The Civil War Chapter 16

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Information about The Civil War Chapter 16

Published on May 4, 2008

Author: cuevasl

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A civil war PP for the middle school ages

The Civil War Chapter 16 1861 - 1865

Section 1

The Confederacy 7 States had formed the Confederacy Georgia Florida Texas Mississippi South Carolina Louisiana Alabama

7 States had formed the Confederacy

Georgia

Florida

Texas

Mississippi

South Carolina

Louisiana

Alabama

Border States Missouri Kentucky Maryland Delaware Why was it important to have control of these border states?

Missouri

Kentucky

Maryland

Delaware

Why was it important to have control of these border states?

How West Virginia came to be Not everyone was in favor Eastern TN and western VA supported the Union Appalachian region Area move to secede 48 VA counties West Virginia admitted in 1863

Not everyone was in favor

Eastern TN and western VA supported the Union

Appalachian region

Area move to secede

48 VA counties

West Virginia admitted in 1863

Who’s got more (or less) The North Good points Larger population More industry More abundant resources Better banking system-finance the war Had more ships-old Regular navy loyal to the Union More and better RR system

Larger population

More industry

More abundant resources

Better banking system-finance the war

Had more ships-old

Regular navy loyal to the Union

More and better RR system

Who’s got more (or less) The North Bad points Bringing South back would be difficult Public opinion about the war shaky

Bringing South back would be difficult

Public opinion about the war shaky

The South’s Strength’s Strong support of its white population Fighting in familiar territory Leadership was superior to North Jefferson Davis- West Point grad

Strong support of its white population

Fighting in familiar territory

Leadership was superior to North

Jefferson Davis- West Point grad

South’s Disadvantages Smaller population of free men Few factories-weapons Produces ½ food as North ½ RR tracks than North, fewer trains State’s rights hampered Confederate power

Smaller population of free men

Few factories-weapons

Produces ½ food as North

½ RR tracks than North, fewer trains

State’s rights hampered Confederate power

Gotta have a plan The North Main Goal- bring Southern states back into the Union Ending slavery – secondary goal, changed to a primary goal later

The North

Main Goal- bring Southern states back into the Union

Ending slavery – secondary goal, changed to a primary goal later

North’s Strategies Navy Blockade of Southern ports No in, no out Gain control of MS river Cut supply lines Split confederacy Capture Richmond

Navy

Blockade of Southern ports

No in, no out

Gain control of MS river

Cut supply lines

Split confederacy

Capture Richmond

South’s Goals Win recognition as an independent nation Preserve their way of life

Win recognition as an independent nation

Preserve their way of life

South’s strategies Be defensive, tire out the North Expected pressure from Britain/France against North Tricked by going on the offensive occasionally- attacking in the north psyche them out

Be defensive, tire out the North

Expected pressure from Britain/France against North

Tricked by going on the offensive occasionally- attacking in the north

psyche them out

Blood was not thicker than water! Lincoln’s wife had family that fought on the confederate side Senator John Crittenden – 2 sons 1 on each side Jefferson Davis, Robert E Lee, George McClellan & William Sherman – West Point Actual fights against family

Lincoln’s wife had family that fought on the confederate side

Senator John Crittenden – 2 sons

1 on each side

Jefferson Davis, Robert E Lee, George McClellan & William Sherman – West Point

Actual fights against family

Call to duty young, inexperienced average 25, 40% 21 or younger most were farmers, 50% in North, 60% in South no African/Americans in North initially 90-day service, then 3 year service in North

young, inexperienced

average 25, 40% 21 or younger

most were farmers, 50% in North, 60% in South

no African/Americans in North initially

90-day service, then 3 year service in North

UNEVEN SIDES 1861 REBELS 112,000 END OF WAR- # WHO FOUGHT – REBELS 850,000 END OF WAR- # WHO FOUGHT – YANKEES 2.1 MILLION 1861 YANKEES 187,000

IN IT FOR THE LONG RUN BOTH SIDES ENVISIONED A QUICK VICTORY GENERAL SHERMAN “I think it is to be a long war—very long—much longer than any politician thinks.” He was right

BOTH SIDES ENVISIONED A QUICK VICTORY

GENERAL SHERMAN

“I think it is to be a long war—very long—much longer than any politician thinks.”

He was right

What do you know? Where was the Confederate capital? What were the Union and Confederate soldiers called? Where did most of the soldiers from both sides come from? What was the most important “border” state? What “newly formed state” entered the Union in 1861?

Where was the Confederate capital?

What were the Union and Confederate soldiers called?

Where did most of the soldiers from both sides come from?

What was the most important “border” state?

What “newly formed state” entered the Union in 1861?

Answers Richmond Yankees and Rebels Farms Maryland West Virginia

Richmond

Yankees and Rebels

Farms

Maryland

West Virginia

Section 2 Bull Run

Who, When, Where 1 st major battle- July 1861 Northern VA – Manassas Junction 30,000 inexperienced Union troops General Irvin McDowell Confederate troops-inexperienced General PGT Beauregard

1 st major battle- July 1861

Northern VA – Manassas Junction

30,000 inexperienced Union troops

General Irvin McDowell

Confederate troops-inexperienced

General PGT Beauregard

 

Jackson gets his name Yankees rallied first Rebels came back Inspired by Gen.Thomas Jackson (?) Held out like a “stonewall” Forward surge-strange yell Rebel yell Scared Yankees, turned and ran in panic

Yankees rallied first

Rebels came back

Inspired by Gen.Thomas Jackson (?)

Held out like a “stonewall”

Forward surge-strange yell

Rebel yell

Scared Yankees, turned and ran in panic

New General for the North Bull Run opened North’s eyes No easy defeat Lincoln requests 1 million soldiers/3 years Gen. George B. McClellan, new head of Union army – Army of the Potomac

Bull Run opened North’s eyes

No easy defeat

Lincoln requests 1 million soldiers/3 years

Gen. George B. McClellan, new head of Union army – Army of the Potomac

By land and By Sea Naval Blockades North wants to shut down supply lines/exports 3500 miles of coastline- daunting task South had “blockade runners” Ships sailing in/out of ports Forces North to build more ships Blockade reduces trade by 2/3rds Guns, ammo, coffee, shoes, nails, salt

Naval Blockades

North wants to shut down supply lines/exports

3500 miles of coastline- daunting task

South had “blockade runners”

Ships sailing in/out of ports

Forces North to build more ships

Blockade reduces trade by 2/3rds

Guns, ammo, coffee, shoes, nails, salt

Monitor VS Merrimack South fights the blockade Redesigns the Merrimack Abandoned wooden, Yankee ship from a confederate seize Covers it- ironclad Renamed the Virginia Yankee ships can’t penetrate it North pits its ironclad Monitor against it Even match- no longer a theat 1 st battle between 2 metal covered ships

South fights the blockade

Redesigns the Merrimack

Abandoned wooden, Yankee ship from a confederate seize

Covers it- ironclad

Renamed the Virginia

Yankee ships can’t penetrate it

North pits its ironclad Monitor against it

Even match- no longer a theat

1 st battle between 2 metal covered ships

 

War in the West Gaining control of MS River Split the confederacy

Gaining control of MS River

Split the confederacy

Ulysses S. Grant Captures Forts Henry and Donelson Opens path for Union To march into TN, MS, AL

Battle of Shiloh General Grant 40,000 Union Troops Corinth, MS-important RR junction 1 st Strike- South, before Yankee Reinforcements arrival Shiloh- Church near Union encampment South led by Generals *Johnston, Beauregard 2 – day “bloodiest” *20,000 casualties Union victory Control of Memphis follows

Capture of New Orleans April 26, 1862 Union Naval forces David Farragut Plan worked New Orleans cut off no longer carry crops to sea via river Grant’s Northern victories control of the river- splitting the confederacy

April 26, 1862

Union Naval forces

David Farragut

Plan worked

New Orleans cut off

no longer carry crops to sea via river

Grant’s Northern victories

control of the river- splitting the confederacy

Back in the East General McClellan took time to train inexperienced troops March, 1862- Army of the Potomac ready 1 st stop – Richmond, VA Peninsula Campaign McClellan to Army by ship Between York & James Rivers Spent time “evaluating” Rebel forces Agitated President Lincoln- “You Must Act”

General McClellan took time to train inexperienced troops

March, 1862- Army of the Potomac ready

1 st stop – Richmond, VA

Peninsula Campaign

McClellan to Army by ship

Between York & James Rivers

Spent time “evaluating” Rebel forces

Agitated President Lincoln- “You Must Act”

Seven Days Battles McClellan slowly reached Richmond-Capitol Confederates led by Robert E. Lee Calvary leader J.E.B. Stuart Led 1200 troops around Yankees- gather info Allowed Lee to counter Yankee advances Drove Yankee troops back to James River

McClellan slowly reached Richmond-Capitol

Confederates led by Robert E. Lee

Calvary leader J.E.B. Stuart

Led 1200 troops around Yankees- gather info

Allowed Lee to counter Yankee advances

Drove Yankee troops back to James River

Southern Strategy Working President Lincoln calls for 300,000 new volunteers Slow response compared to first call Strategy of “weariness” working

President Lincoln calls for 300,000 new volunteers

Slow response compared to first call

Strategy of “weariness” working

2 nd Battle of Bull Run Lincoln orders McClellan North to join force with Major General John Pope General Lee sends Stonewall Jackson to Manassas/Pope Attack supply base Walk 50 miles – 2 days- meet Lee’s troops Pope begins attack Confederate victory Confederates 20 miles from Washington DC

Lincoln orders McClellan North to join force with Major General John Pope

General Lee sends Stonewall Jackson to Manassas/Pope

Attack supply base

Walk 50 miles – 2 days- meet Lee’s troops

Pope begins attack

Confederate victory

Confederates 20 miles from Washington DC

Battle of Antietam President Davis orders Rebels To Maryland McClellan-80000 Follow them Lee gathers army near Sharpsburg, MA Antietam Creek September 17 Single Bloodiest Battle Lee withdraws Lee’s orders found 6000 dead, 17000 wounded McClellan Does not pursue Replaced by General Ambrose Burnside

A Call for Freedom Recap main goal-Preserve the Union secondary goal- stop expansion of slavery end slavery

Recap

main goal-Preserve the Union

secondary goal- stop expansion of slavery

end slavery

Reading between the lines Slavery = helping war effort in South 3.5 million Slaves = backbone of Southern economy Slaves raised crops = fed Confederates did heavy work= fortified Confederate in trenches camps Put a hole in slavery = Putting a hole in South

Slavery = helping war effort in South

3.5 million Slaves = backbone of Southern economy

Slaves raised crops = fed Confederates

did heavy work= fortified Confederate

in trenches camps

Put a hole in slavery = Putting a hole in South

Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln felt slavery allowed the South to fight 1862 – after Northern win at Antietam signed Emancipation Proclamation “…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

Lincoln felt slavery allowed the South to fight

1862 – after Northern win at Antietam

signed Emancipation Proclamation

“…all persons held as slaves within any state…in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

Its Effects Applied only to areas controlled by the Confederates didn’t really free anyone hoped it would cause slaves to runaway Northern African/Americans cheered 1864-65 13 th Amendment – abolished slavery- passed

Applied only to areas controlled by the Confederates

didn’t really free anyone

hoped it would cause slaves to runaway

Northern African/Americans cheered

1864-65 13 th Amendment – abolished slavery- passed

African/Americans and the War 3.5 million slaves in South Southerners afraid of uprising wouldn’t use them in military/weapons North Army would not take volunteers Navy did used as guides, spies underground railroad-Harriet Tubman

3.5 million slaves in South

Southerners afraid of uprising

wouldn’t use them in military/weapons

North

Army would not take volunteers

Navy did

used as guides, spies

underground railroad-Harriet Tubman

Law passed-Army must accept them 10% of army, 20% of navy separated from white troops received lower pay at first 54 th Massachusetts-huge battle – ½ lost lives or wounded – new respect

Law passed-Army must accept them

10% of army, 20% of navy

separated from white troops

received lower pay at first

54 th Massachusetts-huge battle – ½ lost lives or wounded – new respect

Section 4 Life During The Civil War

Life During The Civil War

Beginning- rush of volunteers lived in camps songs, stories, baseball, letters drills, marches, bad food Reality of War suffered great losses new guns-better accuracy trench warfare overwhelmed hospitals-soldiers lay dying

Beginning- rush of volunteers

lived in camps

songs, stories, baseball, letters

drills, marches, bad food

Reality of War

suffered great losses

new guns-better accuracy

trench warfare

overwhelmed hospitals-soldiers lay dying

Women & the War lots of new jobs teachers, office workers, sales clerks, factory workers, government workers, losses-husbands, sons, brothers, fathers wove blankets, rolled bandages, made ammo collected food, clothing, meds, $ spies- Rose O’Neal Greenhow, Belle Boyd, Loretta Velazquez

lots of new jobs

teachers, office workers, sales clerks, factory workers, government workers,

losses-husbands, sons, brothers, fathers

wove blankets, rolled bandages, made ammo

collected food, clothing, meds, $

spies- Rose O’Neal Greenhow, Belle Boyd, Loretta Velazquez

Served as nurses improper too delicate Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton organized nurses, latter former American Red Cross

Served as nurses

improper

too delicate

Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton organized nurses, latter former American Red Cross

Not Everyone on Board some in favor in North some opposed – Copperheads- “like poisonous snakes” suspected of aiding Confederacy President suspends habeas corpus – right to a hearing before being jailed keep people from aiding the enemy

some in favor in North

some opposed – Copperheads- “like poisonous snakes”

suspected of aiding Confederacy

President suspends habeas corpus – right to a hearing before being jailed

keep people from aiding the enemy

Wanted: men willing to die volunteers almost gone draft initiated in South 3 year term, 18yr – 35 yr could hire a sub slave holders with 20 or more did not have to serve “rich mans war, poor mans fight” bounties in North $100 to volunteers – didn’t work went to draft, 25-45 yr olds hire a sub or pay government $400

volunteers almost gone

draft initiated in South

3 year term, 18yr – 35 yr

could hire a sub

slave holders with 20 or more did not have to serve “rich mans war, poor mans fight”

bounties in North

$100 to volunteers – didn’t work

went to draft, 25-45 yr olds

hire a sub or pay government $400

War and the Economy Strained both sides North better equipped than South Both raised money by: borrowing money-$2 billion in war bonds-North, $700 million in South raising taxes printing paper money Greenbacks – North South printed 2X as much

Strained both sides

North better equipped than South

Both raised money by:

borrowing money-$2 billion in war bonds-North, $700 million in South

raising taxes

printing paper money

Greenbacks – North

South printed 2X as much

Up, Up, Up . . . Prices rose higher than wages = inflation more prosperous in North South suffered more more fighting occurred in South land ruined thousands homeless cities burned blockades – shortage of supplies

Prices rose higher than wages = inflation

more prosperous in North

South suffered more

more fighting occurred in South

land ruined

thousands homeless

cities burned

blockades – shortage of supplies

Do the math used for example only to show the marked difference Now Cost $9.10 Now Cost .18 Cost of Bread .10 9000% Inflation South Cost of Bread .10 80% Inflation North

The Way to Victory 1862-1863 – looked in favor of South Battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville North and General Burnside-larger army South was entrenched-set up in strong positions Burnside resigns post- Joseph Hooker Confederate troops fire upon Stonewall Jackson by mistake-amputate arm-dies 1 wk

1862-1863 – looked in favor of South

Battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville

North and General Burnside-larger army

South was entrenched-set up in strong positions

Burnside resigns post- Joseph Hooker

Confederate troops fire upon Stonewall Jackson by mistake-amputate arm-dies 1 wk

Battle of Gettysburg Lee moves North – 75000 troops Lincoln replaces Hooker with George Meade for not going after Confederates aggressively North/South met by accident in Gettysburg 3 day battle Confederates were there raiding town for shoes

Lee moves North – 75000 troops

Lincoln replaces Hooker with George Meade for not going after Confederates aggressively

North/South met by accident in Gettysburg

3 day battle

Confederates were there raiding town for shoes

The Battle North is outnumbered finally have to retreat to Cemetery Ridge (South of Gettysburg) Pickett’s Charge 3 rd day Lee’s boldness-brings him down Lee’s plan-create a panic and destroy the Union army led 13000 troops across an open field picked off by Union soldiers Lee took full blame-retreated to VA Meade did not chase him, Lincoln disappointed

North is outnumbered

finally have to retreat to Cemetery Ridge (South of Gettysburg)

Pickett’s Charge

3 rd day

Lee’s boldness-brings him down

Lee’s plan-create a panic and destroy the Union army

led 13000 troops across an open field

picked off by Union soldiers

Lee took full blame-retreated to VA

Meade did not chase him, Lincoln disappointed

Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 Dedicating a cemetery at Gettysburg 2-minute speech “It is for us the living…to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that these dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom-and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.” helped re-focus ideals

November 19, 1863

Dedicating a cemetery at Gettysburg

2-minute speech

“It is for us the living…to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that these dead shall not have died in vain-that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom-and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”

helped re-focus ideals

General Sherman General Grant Ulysses S. Grant early career had a drinking problem fierce fighter – impressed Lincoln named commander of the Union armies his plan – attack all fronts at once Army of Potomac – crush Lee in VA Sherman & western army – take Atlanta

Ulysses S. Grant

early career had a drinking problem

fierce fighter – impressed Lincoln

named commander of the Union armies

his plan – attack all fronts at once

Army of Potomac – crush Lee in VA

Sherman & western army – take Atlanta

The Virginia Battles 3 battles near Richmond 115,000 Northern troops 65,000 Lee’s Southern troops Battles of the Wilderness Spotsylvania Courthouse Cold Harbor many casualties – 60000 (N)

3 battles near Richmond

115,000 Northern troops

65,000 Lee’s Southern troops

Battles of the Wilderness

Spotsylvania Courthouse

Cold Harbor

many casualties – 60000 (N)

Re-Election Time 1864- people growing tired of war Democrats want to make peace with South Lincoln was determined to restore Union needed morale booster David Farragut took Mobile Bay Sherman took Atlanta Lincoln won re-election

1864- people growing tired of war

Democrats want to make peace with South

Lincoln was determined to restore Union

needed morale booster

David Farragut took Mobile Bay

Sherman took Atlanta

Lincoln won re-election

General Sherman Marches to Savannah Total War cut off from Northern supply lines lives off land, devastating land takes Savannah

Marches to Savannah

Total War

cut off from Northern supply lines

lives off land, devastating land

takes Savannah

Richmond Falls After long siege, Petersburg and Richmond fall to Union. South set fire to it to keep it from falling into their hands

After long siege, Petersburg and Richmond fall to Union.

South set fire to it to keep it from falling into their hands

War nears and end Lee tries to meet up with Sherman blocked by Union advances realizes it is hopeless surrender at Appomattox Courthouse Grant generous in his terms keep horses- get home, put in a crop 3 days rations few days later Sherman, Davis captured

Lee tries to meet up with Sherman

blocked by Union advances

realizes it is hopeless

surrender at Appomattox Courthouse

Grant generous in his terms

keep horses- get home, put in a crop

3 days rations

few days later Sherman, Davis captured

May 10, 1865 Civil War Is Over

May 10, 1865

Civil War Is Over

credits web.syr.edu/~rlriefle/Civil%20War%20Battle.jpg http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/va61.html http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/book_images/high/v2_c7_s02_ss01_02.jpg http://www.americancivilwar.com/statepic/tennessee.html http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/mississippi.html

web.syr.edu/~rlriefle/Civil%20War%20Battle.jpg

http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/va61.html

http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/book_images/high/v2_c7_s02_ss01_02.jpg

http://www.americancivilwar.com/statepic/tennessee.html

http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/mississippi.html

 

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