The Colonial Period

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Information about The Colonial Period

Published on January 19, 2008

Author: Reginaldo


The Colonial Period:  The Colonial Period 1500 - 1763 The Treaty of Tordesillas:  The Treaty of Tordesillas Line of Demarcation 1493/94:  Line of Demarcation 1493/94 New Spain:  New Spain English & French Beginnings:  English & French Beginnings England Attempts to Settle:  England Attempts to Settle Free Response Question:  Free Response Question Write an essay (250 words) discussing at least two viable possibilities of what could have happened to the settlers of Roanoke Should be complete sentences and in paragraph form Have an intro and a conclusion The Beginnings of Colonization:  The Beginnings of Colonization Southern Colonies:  Southern Colonies The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland) :  The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland) The Chesapeake:  The Chesapeake Virginia (founded in 1607 by Virginia Company) Jamestown, 1607 -- 1st permanent British colony in New World Founded by Virginia Company that received charter in London from King James I. Main goals: Promise of gold, conversion of Indians to Christianity (just like Spain), and new passage to the Indies Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers Virginia Charter Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in England Became foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. Virginia:  Virginia Colony wracked by tragedy during early years: famine, disease, war with Indians By 1625, only 1200 of the nearly 8000 colonists survived Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611 Captain John Smith:  Captain John Smith Organized the colony beginning in 1608: "He who will not work shall not eat." Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Powhatans led by Chief Powhatan who subjected Smith to a what may have been a mock execution. Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powatan's daughter, when she was only 12 years old Pocahantas Saving Smith:  Pocahantas Saving Smith Smith and Pocahantas:  Smith and Pocahantas Pocahantas :  Pocahantas Eventually became a central figure in preserving peace in early Jamestown Provided foodstuffs to settlers. Became hostage of colonists in 1613 during military conflicts. Later married John Rolfe & taught him Indian way of curing tobacco.      -- Died of small pox at age 22 John Rolfe and tobacco crop economy :  John Rolfe and tobacco crop economy "Colony built on smoke" Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy. Plantation system emerged House of Burgesses :  House of Burgesses An assembly authorized by the London Company in 1619 1st of miniature parliament in the British American colonies. Representative self-government Most representatives were substantial property owners Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap" Virginia Charter:  Virginia Charter Revoked by James I in 1624 King believed assembly to seditious but also hated tobacco. Virginia became a royal colony directly under his control Maryland:  Maryland Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA for Catholic haven and profit. Eventually, growth of Protestants meant Catholics rapidly becoming a minority; Catholics feared loss of religions freedom. Act of Toleration (1649) :  Act of Toleration (1649) Guaranteed toleration to all Christians but instituted death penalty for anyone denying the divinity of Jesus (e.g. Jews & atheists) Motive: Catholics sought to protect their faith by granting certain degree of religious freedom. Maryland became largest haven for Catholics in British American colonies Life in the Chesapeake :  Life in the Chesapeake Disease took heavy toll early on (10 yrs off life exp.) -- Malaria, dysentery, typhoid Half of all born in early Virginia and Maryland did not live past age 20. Less than 25% of men lived to see 50 -- women only 40 Gender Make-up:  Gender Make-up Most immigrants were single men in late teens, early 20's; most died soon after arriving Surviving males competed for extremely scarce women; women thus married early Most men could not find mates. What the Chesapeake Became:  What the Chesapeake Became Region stabilized eventually due to increased immunities to disease in increased influx of women By 1700, Virginia was most populous colony (about 50,000 colonists) By 1700, Maryland was third most populous colony (about 30,000 inhabitants) The Tobacco Plantation Economy :  The Tobacco Plantation Economy First Africans arrived in 1619, but probably were indentured servants in early 17th c. -- White indentured servants more predominant until late 17th century. "Headright" System :  "Headright" System A person who paid for the passage of a white indentured servant received 50 acres of  land. Some planters used the system to acquire enormous tracts of land. Indentured servants (English yeoman) agreed to specified years of servitude in exchange for transatlantic passage (term of servitude was usually about 5 years) After term of contract expired during early-mid 17th c., the servant was often given some money, perhaps some land, and other goods to start their own farms. -- Eventually, former indentured servants were given little and could not succeed. By 1700, planters brought in about 100,000 indentured servants, representing about 75% of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland. Tensions Build :  Tensions Build By late 17th century large numbers of frustrated freedmen (former indentured servants) existed. Most lived in western Virginia;  resented the planter aristocrats from the east. Many were too poor to own land and could not find wives (men still greatly outnumbered women) Freedmen did not gain access to large land grants in the east; forced to squat for lands in western part of the colony. The Indians:  The Indians Indians resisted white expansion in western Virginia but freedmen angry that gov't of Virginia did not do enough to protect white settlers from Indian attacks. Governor Berkeley was generally friendly toward Indians who traded with the colony. House of Burgesses did not usually order attacks on Indians that cooperated with gov't. Nathaniel Bacon :  Nathaniel Bacon A 29-year-old aristocrat in western Virginia and member of House of Burgesses began mobilizing a militia to protect whites from Indians Bacon's Rebellion (1676):  Bacon's Rebellion (1676) In 1676, Bacon's militia massacred Indians and set fire to Jamestown, chasing Governor Berkeley out of the city. Rebels opposed to aristocrats and Indians. Bacon subsequently died of disease and Berkeley crushed the rebellion      Significance of Bacon's Rebellion:  Significance of Bacon's Rebellion Planters saw white indentured servants as too difficult to control and significantly increased importation of black slaves while reducing number of indentured servants. Planter elite increasingly played the "race card" by encouraging poor whites to discriminate against blacks; planters feared blacks and poor whites could ally themselves again in the future. Planters effectively able to psychologically control poor whites by reinforcing idea that poor whites, despite their poverty, would always be superior to blacks. The Carolinas :  The Carolinas Impact of the British West Indies West Indies, especially Barbados, developed sugar plantation economy. Slaves in British West Indies outnumbered whites 4 to 1. Slave codes adopted in Barbados to control slaves. West Indies increasingly relied on mainland British America for foodstuffs. As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolina with their slaves to farm. Carolina adopted slave code in 1696 Background:  Background American colonization interrupted during English Civil War (1640s) and Cromwell's Protectorate (1650s) New colonies not founded until restoration to the throne of Charles II (1660-1685) New restoration colonies included the Carolinas, New York and Pennsylvania Carolina :  Carolina Created in 1670 after restoration and named after Charles II Goals: grow foodstuffs for sugar plantations in Barbados and export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil. Exported Indians as slaves to West Indies and New England colonies (perhaps as many as 100,000). Rice became main cash crop in Carolina for export; by 1710 blacks outnumbered whites. Charles Town (Charleston) :  Charles Town (Charleston) Became most active seaport in the South Became a center for aristocratic younger brothers of English aristocrats (who inherited father's fortune due to primogeniture laws) Religious toleration existed. Indians and Spanish soldiers attacked southern Carolina settlements; resented British intrusion into the region. North Carolina :  North Carolina Created officially in 1712 as a refuge for poor whites and religious dissenters from Carolina and Virginia. Became most democratic, independent and least aristocratic of original 13 colonies (similar to Rhode Island). Yet, treated Indians ruthlessly and sold many into slavery Georgia :  Georgia Became last British American colony founded (1733) Founded by James Oglethorpe Founded as a haven for debtors as well as a buffer state against Spanish and Indian incursions from the South. Savannah emerged into a diverse community (included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders; but no Catholics) Colonial Slavery :  Colonial Slavery Most slaves came from West African coast (Senegal to Angola) Originally captured by African coastal tribes who traded them to European & American buyers. -- Estimated 40% of slaves captured by Africans in interior died en route to coast. Estimated 50 million Africans died or became slaves during 17th & 18th c. Colonial Slavery :  Colonial Slavery Of  about 10-15 million Africans sent into slavery in the New World, 400,000 ended up in North America. (Majority sent to Spanish and Portuguese South Am. or to W. Indies) Conditions:  Conditions Between 20% to 1/3 of slaves died during the “Middle Passage” Horrific conditions: Slaves often chained by neck and extremities to deck floor. Packed into spaces about the size of a coffin; lay in own excrement In some cases, next deck only 18” above deck floor; slaves could not turn over; lay on their back the entire voyage. Survivors  eventually sold at auction blocks at ports like Newport, RI, or Charleston, SC (giant slave market) Slave Arrival:  Slave Arrival Most  slaves came after 1700 Some came to Jamestown as early as 1619 but only 2,000 in Virginia in 1670 Accounted for about 7% of southern plantation population in mid 17th c Rising wages in England in 1680's reduced immigration to America By 1680's, black slaves outnumbered white servants Slave Population:  Slave Population 1698, Royal African Co. lost its monopoly on the slave trade Some Americans, esp. from RI, took advantage of lucrative slave trade Numbers of slaves in America dramatically increased. Accounted for more than 1/2 Virginia population by 1750 In SC, outnumbered whites 2 to 1 A Few Lucky Ones:  A Few Lucky Ones A few slaves gained their freedom & some even became slave-owners However, this fact should not be over exaggerated! These few people constituted a minuscule number relative to entire slave population Slave Codes :  Slave Codes As Africans grew in numbers, threatened whites passed laws to severely control the slave population Most common codes stated: Blacks and their children were property for life of white masters. It was a crime to teach literacy to slaves. Conversion to Christianity was not grounds for freedom South Carolina’s inherited Barbados slave codes influenced codes in other colonies Slave Life:  Slave Life Bearable Slave Life:  Bearable Slave Life Slave Culture:  Slave Culture Slave Rebellions:  Slave Rebellions Southern Society (18th Century):  Southern Society (18th Century) Southern Society (18th Century):  Southern Society (18th Century) The South is Behind:  The South is Behind

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