22.9 (94.3%) 3.9 0.4 47 France 37.5 46.9 (84.3%) 6.4 3.2 50 UK 45.1 37.6 (82.7%) 7.8 1.9 55 Korea 17.4 60.8 (78.3%) 18.7 2.9 56 China 24.7 53.3 (78.0%) 13.2 4.0 71 Japan 21.1 33.1 (54.2%) 34.7 3.5 The Survey of Value System in the World 2000 (The questionnaire was conducted for 1000 adults in each country) Homeless People (25296), High Suicide rate (32143), The fastest aging society (Average Span of Life 81.09), Classroom chaos (one-fourth),  Bullying (22840), School Refusal (112,193), Socially withdrawn young people (1millon), (Japanese Police Agency in 2003, Ministry of Education in 2001) : 2008/2/4 57 Homeless People (25296), High Suicide rate (32143), The fastest aging society (Average Span of Life 81.09), Classroom chaos (one-fourth),  Bullying (22840), School Refusal (112,193), Socially withdrawn young people (1millon), (Japanese Police Agency in 2003, Ministry of Education in 2001) School Refusal Socially Withdrawn Young People: 2008/2/4 58 School Refusal Socially Withdrawn Young People Classroom Chaos : 2008/2/4 59 Classroom Chaos Homeless People: 2008/2/4 60 Homeless People

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