The Commonwealth Of Byzantium

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Information about The Commonwealth Of Byzantium

Published on September 15, 2007

Author: MrKeatley

Source: slideshare.net

Description

I. The early Byzantine empire
II. Byzantine economy and society
III. Classical heritage and Orthodox Christianity
IV. The influence of Byzantium in eastern Europe

THE COMMONWEALTH OF BYZANTIUM

Main Topics I. The early Byzantine empire II. Byzantine economy and society III. Classical heritage and Orthodox Christianity IV. The influence of Byzantium in eastern Europe

I. The early Byzantine empire

II. Byzantine economy and society

III. Classical heritage and Orthodox Christianity

IV. The influence of Byzantium in eastern Europe

I. The later Roman empire and Byzantium Fifth century, eastern half of empire remained intact while west crumbled Challenges: Sassanids and Germans Highly centralized state Emperor with aura of divinity--Caesaropapism Large and complex bureaucracy

Fifth century, eastern half of empire remained intact while west crumbled

Challenges: Sassanids and Germans

Highly centralized state

Emperor with aura of divinity--Caesaropapism

Large and complex bureaucracy

I. Justinian (527-565 C.E.) and his legacy; Theodora (empress) Rebuilt Constantinople, including Hagia Sophia Codified Roman law Corpus iuris civilis ( The Body of the Civil Law ) Sent Belisarius to reconquer the western Roman empire (didn't last)

Rebuilt Constantinople, including Hagia Sophia

Codified Roman law Corpus iuris civilis ( The Body of the Civil Law )

Sent Belisarius to reconquer the western Roman empire (didn't last)

I. Islamic conquests and Byzantine revival The emergence of the Islamic state, seventh century Arab peoples conquered the Sassanid empire and part of Byzantium Prolonged sieges of Constantinople by Islamic armies Byzantium survived partly because of Greek fire Byzantine society reorganized Provinces ( themes ) under generals Armies of free peasants helped agricultural economy

The emergence of the Islamic state, seventh century

Arab peoples conquered the Sassanid empire and part of Byzantium

Prolonged sieges of Constantinople by Islamic armies

Byzantium survived partly because of Greek fire

Byzantine society reorganized

Provinces ( themes ) under generals

Armies of free peasants helped agricultural economy

I. Byzantium and western Europe: ecclesiastical and political tensions The Iconoclastic Controversy of 710AD completed the break between Rome and Constantinople. Facing numerous defections to the Muslims along his southern border, and the creation of a Muslim Persia along his eastern border, Emperor Leo initiated religious reforms in an attempt to retain followers. The main item was a declaration that religious images were corrupt . This appealed to Eastern Monophysites and to Muslims who distrusted the worship of anything that came between the individual and the deity (saints), but it also resulted in the destruction of much Byzantine religious art. Reforms had political goals as well as spiritual goals. By purifying Christianity, they hoped to reduce the attractiveness of Islam to Eastern Monophysites and other religious opponents. By eliminating religious images, they hoped to undermine the worship of saints, including that of St. Peter, who was the ancestral founder of the Roman bishopric. Finally, by doing away with the worship of saints, the emperor also found a reason to close monasteries and confiscate their wealth for the Empire.

The Iconoclastic Controversy of 710AD completed the break between Rome and Constantinople.

Facing numerous defections to the Muslims along his southern border, and the creation of a Muslim Persia along his eastern border, Emperor Leo initiated religious reforms in an attempt to retain followers.

The main item was a declaration that religious images were corrupt . This appealed to Eastern Monophysites and to Muslims who distrusted the worship of anything that came between the individual and the deity (saints), but it also resulted in the destruction of much Byzantine religious art.

Reforms had political goals as well as spiritual goals.

By purifying Christianity, they hoped to reduce the attractiveness of Islam to Eastern Monophysites and other religious opponents.

By eliminating religious images, they hoped to undermine the worship of saints, including that of St. Peter, who was the ancestral founder of the Roman bishopric.

Finally, by doing away with the worship of saints, the emperor also found a reason to close monasteries and confiscate their wealth for the Empire.

II. Rural economy and society Large agricultural base to support cities Economy strongest when large class of free peasants ( themes ) existed Economy weakened when large landholders consolidated and made peasants dependent They do not have as much $$, so they do not spend as much. Byzantine Farm

Large agricultural base to support cities

Economy strongest when large class of free peasants ( themes ) existed

Economy weakened when large landholders consolidated and made peasants dependent

They do not have as much $$, so they do not spend as much.

II. Industry and trade Constantinople was major site of crafts and industry Glass, linen, textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, and silver Silk developed into major industry in sixth century; secrets came from China Constantinople was clearinghouse for trade Bezant (gold coins) was the standard currency of Mediterranean basin Western anchor of trade route revived silk roads Banks and partnerships supported commercial economy

Constantinople was major site of crafts and industry

Glass, linen, textiles, gems, jewelry, gold, and silver

Silk developed into major industry in sixth century; secrets came from China

Constantinople was clearinghouse for trade

Bezant (gold coins) was the standard currency of Mediterranean basin

Western anchor of trade route revived silk roads

Banks and partnerships supported commercial economy

 

II. Urban life Housing in Constantinople varied widely by class Attractions of Constantinople: baths, taverns, theaters (culture) Hippodrome used for mass entertainment Chariot races most popular; Greens and Blues rivalry

Housing in Constantinople varied widely by class

Attractions of Constantinople: baths, taverns, theaters (culture)

Hippodrome used for mass entertainment

Chariot races most popular; Greens and Blues rivalry

III. The legacy of classical Greece Official language went from Latin to Greek State-organized school system trained workforce Primary education: reading, writing, grammar Later education: classical Greek, literature, philosophy, science Higher education in Constantinople: law, medicine, philosophy Byzantine scholarship emphasized Greek tradition Wrote commentaries on Greek literature Preserved and transmitted Greek thought to later cultures

Official language went from Latin to Greek

State-organized school system trained workforce

Primary education: reading, writing, grammar

Later education: classical Greek, literature, philosophy, science

Higher education in Constantinople: law, medicine, philosophy

Byzantine scholarship emphasized Greek tradition

Wrote commentaries on Greek literature

Preserved and transmitted Greek thought to later cultures

III. The Byzantine church Most distinctive feature was involvement of the emperor ( Caesaropapism ) Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) in which Arianism was declared heresy Iconoclasm controversy (726-843) was started by Leo III Greek philosophy applied to Byzantine theology St Arius - Founder of Arianism

Most distinctive feature was involvement of the emperor ( Caesaropapism )

Council of Nicaea (325 C.E.) in which Arianism was declared heresy

Iconoclasm controversy (726-843) was started by Leo III

Greek philosophy applied to Byzantine theology

III. Monasticism and popular piety Monasticism origins in early Christian ascetics (hermits) " Pillar saints " like St. Simeon Stylite St. Basil of Caesarea (329-379 C.E.) organized monastic movement Mt. Athos, monastery in northern Greece from ninth century to present Monks/nuns very popular with laity Provided social services to the community Opposed iconoclasm

Monasticism origins in early Christian ascetics (hermits)

" Pillar saints " like St. Simeon Stylite

St. Basil of Caesarea (329-379 C.E.) organized monastic movement

Mt. Athos, monastery in northern Greece from ninth century to present

Monks/nuns very popular with laity

Provided social services to the community

Opposed iconoclasm

Tensions between eastern and western Christianity Constantinople and Rome: strains mirrored political tensions Ritual and doctrinal differences, such as iconoclasm Schism in 1054--Eastern Orthodox versus Roman Catholic the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between Latin and Greek Christendom

Constantinople and Rome: strains mirrored political tensions

Ritual and doctrinal differences, such as iconoclasm

Schism in 1054--Eastern Orthodox versus Roman Catholic

the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between Latin and Greek Christendom

IV. Domestic problems and foreign pressures Generals and local aristocrats allied; new elite class challenged imperial (religious) power Western Europe took parts of Byzantium Normans in southern Italy and Sicily Crusaders carved out states and sacked Constantinople (1204) Muslim Saljuq Turks invaded Anatolia, defeated Byzantines at Manzikert, 1071 Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, the end of the empire

Generals and local aristocrats allied; new elite class challenged imperial (religious) power

Western Europe took parts of Byzantium

Normans in southern Italy and Sicily

Crusaders carved out states and sacked Constantinople (1204)

Muslim Saljuq Turks invaded Anatolia, defeated Byzantines at Manzikert, 1071

Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453, the end of the empire

 

IV. Early relations between Byzantium and Slavic peoples Byzantines began to influence Bulgarian politics and culture after the eighth century Missions to the Slavs Saints Cyril and Methodius, mid-ninth century Cyrillic writing stimulated conversion to Orthodox Christianity (syncretism) Education and religion tied together, led to more conversions

Byzantines began to influence Bulgarian politics and culture after the eighth century

Missions to the Slavs

Saints Cyril and Methodius, mid-ninth century

Cyrillic writing stimulated conversion to Orthodox Christianity (syncretism)

Education and religion tied together, led to more conversions

Byzantium and Russia Mid-ninth century, Russians started to organize a large state: Kiev The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 Kiev served as a conduit for spread of Byzantine culture and religion Cyrillic writing and literature and Orthodox missions spread Byzantine culture Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev: icons and onion domes Princes established caesaropapist control of Russian Orthodox church Russian culture flourishes from eleventh century Moscow claimed to be world's " third Rome " Sent out many missionaries from sixteenth century on

Mid-ninth century, Russians started to organize a large state: Kiev

The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989

Kiev served as a conduit for spread of Byzantine culture and religion

Cyrillic writing and literature and Orthodox missions spread Byzantine culture

Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev: icons and onion domes

Princes established caesaropapist control of Russian Orthodox church

Russian culture flourishes from eleventh century

Moscow claimed to be world's " third Rome "

Sent out many missionaries from sixteenth century on

Summary Eastern half of Rome became known as Byzantium Survived and, mostly, thrived for a millennium This culture blended Roman and Greek traditions Declined over centuries (slow fall)--culminating in its conquest by the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453. Several unique features of the Byzantine civilization contributed to its prosperity: A strategically located capital city called Constantinople that was one of the largest, most influential, and cosmopolitan urban centers in the world. A highly centralized and autocratic governmental structure consisting of an exalted emperor with an aura of divinity and a large and intricate bureaucracy. A rich Christian tradition elaborated by the emperor and the patriarchs that eventually evolved into an independent and separate faith referred to as Eastern Orthodox. An unusual and effective administration system whereby generals governed over free peasants who received small tracts of land to work in exchange for military service. The extension of Byzantine cultural traditions to eastern Europe and Russia through political, cultural, and economic relations.

Eastern half of Rome became known as Byzantium

Survived and, mostly, thrived for a millennium

This culture blended Roman and Greek traditions

Declined over centuries (slow fall)--culminating in its conquest by the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453.

Several unique features of the Byzantine civilization contributed to its prosperity:

A strategically located capital city called Constantinople that was one of the largest, most influential, and cosmopolitan urban centers in the world.

A highly centralized and autocratic governmental structure consisting of an exalted emperor with an aura of divinity and a large and intricate bureaucracy.

A rich Christian tradition elaborated by the emperor and the patriarchs that eventually evolved into an independent and separate faith referred to as Eastern Orthodox.

An unusual and effective administration system whereby generals governed over free peasants who received small tracts of land to work in exchange for military service.

The extension of Byzantine cultural traditions to eastern Europe and Russia through political, cultural, and economic relations.

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