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The Cardiovascular System

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Information about The Cardiovascular System

Published on February 8, 2008

Author: levouge777

Source: slideshare.net

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The Cardiovascular System

THE HEART

Anatomy Location and Size Fist size Weights less than a pound Located within the thorax flanked laterally by the lungs Base: posterosuperior, 2 nd ICS Apex: anteroinferior, 5 th ICS

Location and Size

Fist size

Weights less than a pound

Located within the thorax flanked laterally by the lungs

Base: posterosuperior, 2 nd ICS

Apex: anteroinferior, 5 th ICS

Anatomy Coverings Covered by serous membrane pericardium Two layers: Visceral pericardium Parietal pericardium Serous fluid Pericarditis: results to decreased amount of serous fluid

Coverings

Covered by serous membrane pericardium

Two layers:

Visceral pericardium

Parietal pericardium

Serous fluid

Pericarditis: results to decreased amount of serous fluid

Anatomy Wall Layers Epicardium Myocardium Made up of cardiac muscle bundles twisted in a ring like arrangement Contracting layer Endocardium Endothelial lining of heart chambers Continuous with the endothelium of great vessels

Wall Layers

Epicardium

Myocardium

Made up of cardiac muscle bundles twisted in a ring like arrangement

Contracting layer

Endocardium

Endothelial lining of heart chambers

Continuous with the endothelium of great vessels

 

 

Anatomy Valves Atrioventricular valves Left: BICUSPID/ Mitral Right: TRICUSPID Chordae tendinae Semilunar Valves Pulmonary Aortic Incompetent Valve Valvular Stenosis

Valves

Atrioventricular valves

Left: BICUSPID/ Mitral

Right: TRICUSPID

Chordae tendinae

Semilunar Valves

Pulmonary

Aortic

Incompetent Valve

Valvular Stenosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatomy Chambers Atria Receiving chambers Ventricles Discharging chambers

Chambers

Atria

Receiving chambers

Ventricles

Discharging chambers

Anatomy Great Vessels Superior and inferior vena cava Pulmonary arteries and veins Aorta

Great Vessels

Superior and inferior vena cava

Pulmonary arteries and veins

Aorta

Anatomy Cardiac Circulation Coronary Arteries At AV groove from aorta Other major branches: Left: anterior interventricular circumflex Right posterior interventricular marginal Cardiac Veins draining to the Cardiac Sinus Angina pectoris Myocardial infarction

Cardiac Circulation

Coronary Arteries

At AV groove from aorta

Other major branches:

Left:

anterior interventricular

circumflex

Right

posterior interventricular

marginal

Cardiac Veins draining to the Cardiac Sinus

Angina pectoris

Myocardial infarction

 

Physiology Conduction System of the Heart Spontaneous and independent regular contraction Atrial cells : 60 beats per minute Ventricular cells : 20-40 beats per minute Controlling system: ANS INTRINSIC CONDUCTING SYSTEM OR NODAL SYSTEM

Conduction System of the Heart

Spontaneous and independent regular contraction

Atrial cells : 60 beats per minute

Ventricular cells : 20-40 beats per minute

Controlling system:

ANS

INTRINSIC CONDUCTING SYSTEM OR NODAL SYSTEM

Physiology Intrinsic Conducting System Contraction rate NV: 75 beats per minute Depolarizes fro atrium to ventricle Parts: Sinoatrial node (right atrium) Atrioventricular node (at AV junction) Atrioventricular bundle or Bundle of His and bundle branches (at interventricular septum) Purkinje fibers (ventricular walls)

Intrinsic Conducting System

Contraction rate NV: 75 beats per minute

Depolarizes fro atrium to ventricle

Parts:

Sinoatrial node (right atrium)

Atrioventricular node (at AV junction)

Atrioventricular bundle or Bundle of His and bundle branches (at interventricular septum)

Purkinje fibers (ventricular walls)

Physiology Sinoatrial Node “ pacemaker” of the heart With the highest rate of depolarization in the whole system From atria to AV node -atrial contraction Brief pause AV node to bundle, then to branches, then to Purkinje fibers – ventricular contraction starting at apex Heart Block – AV node damage Fibrillation – cardiac “shuddering” due to ischemia Tachycardia – over 100 beats Bradycardia – less than 60 beats

Sinoatrial Node

“ pacemaker” of the heart

With the highest rate of depolarization in the whole system

From atria to AV node -atrial contraction

Brief pause

AV node to bundle, then to branches, then to Purkinje fibers – ventricular contraction starting at apex

Heart Block – AV node damage

Fibrillation – cardiac “shuddering” due to ischemia

Tachycardia – over 100 beats

Bradycardia – less than 60 beats

Physiology Cardiac Cycle Events of a complete heartbeat (0.8 sec) Systole – heart (ventricular) contraction Diastole – heart (ventricular) relaxation

Cardiac Cycle

Events of a complete heartbeat (0.8 sec)

Systole – heart (ventricular) contraction

Diastole – heart (ventricular) relaxation

1 2 3

Physiology Heart Sounds Lub (S1) and the dup (S2) S1 AV valves closing S2 Semilunar valves closing murmurs – turbulence due to obstructions, valve incompetency or stenosis

Heart Sounds

Lub (S1) and the dup (S2)

S1

AV valves closing

S2

Semilunar valves closing

murmurs – turbulence due to obstructions, valve incompetency or stenosis

Physiology Cardiac Output Amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute Stroke volume – volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute Starling’s Law – the more stretched cardiac muscles are, the stronger their contraction would be (based on venous return) Congestive Heart Failure Pulmonary congestion (edema in lungs) – LV weakens Peripheral Congestion (edema in distal parts) – RV weakens

Cardiac Output

Amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute

Stroke volume – volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute

Starling’s Law – the more stretched cardiac muscles are, the stronger their contraction would be (based on venous return)

Congestive Heart Failure

Pulmonary congestion (edema in lungs) – LV weakens

Peripheral Congestion (edema in distal parts) – RV weakens

Cardiac Output Heart Rate Stroke Volume Sympathetic Epinephrine and Thyroxine 1/Parasympathetic Age Sex Preload 1/Afterload Contractility Venous Return Venous Tone Total Blood Volume

Sympathetic

Epinephrine and

Thyroxine

1/Parasympathetic

Age

Sex

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