The Cold War Origins Korea 1945 1952

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Information about The Cold War Origins Korea 1945 1952

Published on December 19, 2007

Author: Laurie


Ch 18 Sec 1- Origins of the Cold War:  Ch 18 Sec 1- Origins of the Cold War 1945-1952 Essential Questions:  Essential Questions Why was there a breakdown in relations between the US and USSR after WWII? What was the policy of containment and where was it applied? How did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan deepened Cold War Tensions? How did conflicts over Germany increase fear of Soviet aggression? Former Allies Clash :  Former Allies Clash In the USSR the state controlled all property and economic activity In the Capitalist American system private citizens controlled economic activity In the USSR the Communist Party established a totalitarian government with one party In the US voting by the people chose the President and members of Congress with competing parties Spread of Capitalism and US trade? World-wide Communist revolution? Mistrust during the War:  Mistrust during the War The US knew that Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler in 1939 Stalin resented the fact that the Allies took so long to open a second front in Europe Stalin resented that the US had tried to keep the atomic bomb a secret from an ally the USSR The UN became arena of competition Truman did not have the diplomatic skills or the personal relationship FDR had with Stalin The Potsdam Conference:  The Potsdam Conference In July 1945 the Big Three met in Potsdam near Berlin Truman, Churchill/Attlee and Stalin By July 1945 the USSR had consolidated its grip on Eastern Europe Truman took a tougher stance with Stalin Stalin was concerned about security and did not keep his promise for free elections in Poland, he wanted a buffer from the West and a divided weak Germany The USSR wanted reparations from Germany, the US wanted to trade in Eastern Europe and Reunite Germany Satellite Nations:  Satellite Nations Stalin installed Communist Gov. in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland Satellite Nation is a country economically or politically linked to the USSR Containment:  Containment In February 1946 George F. Kennan an American diplomat in Moscow proposed a policy of containment Containment was the doctrine in which military, economic, and diplomatic strategies were to be used to turn back communism Europe was divide into two political regions a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe The “Iron Curtain”:  The “Iron Curtain” In March 1946, Winston Churchill traveled to Fulton, Missouri and gave the famous speech The Cold War:  The Cold War The Cold War was an indirect state of conflict between the US and USSR that would dominate global affairs and US Foreign Policy from 1945-1991 In March 1947 Truman asked Congress for $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey so they could resist communist takeovers and Communist influence – The Truman Doctrine The US would assist “free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” The Marshall Plan:  The Marshall Plan After the war Western Europe was in chaos, no fuel, no food, no shelter Many Refugees had to bear one of the coldest winters in 1946-1947 The US feared Communism would spread to Western Europe In June 1947 Sec. of State George C. Marshall proposed the US provide aid to all European nations Between 1947 and 1951, 16 countries received $13 billion in aid The Berlin Airlift:  The Berlin Airlift The USSR and the US clashed over the issue of German Reunification In 1948 the US, Britain, and France combined their zones into West Germany Stalin quickly closed all access to the divided city of Berlin, no food or fuel could reach the 2.1 million West Berliners The US and British flew 327 days, 277,000 flights and brought in 2.3 million tons of food , fuel, and medicine By May 1949 Stalin lifted the blockade NATO:  NATO In May of 1949 The Federal Republic of Germany was established ( West Germany) In April 1949, Ten Western European nations joined with the US and Canada and formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO) It was a defensive military alliance in which an attack ( by the USSR) on one was an attack on all (500,000 troops in Western Europe) In 1955 the USSR formed The Warsaw Pact with its allies to counter NATO Ch 18 Sec 2-The Cold War Heats UP:  Ch 18 Sec 2-The Cold War Heats UP How did the Communists come to power in China? How did the US react to this? What were the events of the Korean War? What was the reason for the conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur? Cold War Heats Up:  Cold War Heats Up For decades Chinese communist led by Mao Zedong had struggled against US ally the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek in bitter civil war Between 1945-1949 the US sent the Nationalist $3 billion in aid The nationalists were corrupt, while Mao gained support of the people In May 1949 Chiang-Kai-shek fled to Taiwan, and The communists led by Mao controlled China “Peoples Republic” Truman was blamed for “losing China” The Korean War:  The Korean War After WWII Korea was divide into a communist North Korea the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea set up by the USSR with Kim II Sung as leader north of the 38th parallel South of the 38th parallel the US established the Republic of Korea led by Syngman Rhee By June of 1949 the US only had 500 troops in South Korea North Korea Attacks:  North Korea Attacks On June 25th, 1950 North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel North Korean troops pushed South Korean and US forces back to Pusan The UN security council voted to send troops to aid South Korea, 16 nations 520,000 troops,(90% American) 590,000 South Korean troops all led by General Douglas Mac Arthur The US Fights in Korea:  The US Fights in Korea On September 1950 MacArthur landed his troops behind North Korean troops at Inchon and forced them back to the 38th parallel MacArthur pushed deep into North Korea and approached the Yalu River the border with China In Nov. 1950, 300,000 Chinese troops poured across the border and attacked UN troops The Chinese captured Seoul and both sides fought to a stalemate around the 38th parallel MacArthur Vs Truman:  MacArthur Vs Truman In 1951 MacArthur called for extending the war into China buy blockading China and using atomic weapons MacArthur spoke to the press and to members of Congress about expanding the war and he was critical of President Truman On April 11th, 1951 Truman fired MacArthur He was welcomed home an popular hero 69% of Americans favored MacArthur Stalemate in Korea:  Stalemate in Korea Peace Talks began at Pammunjom along the 38th parallel in July 1951 In July 1953 an armistice was announced The DMZ was established at the 38th parallel The Korean war cost 54,000 American lives 2 million Koreans and Chinese and $67 - $100 billion “The Forgotten War” Many Americans turned toward the Republican Party by 1952 “IKE”

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