The Cell Factory

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Information about The Cell Factory

Published on January 30, 2008

Author: itamarita1984

Source: slideshare.net

Description

the cell factory notes (organelles and what not)

Eukaryotic cell structure

The Cell factory Organelles Highly specialized structures within the cell Little organs 2 major divisions of the eukaryotic cell Nucleus The “brain” DNA Cytoplasm Portion outside the nucleus but inside the cell membrane

Organelles

Highly specialized structures within the cell

Little organs

2 major divisions of the eukaryotic cell

Nucleus

The “brain”

DNA

Cytoplasm

Portion outside the nucleus but inside the cell membrane

2 types of Eukaryotic cells Plant cells Animal cells What are the differences? (write them down!!!)

Plant cells

Animal cells

What are the differences? (write them down!!!)

Nucleus Brain of the cell Office of the factory Contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and with it the coded instructions for making PROTEINS and other important molecules

Brain of the cell

Office of the factory

Contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and with it the coded instructions for making PROTEINS and other important molecules

Nuclear envelope Surrounds nucleus Made of 2 membranes Dotted with thousands of nuclear pores How do we get messages, instructions and blueprints out of the office? Allow material to move in and out of nucleus by using “little runners” such as proteins, RNA and other molecules

Surrounds nucleus

Made of 2 membranes

Dotted with thousands of nuclear pores

How do we get messages, instructions and blueprints out of the office?

Allow material to move in and out of nucleus by using “little runners” such as proteins, RNA and other molecules

Inside the nucleus we see… Contain a granular material called… CHROMATIN Chromatin= DNA + protein Usually spread out in nucleus During cell division, chromatin clumps together or condenses…we call this…. CHROMOSOMES

Contain a granular material called…

CHROMATIN

Chromatin= DNA + protein

Usually spread out in nucleus

During cell division, chromatin clumps together or condenses…we call this….

CHROMOSOMES

Chromosomes Threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next

Threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next

Nucleolus Small dense region inside the nucleus Function: assembly of ribosomes begin…

Small dense region inside the nucleus

Function: assembly of ribosomes begin…

 

Ribosomes Most important function of cell is… Making proteins Proteins regulate a zillion different things Like… Proteins are assembled ON Ribosomes Ribosomes are small particles of protein & RNA (what’s RNA?) They follow instructions from the nucleus to make proteins…follow the orders from the “head haunchos” in the main office Scattered throughout the cell They are like little factories If a cell’s main function is making proteins, how many ribosomes are you going to have?

Most important function of cell is…

Making proteins

Proteins regulate a zillion different things

Like…

Proteins are assembled ON Ribosomes

Ribosomes are small particles of protein & RNA (what’s RNA?)

They follow instructions from the nucleus to make proteins…follow the orders from the “head haunchos” in the main office

Scattered throughout the cell

They are like little factories

If a cell’s main function is making proteins, how many ribosomes are you going to have?

 

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Internal membrane system The site where the lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell 2 types Smooth ER Rough ER

Internal membrane system

The site where the lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell

2 types

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Rough ER Involved in protein making (synthesis) So what are we going to see on it? ribosomes Once a protein is made, it leaves the ribosome and goes into the Rough ER The rough ER then modifies the protein All proteins that are exported by the cell are made on the RER Membrane proteins are made on the RER too

Involved in protein making (synthesis)

So what are we going to see on it?

ribosomes

Once a protein is made, it leaves the ribosome and goes into the Rough ER

The rough ER then modifies the protein

All proteins that are exported by the cell are made on the RER

Membrane proteins are made on the RER too

 

Smooth ER NO ribosomes on it Looks smooth Contains collections of ENZYMES that have specialized tasks What do enzymes do? Tasks include: Synthesis of membrane lipids Detoxification of drugs Liver cells Big in detox therefore….what do u think liver cells have a lot of?

NO ribosomes on it

Looks smooth

Contains collections of ENZYMES that have specialized tasks

What do enzymes do?

Tasks include:

Synthesis of membrane lipids

Detoxification of drugs

Liver cells

Big in detox therefore….what do u think liver cells have a lot of?

 

Golgi Apparatus Discovered by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi Once proteins are done being “modified” in the RER, they move onto the Golgi apparatus Looks like a stack of pancakes Function: modify , sort , and package proteins and other materials from the ER for STORAGE or SECRETION outside the cell Proteins are “shipped” to final destination They are the CUSTOMIZATION SHOP Finishing touches on proteins before they leave factory

Discovered by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi

Once proteins are done being “modified” in the RER, they move onto the Golgi apparatus

Looks like a stack of pancakes

Function: modify , sort , and package proteins and other materials from the ER for STORAGE or SECRETION outside the cell

Proteins are “shipped” to final destination

They are the CUSTOMIZATION SHOP

Finishing touches on proteins before they leave factory

 

 

Lysosomes (Lie-so-soh-mz) The factory’s clean-up crew It’s an Organelle filled with enzymes Function: Digestion (break down) of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be used by the cell Also digest organelles that have outlived their usefulness

(Lie-so-soh-mz)

The factory’s clean-up crew

It’s an Organelle filled with enzymes

Function: Digestion (break down) of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be used by the cell

Also digest organelles that have outlived their usefulness

What do you think happens if lysosomes malfunction? A bunch of “junk” build up in the cell Is this good? Many human diseases result from malfunction of lysosome Tay-Sachs disease

A bunch of “junk” build up in the cell

Is this good?

Many human diseases result from malfunction of lysosome

Tay-Sachs disease

Vacuoles The factory’s storage place Only in certain cells Sac-like organelles Function: stores material such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates Plant cells have a single, large central vacuole Pressure of central vacuole allows plants to support heavy structures

The factory’s storage place

Only in certain cells

Sac-like organelles

Function: stores material such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

Plant cells have a single, large central vacuole

Pressure of central vacuole allows plants to support heavy structures

 

Single-celled organisms and some animals also have vacuoles… Paramecium Contractile vacuole Contracts rhythmically to pump excess water out…this maintains what? homeostasis

Paramecium

Contractile vacuole

Contracts rhythmically to pump excess water out…this maintains what?

homeostasis

What is the one thing all living things need to eat, breath, reproduce, move and much more? ENERGY!!!!

Two ways cells get energy… From food molecules From the sun

From food molecules

From the sun

Mithochondria Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convienent for the cell to use Has 2 membranes Inner membrane Outer membrane Nearly all come from the ovum You get your mitochondria from your mom!

Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convienent for the cell to use

Has 2 membranes

Inner membrane

Outer membrane

Nearly all come from the ovum

You get your mitochondria from your mom!

 

 

Chloroplasts Capture energy from the sunlight and convert it into chemical energy…what is this process called? PHOTOSYNTHESIS Like solar power for plants 2 membranes Inside: large stacks of other membranes that contain chlorphyll

Capture energy from the sunlight and convert it into chemical energy…what is this process called?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Like solar power for plants

2 membranes

Inside: large stacks of other membranes that contain chlorphyll

 

 

Organelle DNA Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic info In form of small DNA molecules

Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic info

In form of small DNA molecules

Lynn Margulis American biologist Chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendents of prokaryotes

American biologist

Chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendents of prokaryotes

She said… Ancient Prokaryotes from wayyyyy back in the day had a symbiotic relationship with the ancient eukaryotes What is symbiotic? (review ecology!!!) The prokaryotes lived inside the eukaryotes There were prokaryotes that used oxygen to make energy (ATP) Mitochondria There were prokaryotes that used photosynthesis to get energy Chloroplasts

Ancient Prokaryotes from wayyyyy back in the day had a symbiotic relationship with the ancient eukaryotes

What is symbiotic? (review ecology!!!)

The prokaryotes lived inside the eukaryotes

There were prokaryotes that used oxygen to make energy (ATP)

Mitochondria

There were prokaryotes that used photosynthesis to get energy

Chloroplasts

Endosymbiotic Theory Idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes

Idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes

Cytoskeleton Supporting structure and transportation system Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape and to help the cell move 2 main type of filaments Microtubules Microfilaments

Supporting structure and

transportation system

Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape and to help the cell move

2 main type of filaments

Microtubules

Microfilaments

Microfilaments Threadlike structures Made of protein called ACTIN Extensive networks Tough, flexible framework Help cells move Assembly and disassembly helps cells move (like amoebas)

Threadlike structures

Made of protein called ACTIN

Extensive networks

Tough, flexible framework

Help cells move

Assembly and disassembly helps cells move (like amoebas)

 

 

Microtubules Hollow structures Made of proteins called TUBULINS Maintain cell’s shape Important in cell division Make mitotic spindle (separates chromosomes) Help build projections from cell surface…

Hollow structures

Made of proteins called TUBULINS

Maintain cell’s shape

Important in cell division

Make mitotic spindle (separates chromosomes)

Help build projections from cell surface…

Cilia and Flagella Plural: cilium and flagellum Enable cells to swim rapidly through liquid Like oars of a boat

Plural: cilium and flagellum

Enable cells to swim rapidly through liquid

Like oars of a boat

 

Centrioles Only animal cells Made of protein TUBULIN What else is made of tubulin? Near nucleus Help organize cell division

Only animal cells

Made of protein TUBULIN

What else is made of tubulin?

Near nucleus

Help organize cell division

Antwon van Leeuwenhook Robert Hook Cell Theory Electron microscope Prokaryote Eukaryote Organelles Cytoplasm Nuclear envelope Chromatin Nucleus Ribosome Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Course adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob Proteins DNA Contractile vacuole Central Vacuole Golgi apparatus Lysosome Vacuole Mitochondrian Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Centriole Mictrotubule Microfilament Theodor Schwann Matthias Schleiden Rudolph Virchow Lynn Margulis Endosymbiotic Theory Cilia Flagella Photosynthesis Tay-Sachs disease

Antwon van Leeuwenhook

Robert Hook

Cell Theory

Electron microscope

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Organelles

Cytoplasm

Nuclear envelope

Chromatin

Nucleus

Ribosome

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Course adjustment knob

Fine adjustment knob

Proteins

DNA

Contractile vacuole

Central Vacuole

Golgi apparatus

Lysosome

Vacuole

Mitochondrian

Chloroplast

Cytoskeleton

Centriole

Mictrotubule

Microfilament

Theodor Schwann

Matthias Schleiden

Rudolph Virchow

Lynn Margulis

Endosymbiotic Theory

Cilia

Flagella

Photosynthesis

Tay-Sachs disease

 

 

 

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