The Cognitive Perspective

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Information about The Cognitive Perspective

Published on December 11, 2008

Author: aSGuest6301


The Cognitive : The Cognitive Perspective Objectives : Objectives To explain the following: The main assumptions of the cognitive perspective The influence of Tolman, Miller, Neisser, and Chomsky Sternberg’s word scanning experiment Retrospective Phenomenological Assessment Cognitive neuropsychology Slide 3: Cognitive psychologists regard thought and mental processes as a legitimate area of study Mental processes are compared to the way a computer works H.W. Read and make notes on P.16-19 of the AS book. Pennington. Cognitive Psychology includes: Human experimental psychology Computer analogies Cognitive neuroscience Slide 4: Rene Descartes ‘I think therefore I am’ Thinking defines us as being human. Wundt and Introspection Verbal report on what people are thinking and feeling Criticism: Different people report different things Wundt stated that higher mental processes could not be investigated by introspection. This limits psychology. Slide 5: Tolman Criticised behaviourism. Rejected the idea of reward and punishment. Stated that rats in Skinners experiment developed a cognitive map of the maze. Miller (1960) Studied language, memory, attention, thinking, and cognitive development in children. Neisser Wrote an influential book ‘Cognitive psychology’ Thought that lab experiements were not ecologically valid Chomsky (1959) Skinner hadn’t acknowledged that language was an expression of internal ideas but was just a response to a stimulus. Chomsky stated that ability to acquire language was inherited. Humans have internalised rules of grammar Slide 6: Assumptions of the Cognitive Approach Cognitive psychologists attempt to measure internal mental processes. E.g. Sternberg’s word scanning experiment. Summarise the experiment. Why is it a good example of cognitive psychology? Slide 7: Modern Introspection. Retrospective Phenomenological Assessment U:\Daves's Files\Psychology A2\Perspectives, debates, methods\Introspection exp.doc Complete the table. How accurate was this at measuring your thoughts and feelings? Slide 8: Cognitive Neuropsychology Some patients with brain damage break words down into sounds. Other patients recognise whole words but cannot read non words. Fig 6.2. P. 147 Believe that certain areas of the brain can be damaged while others are ok However it is not always clear which areas of the brain have been damaged. Objectives : Objectives To explain the following: The influence of Cognitive Psychology Mediational processes Serial and parallel processing To evaluate the cognitive perspective Slide 10: Influence of Cognitive Psychology Child Development Ageing-Alzheimer’s disease Criminological Psychology Mediational Processes Conscious thoughts are necessary to mediate between stimulus and response We monitor the environment/our behaviour/mental and emotional states We control and plan our behaviour. E.g. mugger. Slide 11: Many mental processes are non conscious e.g. memory. Relating what a film is about. Subliminal Perception Cherry and the cocktail party effect Individual Differences Cognitive view of intelligence. Deary (2000) Intelligent people process information more quickly. Need for Cognition Some people have a greater need to understand the world around them, therefore think deeply about a problem. Need for Cognition Questionnaire.htm Slide 12: Animals and Cognition Kemp and Strangman. 40% of the population think that animals have consciousness. But: animals don’t have language therefore don’t think. Information Processing Information is processed in stages Fig. 6.7. P.152 Use the model in fig. 66 to describe the cognitive processes that you go through when deciding where to eat out. Slide 13: Serial Processing Bottom up processing-information is processed in an automatic way Top down processing-we use information that we already know to decide whether to accept or reject information. H.W. Read age 234 AS text and make notes. Parallel processing. Connectionist View. We process a number of tasks at the same time. Neurons in the brain make many simultaneous connections. Fig 6.9. P154. Slide 15: Criticisms/Evaluation Connectionism is closer to the way the brain works Explains how people can process complex tasks in milliseconds Shows how information is organised in LTM Computer Analogies Symbolic Input Table.doc Compare computers and humans under the following headings: Forgetting, memory, transfer of information, consciousness. Slide 16: Limitations of the Cognitive Approach Too mechanic Experiments lack ecological validity Ignores emotions-these can affect memory Too theoretical and abstract More interested in mental processes than behaviour Loses sight of the whole person Slide 17: Strengths of the Cognitive approach Scientific and objective Looks at mental characteristics of humans Practical applications. E.g. Cognitive therapy, criminology. Important in other areas of psychology Assumes the mind is in the brain

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