The Chemistry of Life

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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Woofer

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Section 2–2 Objective :  Objective This section describes the makeup of water molecules. It also explains what acidic solutions and basic solutions are. The Water Molecule :  The Water Molecule Is the following sentence true or false? A water molecule is neutral. TRUE 2. What results from the oxygen atom being at one end of a water molecule and the hydrogen atoms being at the other end?:  2. What results from the oxygen atom being at one end of a water molecule and the hydrogen atoms being at the other end? The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge. 3. Why is a water molecule polar? :  3. Why is a water molecule polar? There is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. 4. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about hydrogen bonds.:  4. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about hydrogen bonds. a. A hydrogen bond is stronger than an ionic bond. b. The attraction between the hydrogen atom on one water molecule and the oxygen atom on another water molecule is an example. c. A hydrogen bond is stronger than a covalent bond. d. They are the strongest bonds that form between molecules. Form of Attraction:  Form of Attraction FORMS OF ATTRACTION Definition Attraction between molecules of the same substance Attraction between molecules of different substances 6. Why is water extremely cohesive?:  6. Why is water extremely cohesive? It is very cohesive because of hydrogen bonding. 7. The rise of water in a narrow tube against the force of gravity is called.:  7. The rise of water in a narrow tube against the force of gravity is called. 8. How does capillary action affect plants?:  8. How does capillary action affect plants? Capillary action is one of the forces that draws water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves. 9. What is a mixture?:  9. What is a mixture? A mixture is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined. 10. A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly mixed is called a(an) .:  10. A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly mixed is called a(an) . 11. The greatest solvent in the world :  11. The greatest solvent in the world 12. What is a suspension?:  12. What is a suspension? A suspension is a mixture of water and non-dissolved substances that are so small they do not settle out. SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTIONS :  SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTIONS Chemistry of Life:  Chemistry of Life Acids, Bases, and pH:  Acids, Bases, and pH Two water molecules can react to form .:  Two water molecules can react to form . Why is water neutral despite the production of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions?:  Why is water neutral despite the production of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions? It is neutral because the number of positive hydrogen ions produced is equal to the number of negative hydroxide ions produced. What does the pH scale indicate? :  What does the pH scale indicate? It indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution. Which direction is increasingly acidic and which is increasingly basic. :  Which direction is increasingly acidic and which is increasingly basic. How many more H+ ions does a solution with a pH of 4 have than a solution with a pH of 5:  How many more H+ ions does a solution with a pH of 4 have than a solution with a pH of 5 Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about acids.:  Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about acids. Acidic solutions have pH values below 7. b. An acid is any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. c. Strong acids have pH values ranging from 11 to 14. d. Acidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water. 20. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about bases.:  20. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about bases. Alkaline solutions have pH values below 7. A base is a compound that produces OH– ions in solution. Strong bases have pH values ranging from 11 to 14. Basic solutions contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water. 21. What are buffers?:  21. What are buffers? Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. 10 times

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