The City in Space and Time Part II

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Information about The City in Space and Time Part II
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Published on November 1, 2007

Author: Christo

Source: authorstream.com

The capitalist city:  The capitalist city Underlying changes occurring during the Renaissance and baroque periods Socioeconomic transformation reshaped Western Europe Drastic changes in class structure, economic systems, political allegiances, cultural patterns, and human geographies Changes occurred from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth century Introduction of commercialized and specialized agriculture Enclosure of individual land units The capitalist city:  The capitalist city Perhaps of greatest significance is how capitalist mind set introduced notion of urban land as a source of income Proximity to city, center and most pedestrian traffic added economic value to land Areas close to river or harbor or along major thoroughfares in and out of city also increased in land value Fundamental change in value led to gradual disintegration of medieval urban pattern The capitalist city:  The capitalist city The city center consisted of buildings devoted to business enterprises A downtown defined by economic activity emerged With industrialization would eventually expands and subdivide into specialized districts A new upper class emerged Status based on accumulation of economic wealth Made money buying and selling urban land Used urban land as a basis for expressing their wealth Sought newer land on edge of city for their residential enclaves The capitalist city:  The capitalist city One of finest wealthy class enclaves was London’s Covent Garden Piazza Designed by Inigo Jones in the early 1630s Square was lined with townhouses edged in arcades Presence of nobility lent an aristocratic aura to the area Economic success of this enclave led to many imitations These upper-class squares were transplanted to America throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Up to the Industrial Revolution, urbanization rates in Western countries were low In 1600, urban dwellers made up only 2 percent in Germany, France, and England At the same time 13 percent of the Netherlands and Italy were urban Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city As millions of people migrated to cities urbanization rates skyrocketed in the last 200 years By 1800 England was 20 percent urban, and became the first urban society around 1870 By the 1890 census 60 percent of England’s people lived in cities Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city As millions of people migrated to cities urbanization rates skyrocketed in the last 200 years By 1800 England was 20 percent urban, and became the first urban society around 1870 By the 1890 census 60 percent of England’s people lived in cities The United States was 3 percent urban in 1800 In 1900 it was 40 percent In 1920 it became an urban country with 51 percent Today, about 75 percent of the population lives in towns and cities Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Class Laissez-faire industrialism did little for the working classes There was distribution of such utilities as gas and water No living improvements beyond that of the seventeenth century were made In slum dwelling, direct sunlight was seldom available Open spaces were nonexistent Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Class In Liverpool, England, one-sixth of the people lived in “underground cellars” In Manchester, England, only one toilet for every 212 people was available Running water was usually available only on the ground floor Disease was pervasive, and mortality rates ran high In 1893 life expectancy of a male worker was 28 years, his country cousin might live until age 52 In 1880, the death rate in New York City was 26 per thousand, in rural areas it was half that Infant mortality rate rose from 189 in 1850 to 240 in 1870 Legislation correcting such ills came in the latter part of the century Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Class American industrial cities relied on a diverse labor force Many in the labor force came from Europe After the Civil War, many former slaves migrated north to find jobs In the South, former slaves moved into the industrializing cities In both South and North, African-Americans lived in segregated neighborhoods Forced by discrimination and often by law to keep their distance from white neighborhoods For the most part services to these neighborhoods were minimal Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Race Some results of a recent study of black Richmond, Virginia, after the Civil War Residents used public rituals in streets and buildings to carve their own civic representations, as well as challenge dominant white order Black militias marched through streets on holidays certified by the black community as their own political calendar Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Race Some results of a recent study of black Richmond, Virginia, after the Civil War January 1, George Washington’s birthday, April 3 emancipation day, and July 4 Whites did not take kindly to this as they watched blacks occupy Capital Square, formerly reserved for white citizens Churches, schools, and beauty shops served as community centers and public statements of an African-American identity Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Gender Industrialization led to creation of separate spheres Feminine sphere centered on the home and domestic duties Male spheres dominated the public spaces and duties Also created the need for mass consumption to keep factories running profitably With men as producers, the duties of consumption fell to the women Class, race, and gender in the industrial city :  Class, race, and gender in the industrial city Gender Location logic of the urban land market meant retailers were located in the central parts of the city Established what some have referred to as a feminized downtown Retailers created spaces considered appropriately “feminine” Interior spaces were well-arranged and orderly Exterior architectural design was heavily ornamented, and streets were paved and well-lit Today, many of these places have been replaced by shopping malls Megalopolis:  Megalopolis Movement away from the central city quickened in the last decades of the nineteenth century Since World War II, new forms of transportation and communication have led to the decentralization of many urban functions One metropolitan area blends into another, until supercities are created that stretch for hundreds of miles Supercity of “Boswash” on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States that stretches from Boston to Washington, D.C. Geographer Jean Gottmann coined the term megalopolis to describe it The term is now used worldwide to describe giant metropolitan regions Megalopolis:  Megalopolis Characteristics of Megalopolis High population density covering hundreds of square miles Concentrations of numerous older cities Transportation links — freeways, railroads, air routes, and rapid transit Very high proportion of the nation’s wealth, commerce, and political power Megalopolis:  Megalopolis Common problems found in megalopolis Congestion and overcrowding High land prices Financial insolvency and deteriorating inner cores Poor and disenfranchised population in contrast to the affluent in the suburbs Air and water pollution Political fragmentation caused by the many smaller towns and counties Megalopolis:  Megalopolis Common problems found in megalopolis Congestion and overcrowding High land prices Financial insolvency and deteriorating inner cores Poor and disenfranchised population in contrast to the affluent in the suburbs Air and water pollution Political fragmentation caused by the many smaller towns and counties Problems are difficult to solve because they are regionwide even crossing state borders Edge cities:  Edge cities Many so-called sleeping suburbs of the post-World War II era have been transformed into urban centers with their own retail, financial, and entertainment districts Most Americans now live, work, play, worship, and study in this type of settlement Suburbs do not offer all the services or work places found in the edge city The commuter who used to live in a suburb and work in the inner city has been replaced by the commuter who lives and works in an edge city Edge cities:  Edge cities Many scholars are wary of calling these new nodes cities because they do not resemble our nineteenth century version of a city Edge cities contain all the functions of old downtowns, but are spread out and less dense Interstate highways and truck transportation made it possible for industries to locate outside the downtown Computer and communication technologies have allowed companies to move their headquarters away from downtowns Edge cities:  Edge cities Edge cities present problems for today’s planners Traffic congestion and planning for mass transit Environmental concerns as spreading urban areas consume more land Is it possible to provide mass transit in a system with no center? The urban landscapes of the developing world:  The urban landscapes of the developing world Most of the world’s population lives in the developing world Here we see the greatest potential for dramatic change in urban patterns High natural population growth Enormous rates of migration from rural to urban The urban landscapes of the developing world:  The urban landscapes of the developing world Recent city growth has been staggering In 1950 they had only 4 of the 15 largest cities in the world Latest census shows they have approximately half of the largest 20 cities With this growth has come serious economic, political, and social problems It is difficult to generalize about cities of the developing world The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Developed without contact with Western colonial influences Many evolved long before there were cities in northern Europe Precolonial indigenous cities in the New World are restricted to Mexico, Central America, and the Andean highlands Cities in Africa Cities associated with the Yoruba civilization in present-day Nigeria Along the Nile River Valley Band of Islamic empires in the north, and small cities in eastern highlands The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Asia has the largest number of precolonial indigenous cities — from the Middle East, across present-day Pakistan and India, to China and Japan Basic form of many cities is derived from the cosmomagical Many cities in Mexico, Central America, China, Japan, Egypt, and India were laid out according to religious principles Indigenous City: Jerusalem, Israel:  Indigenous City: Jerusalem, Israel Indigenous City: Jerusalem, Israel:  Indigenous City: Jerusalem, Israel Old, walled Jerusalem had Arab, Armenian, Christian, and Greek Quarters. In this Arab Quarter, passageways are narrow with stepped slopes. In earlier times streets could be gated shut. Few openings and high windows ensure privacy in this Muslim area. Note the pipes and wires of the modern era superimposed on the ancient walls. The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Beijing kept its basic cosmomagical landscape until the early twentieth century Deviations from the strict pattern arose to accommodate everyday functions of business and culture Small alleyways and houses were built in irregular patterns not in accord with sacred principles Until the abdication of the last emperor in 1912, the city was generally maintained as the celestial capital In 1959, the Socialist government chose to build its symbolic center, Tiananmen Square, on the site of the sacred axis mundi of Imperial Beijing The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world In the city center is the primary mosque, representing the religious core Near the mosque is the bazaar, or market place Homes of the elite, government or municipal buildings surround the core Moving from the core, areas of decreasing wealth and social status are found The city is further divided in occupational districts much like that of the medieval city — decreasing in prestige nearer the city edge The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world Ethnic groups dominate certain areas or formalized “quarters” Cities commonly reserved one quarter for Jews, another for Christians Have a very irregular Street plan, with narrow, winding streets Uneven building pattern, and few open spaces Residences are usually humble, in keeping with religious dictates The indigenous city :  The indigenous city Indigenous cities of the Islamic world Housing arrangements often structured around segregation of the sexes Dictated by religion Two sectors organized around separate courtyards Female half more private, therefore at rear of house More public male half near entrance When men are gone, whole house become women’s domain The colonial city:  The colonial city Administrative, commercial, and often military outpost for an external power Many established to economically or militarily subdue local people When built near indigenous cities, Europeans would either weld their city onto the existing settlement or, in a few extreme cases, build a whole new city Seen as guardians of the home Considered more moral and spiritual than men Imperative women should move to colonies to civilize and bring order to “backward” lands In South Africa, for example, women could fill their patriotic and feminine duties Bring visual evidence of women enlightening those who needed it Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil:  Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil:  Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil Salvador, established by the Portuguese in 1549 to deter French and Dutch encroachment, was Brazil’s capital until 1763. The city grew as a center of sugar production, trade, and religion. Eventually, the original core, with its narrow, winding streets and slave market on the acropolis became linked with port functions on the shore below. Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil:  Colonial City: Salvador, Brazil European architectural styles here date from the 17th through the 20th century. At the left of the Ciudad Alta is the Palacio Rio Branco, now housing tourism offices. At the right of the Ciudad Baixa is one of Salvador’s dozens of Roman Catholic churches. The colonial city:  The colonial city Overseas emigration would provide an alternative source of scarce work opportunities for women Between 1862 and 1914, more than 20,000 women emigrated to British colonies Presence of women in the colonies was fraught with difficulties It was thought women needed protection from physical danger Dangers were considered more threatening than those in London because they were “foreign” Specific spaces were set up to keep them from direct contact with foreign danger Lived in the newly built colonial cities Hill stations — fairly small residential compounds in the hills of India The colonial city:  The colonial city Separating women from native peoples did not work They could not civilize from a distance Indian servants often lived within or close to British Indian soldiers were stationed nearby Women performed missionary and benevolent work in the Indian city Indian servants, cooks, and gardeners were present in hill stations Housing designed in an open fashion to let in cool breezes; also allowed native people to view private parts of the house The colonial city:  The colonial city Separating women from native peoples did not work They could not civilize from a distance Indian servants often lived within or close to British Indian soldiers were stationed nearby Women performed missionary and benevolent work in the Indian city Indian servants, cooks, and gardeners were present in hill stations Housing designed in an open fashion to let in cool breezes; also allowed native people to view private parts of the house The emerging city :  The emerging city With the end of colonialism and movement toward political and economic independence, developing countries entered a period of rapid change Cities have often been a focal point of this change Millions have migrated to cities in search of a better life Economic activities have often changed their orientation from external to local markets Cities have been centers of political and social unrest The emerging city :  The emerging city Because the emerging city model is a fluid one, results cannot be predicted accurately Some think cities in developing countries will undergo the same changes found in industrializing cities of the nineteenth century The emerging city :  The emerging city William Hance has written on the differences between today's emerging cities and those of the past Often 25 percent of the urban labor force is without work In the 1800s, people could migrate to the New World to find land and jobs Emerging cities have weaker ties with their hinterlands than did European cities Local rural areas excluded from development that could offer employment It will be difficult to develop rural employment as long as economic activities continue to cluster around cities Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India:  Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India:  Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India This woman is one of Bombay’s homeless millions. About 75% of Bombay’s almost 13 million residents live in one-room tenements, 15% in squatter shacks, and 2% in the streets. Family abandonment for a variety of reasons such as failure to pay a Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India:  Emerging City Homeless: Bombay, India a promised dowry, death of a husband, or divorce, forces many women into a life of prostitution or begging to survive. Most of Bombay’s homeless are migrants from the countryside and many are low caste and scheduled caste (untouchable). The emerging city :  The emerging city Alejandro Portes argues large internal migration from rural to city can be traced back to colonial times In colonial Latin America, the city was essentially home to Spanish elite When preconquest farm patterns were disrupted, peasants came to the city These migrants usually lived on the margins of the city They were completely disenfranchised, because only landowners had the right to hold office Elite attitude was a mixture of tolerance and indifference This pattern continues today in emerging cities The emerging city :  The emerging city High numbers of migrants and widespread unemployment lead to pressure for low-rent housing Most common folk solution is construction of illegal housing, or squatter settlements In Linia, Peru, the barriadas house fully a quarter of the urban population In Caracas, Venezuela, it is about 35 percent Similar figures are found in emerging cities in Africa and Asia The emerging city :  The emerging city The evolution of squatter settlements Usually begin as collections of crude shacks constructed from scrap materials Gradually become more elaborate and permanent Paths and walkways link houses, vegetable gardens spring up Often water and electricity are boot-legged in so a common tap or outlet serves a number of houses Later economic activities such as handicrafts or small-scale artisan activities develop The emerging city :  The emerging city Various treatment of squatter settlements by city governments Some bulldoze them down periodically to discourage migration to the city Some turn their backs, viewing them as a satisfactory solution to the problem of low-cost urban housing Squatter settlements are an important part of the emerging city landscape Occupy vacant land on the outskirts and in the city center Downtown parks often covered by squatters’ houses Most often spread over formerly unwanted land, such as steep slopes and river banks Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia:  Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia:  Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia Emerging cities are characterized by squatter settlements. Developed as Batavia by the Dutch at Kota, a swampy coastal area, Jakarta is now a rapidly growing capital city of more than 8 million. These stilt-houses are in the heart of old Batavia along the fetid, tidal Kali Besar (Big Canal) constructed in the nineteenth century. Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia:  Emerging City Squatter Settlement: Jakarta, Indonesia Jakarta is perceived by poor, rural people as a wealthy city, full of opportunities to get rich. Almost half of the city’s population was born elsewhere and millions reside in shanties like these. Along with other emerging cities, rural to urban migration accounts for a significant portion of urban growth. The emerging city :  The emerging city Outskirts of cities is often where new economic activities are located Landscape of factories and warehouses is common When money is available, large high-rise apartments are built for workers Middle-class suburbs may also grow up because of jobs and “push” forces driving affluent out of the city center Traffic noise, air pollution, and congestion make the central city less desirable than before The emerging city :  The emerging city Large central-city dwellings are often subdivided into smaller apartments for lower-income families Where one middle-class family lived, six or seven families may be housed Whether this structural change will lead to the ghetto pattern of North American cities remains to be seen The emerging city :  The emerging city It is important to remember emerging cities may not follow the pattern of industrial cities of the 1800s Emerging cities will not undergo the same transportation system evolution They may evolve directly from foot and cart traffic to autos and trucks A totally unique urban landscape may emerge Culture regions:  Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban Landscapes The Ecology of Urban Location Cultural Integration in Urban Geography Site and situation:  Site and situation Site — refers to local setting of a city, its longitude and latitude coordinates Situation — the regional setting Example of San Francisco Originally site of Mexican settlement on a shallow cove or inland shore of a peninsula Importance of its situation was that it drew on water traffic coming across the bay from other settlements Characteristics of the site changed when the small cove was filled to create flatland for warehouses and extending wharves into deeper bay waters Site and situation:  Site and situation Example of San Francisco Filled in cove is now heart of the central business district The situation has changed as patterns of trade and transportation technology have evolved The gold rush changed the importance of its geographical situation by creating a demand for supplies for settlements, and mines and miners in the gold country In the last decade, Oakland improved its situation to accommodate containerized cargo ships by filling in large tracts of shallow baylands San Francisco has since declined as a port city losing situation advantage Depending on the function of a city, certain attributes of the physical environment have been important in the decision of where to locate cities Defensive sites :  Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for cities River-meander site-city located inside a loop where stream turns back on itself Leaves only a narrow neck of land unprotected by water Examples of Bern, Switzerland, and New Orleans Defensive Site: Toledo Spain:  Defensive Site: Toledo Spain Defensive Site: Toledo Spain:  Defensive Site: Toledo Spain Acropolis and meander on the Tagus River made this a perfect defensive site for a fortified Roman settlement called Toletum. It was a capital for the Visigoths and the Moors prior to becoming a Spanish one. The skyline is dominated by the 13th century Alcazar (fort), destroyed and rebuilt many times, and the Gothic cathedral begun in 1227. Defensive Site: Toledo Spain:  Defensive Site: Toledo Spain In 1227 Toledo was the most important Jewish town in Spain and a major cultural and intellectual center. While the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, the city retains their architectural heritage along with that of the Islamic Moors, Christians and other occupants. Defensive sites :  Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for cities More advantageous was the river-island site Often combined a natural moat made when a stream was split in two Montreal is situated on a large island surrounded by the St. Lawrence River and other water channels Islands lying off seashores or in lakes Mexico City began as an Indian settlement on a lake island Venice a classic example of a city built on an offshore island New York City began as a Dutch trading outpost on Manhattan Island Defensive sites :  Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for cities Peninsular sites were almost as advantageous as island sites Offered natural water defenses on all but one side Boston founded on a peninsula had a wooden palisade wall across the neck of the peninsula Defensive sites :  Defensive sites A location where a city can be easily defended There are many defensive sites for cities Danger of sea attack prompted sheltered-harbor urban sites High points were used where a city developed around a fortification, and then spilled out over the surrounding lowland Trade-route sites :  Trade-route sites Defense was not always a primary consideration Most common types of trade-route sites —bridge-point and river-ford sites Where streams were narrow and shallow with firm banks Occasionally cities even reflect these sites in their names Confluence sites are common—point where two navigable streams flow together Trade-route sites :  Trade-route sites Head-of-navigation sites — where water routes begin — are even more common Goods must be transshipped at such points Examples Minneapolis-St. Paul, at the falls of the Mississippi River Louisville, Kentucky, is at the rapids of the Ohio River Portage sites are very similar — goods are portaged from one river to another Many nonenvironmental factors can influence the choice of a site Useful to distinguish between the specific urban site and the general location, or spatial distribution Culture regions:  Culture regions Urban Culture Region Origin and Diffusion of the City Evolution of Urban Landscapes The Ecology of Urban Location Cultural Integration in Urban Geography Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Series of models designed to explain spatial distribution of tertiary urban centers Terms Threshold — size of population required to make provision of the service economically feasible Range -- average maximum distance people will travel to purchase a good or service Hinterlands — large tributary trade areas associated with central places that offer many services Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and range Larger number of people required to support a hospital, university, or department store than a gasoline station, post office, or grocery store People are willing to travel farther to consult a heart specialist, record a land title, or purchase a car than to buy a loaf of bread or mail a letter Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Because range of central goods and services varies, tertiary centers are arranged in an orderly hierarchy At the top are regional metropolises that offer all services associated with central places, and that have large hinterlands At the bottom are small market villages and roadside hamlets that may contain nothing more than a post office, service station, or cafe Between the two extremes are central places of various degrees of importance Each high-ranked central place offers all goods and services of next lower ranked place, plus at least one or two more Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory One regional metropolis may contain thousands of smaller central places in its hinterland Christaller tried to measure the influence of three forces in determining spacing and distribution of tertiary centers Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory He created models — he first measured influence of market and range of goods on the spacing of cities To simplify model he made assumptions Terrain, soils, and other environmental factors were uniform Transportation was universally available All regions were supplied with goods and services from the minimum number of central places The shape of the model was circular, with the city at the center When central places of the same rank were nearby, the circle became a hexagon Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory In his second model he no longer assumed transportation was universally and equally available in the hinterland Assumed as many demands for transport as possible would be met with minimum expenditure for construction and maintenance of transportation facilities any high-ranking places would then be on straight-line routes between important central places The transportation factor causes a rather different pattern of central places Direct routes between adjacent regional metropolises do not pass through central places of the next lowest rank Resulted in second-rank place to be “pulled” from the points of the hexagonal market area to midpoints on the straight-line routes Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory He thought market factors would be the greater force in rural countries He also thought transportation would be stronger in densely settled industrialized countries with more central places and more demand for long-distance transportation Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory His third model measured the effect of political borders on the distribution of central places Political boundaries within an independent country would tend to follow hexagonal market-area limits of each political central place Borders tend to separate people and retard movement of goods and services Central places in border regions lose rank and size because market areas are politically cut in two Important central places are pushed away from borders, which distorts the hexagonal pattern Walter Christaller’s central-place theory :  Walter Christaller’s central-place theory Many other factors affect the spatial distribution of central places Assumptions must be made to construct a theoretical model that integrates different components of culture

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