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The Business Analyst: The Pivotal Role Of The Future

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Information about The Business Analyst: The Pivotal Role Of The Future

Published on June 24, 2008

Author: thumbarger

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This presentation was originally made at the Silicon Valley IIBA Chapter meeting in June 2008 by Kathleen (Kitty) Hass from Management Concepts (www.managementconcepts.com). Kitty is also a new board member at-large for the IIBA.
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The Business Analyst The Pivotal IT Role of the Future Presented by: Kathleen B. (Kitty) Hass, PMP Project Management and Business Analysis Practice Leader [email_address]

The Past – Challenged Projects The Future – High Stakes The Project Performance Partnership The Professional Business Analyst Business Analyst Development Program Requirements Engineering Considerations Agenda

The Past – Challenged Projects

The Future – High Stakes

The Project Performance Partnership

The Professional Business Analyst

Business Analyst Development Program

Requirements Engineering Considerations

The Past – a Dismal Record

The Present – Still Troubling Nearly ⅔ of all projects fail or run into trouble.

What the Experts Say – The Root Cause is Poor Business Requirements Meta Group Research - “Communication challenges between business teams and technologists are chronic - we estimate that 60%-80% of project failures can be attributed directly to poor requirements gathering, analysis, and management.” Forrester Research - “Poorly defined applications have led to a persistent miscommunication between business and IT that largely contributes to a 66% project failure rate for these applications, costing U.S. businesses at least $30B every year.” James Martin - “56% of defects can be attributed to requirements, and 82% of the effort to fix defects.” Source: www.iiba.com/events.cfm#pww

Meta Group Research - “Communication challenges between business teams and technologists are chronic - we estimate that 60%-80% of project failures can be attributed directly to poor requirements gathering, analysis, and management.”

Forrester Research - “Poorly defined applications have led to a persistent miscommunication between business and IT that largely contributes to a 66% project failure rate for these applications, costing U.S. businesses at least $30B every year.”

James Martin - “56% of defects can be attributed to requirements, and 82% of the effort to fix defects.”

Source: www.iiba.com/events.cfm#pww

Change is the norm Fierce competition is the driver Lean thinking is the latest call to action Success is the only option Strategy depends on projects The Future – Fierce Competition

Change is the norm

Fierce competition is the driver

Lean thinking is the latest call to action

Success is the only option

Strategy depends on projects

Projects are essential to the growth and survival of today’s organizations Projects create value by responding to changing environment, competition, marketplace to Improve business processes Eliminate waste & drive inefficiencies out of operations Offer new products and services Flow higher value to customers Often business needs can only be satisfied by large change initiatives that have a significant IT component Result: a never-ending demand for new IT systems IT is viewed as a value provider IT is faced with an extraordinary combination of pressures How can we eliminate most of the challenged and failed projects? The Future - IT is at the Heart of Business Strategy

Projects are essential to the growth and survival of today’s organizations

Projects create value by responding to changing environment, competition, marketplace to

Improve business processes

Eliminate waste & drive inefficiencies out of operations

Offer new products and services

Flow higher value to customers

Often business needs can only be satisfied by large change initiatives that have a significant IT component

Result: a never-ending demand for new IT systems

IT is viewed as a value provider

IT is faced with an extraordinary combination of pressures

How can we eliminate most of the challenged and failed projects?

Executives have their eyes on the IT portfolio to ensure that they: Understand their capacity to deliver Invest in the right mix of projects Develop expert capabilities & optimize their resources Cancel high-risk, under performing projects Deliver flawlessly Flow value through the business to customers The BA role is now about value! Achieve Strategy Through Projects

Executives have their eyes on the IT portfolio to ensure that they:

Understand their capacity to deliver

Invest in the right mix of projects

Develop expert capabilities & optimize their resources

Cancel high-risk, under performing projects

Deliver flawlessly

Flow value through the business to customers

The BA role is now about value!

Can You Relate? How has the past been for you? How critical are the projects you are working on?

How has the past been for you?

How critical are the projects you are working on?

A bridge is built between the business and technical communities The business need is understood before solutions are developed The customer is involved in the project throughout the life cycle Breaking the Cycle of Challenged Projects

A bridge is built between the business and technical communities

The business need is understood before solutions are developed

The customer is involved in the project throughout the life cycle

The New Project Leaders are Strategy Executors In the past, PMs were primarily implementers of solutions Narrow orientation focused on technical implementations Skills narrow focused on budget, schedule, specs Role undergoing major transformation due to new business realities Effective project management tantamount to effective business management Skills broadened, encompassing all aspects of business management Business Analyst role professionalizing Project leadership teams emerging

In the past, PMs were primarily implementers of solutions

Narrow orientation focused on technical implementations

Skills narrow focused on budget, schedule, specs

Role undergoing major transformation due to new business realities

Effective project management tantamount to effective business management

Skills broadened, encompassing all aspects of business management

Business Analyst role professionalizing

Project leadership teams emerging

How Well Do We Execute Strategy? Studies indicate that less than 10% of strategies successfully formulated are effectively executed 85% of executives spend less than one hour per month on strategy 95% of the workforce don’t understand their organization’s strategy 60% of organizations do not link strategies to the budget 70% of organizations do not link strategies to incentives Source: David Norton, Project Balanced Scorecards – a Tool for Alignment, Teamwork and Results . ProjectWorld & The World Congress for Business Analysts Conference Proceedings, November 2005

Studies indicate that less than 10% of strategies successfully formulated are effectively executed

85% of executives spend less than one hour per month on strategy

95% of the workforce don’t understand their organization’s strategy

60% of organizations do not link strategies to the budget

70% of organizations do not link strategies to incentives

Source: David Norton, Project Balanced Scorecards – a Tool for Alignment, Teamwork and Results . ProjectWorld & The World Congress for Business Analysts Conference Proceedings, November 2005

Combining disciplines leads to success Business analyst Project manager Business visionary System architect/technical lead Each taking the lead depending on the project needs Determined to break the cycle of challenged projects The Project Performance Partnership

Combining disciplines leads to success

Business analyst

Project manager

Business visionary

System architect/technical lead

Each taking the lead depending on the project needs

Determined to break the cycle of challenged projects

Traditional Project Team Business Team & End-users IT Architecture Team Test Team Project Manager Business Sponsor Business Analyst Team Leads Test Manager Architect Business Visionary Development Team

Core Project Team Concept Business Team & End-users IT Architecture Team Test Team Project Manager Business Sponsor Business Analyst Team Leads Test Manager Architect Business Visionary Development Team SMEs

A senior position in the enterprise placed either in Business units IT organization As IT moves beyond efficiency to business effectiveness BA becomes the central figure on the project team who is “bi-lingual” – i.e., speaks both business and technical languages Differs from traditional IS analysis in that it focuses almost exclusively on adding value to the business Enter The Professional Business Analyst

A senior position in the enterprise placed either in

Business units

IT organization

As IT moves beyond efficiency to business effectiveness

BA becomes the central figure on the project team who is “bi-lingual” – i.e., speaks both business and technical languages

Differs from traditional IS analysis in that it focuses almost exclusively on adding value to the business

Typical Business Analyst 40 years old Well educated Paid $78K per year Hails from IT More than 5 years experience performing BA functions 36% > 10 years Analysis skills acquired on the job Disturbingly, they report Most of their projects do not deliver all requirements Source: The New Business Analyst : A Strategic Role in the Enterprise, November 2006 Evans Data Corporation Research Study

40 years old

Well educated

Paid $78K per year

Hails from IT

More than 5 years experience performing BA functions

36% > 10 years

Analysis skills acquired on the job

Disturbingly, they report

Most of their projects do not deliver all requirements

Ambiguity in the BA Role Source: The New Business Analyst : A Strategic Role in the Enterprise, November 2006 Evans Data Corporation Research Study Conclusion: there is a need for Business Analyst competency and career path definition 13.0% Other 10.1% Tester, Test Lead 13.5% Subject Matter Expert, Domain Expert 15.4% Developer, Engineer, Development Lead 18.7% Project Management 29.3% Business Analysis

Business Analyst Career Path PM/BA Principles BPR, Six Sigma Principles Business Writing Scribe Simple models Help Desk support Ability to perform simple tasks with assistance Associate Business &/or IT Domain Project Management BPR, Six Sigma Workshop Facilitation Requirements Modeling Elicit, Analyze, Specify, Validate, Manage Requirements Ability to perform simple-to-moderately complex tasks with minimal assistance Intermediate Business & IT Domains Project & Program Mgt. Systems Engineering, BPR, Six Sigma Requirements Engineering Elicit, Analyze, Specify, Validate, Manage Requirements Ability to perform complex tasks with minimal coaching Senior Business & IT Strategy Program and Portfolio Mgt. Systems Engineering, BPR, Six Sigma Enterprise Architecture Business Case Development Strategic Planning Enterprise Analysis Mentoring Ability to perform strategic tasks with minimal direction Strategic Competencies Responsibilities Proficiency Level

Staffing Surveys Reveal Increasing Demand for Senior BAs Who are Multi-Skilled Customer relationship management Business domain knowledge Time management and personal organization Technical domain knowledge Authenticity, ethics, and integrity Business case development Cost / benefit analysis Rapid prototyping Team management, leadership, mentoring, and facilitation Business writing Administrative, analytical, and reporting skills Technical writing Problem solving, negotiation, and decision-making Business outcome thinking Requirements risk assessment and management Testing, verification, and validation Organizational change management; management of power and politics Communication of business concepts to technical audiences Techniques to plan, document, analyze, trace and manage requirements Communication of technical concepts to non-technical audiences Capacity to articulate vision Strategic and business planning Ability to conceptualize and think creatively Complex modeling techniques Fundamentals of project management Business process improvement and reengineering Fundamentals of business analysis Systems engineering concepts and principles Leadership Business Analytical Technical

Customer relationship management

Business domain knowledge

Time management and personal organization

Technical domain knowledge

Authenticity, ethics, and integrity

Business case development

Cost / benefit analysis

Rapid prototyping

Team management, leadership, mentoring, and facilitation

Business writing

Administrative, analytical, and reporting skills

Technical writing

Problem solving, negotiation, and decision-making

Business outcome thinking

Requirements risk assessment and management

Testing, verification, and validation

Organizational change management; management of power and politics

Communication of business concepts to technical audiences

Techniques to plan, document, analyze, trace and manage requirements

Communication of technical concepts to non-technical audiences

Capacity to articulate vision

Strategic and business planning

Ability to conceptualize and think creatively

Complex modeling techniques

Fundamentals of project management

Business process improvement and reengineering

Fundamentals of business analysis

Systems engineering concepts and principles

Business Analyst Organizational Placement Usually placed in IT Junior Usually placed in IT Intermediate In IT (67%) The business may not take ownership of problems In BU (10.8%) Difficult for BAs to feel like a “community of practice” and hard to manage BA standards and improvements Senior Part of an enterprise-wide PMO or center of excellence with a strategic focus Working on pre-project analysis, serving as BA for strategic initiatives, and managing projects for value Strategic Organizational Placement Level

In IT (67%)

The business may not take ownership of problems

In BU (10.8%)

Difficult for BAs to feel like a “community of practice” and hard to manage BA standards and improvements

BA Role - The Past Elicitation Analysis Elicitation Specification Validation and Documentation Requirements Phase

For the system architect, poor requirements results in A disconnect between what IT builds and what the business needs For the project manager, inadequate requirements lead to Poor estimates Time and cost management becoming virtually impossible For the business Challenged/failed project Business needs not met Getting Requirements Right

For the system architect, poor requirements results in

A disconnect between what IT builds and what the business needs

For the project manager, inadequate requirements lead to

Poor estimates

Time and cost management becoming virtually impossible

For the business

Challenged/failed project

Business needs not met

BA Role - The Future Enterprise Analysis Strategic Planning Requirements Design Construction Test Deliver Operations and Maintenance Deactivate

What do Today’s BAs Really Do? Organizational change Organizational readiness Organizational change management Business artifacts: business policies, procedures, rules, training, retooling, restructuring Requirements management Planning Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Change management Communication Enterprise analysis Business architecture Opportunity analysis Problem analysis Solution feasibility analysis Business case development Solution assessment and validation Benefits measurement and management

Organizational change

Organizational readiness

Organizational change management

Business artifacts: business policies, procedures, rules, training, retooling, restructuring

Requirements management

Planning

Elicitation

Analysis

Specification

Validation

Change management

Communication

Enterprise analysis

Business architecture

Opportunity analysis

Problem analysis

Solution feasibility analysis

Business case development

Solution assessment and validation

Benefits measurement and management

The BA Drives Strategic Alignment Enter New Mkts Increase Quality Grow Market Share Reduce Costs Improve Shopper Experience Certify 1000 Reps Coaching Job-related e-learning Higher Hiring Stds Learning Management System TMM NAITF* In-store Learning Kiosks Content Acquisition Training Policy etc. DB Boxes Apps etc. Certificate Process

Strategic Business Analyst Role: Managing the Business Value During the project life cycle Once projects are funded, they must be managed throughout the project life cycle to ensure that the business case remains valid and continued investment in the project is still warranted After solution delivery Once the project delivers the new business solution, the Business Analyst ensures organizational measurements are in place: Actual benefits that are achieved vs. Benefits promised in the business case For solution enhancements

During the project life cycle

Once projects are funded, they must be managed throughout the project life cycle to ensure that the business case remains valid and continued investment in the project is still warranted

After solution delivery

Once the project delivers the new business solution, the Business Analyst ensures organizational measurements are in place:

Actual benefits that are achieved vs.

Benefits promised in the business case

For solution enhancements

Business Solution Value Cost to Develop, Operate and Retire the Solution Business Value Deployment Value = Benefits – Costs to Develop, Operate, Retire Project Costs

The BA & PM partner to conduct requirements phase planning and to Understand (or create if non-existent) Business vision, drivers, goals and objectives Business needs, environment & constraints Business case, project charter, and scope definition Assemble and educate the requirements team Define the requirements artifacts to be produced (documents, graphs, models, matrices) Develop the requirements management plan Use your PM to help plan requirements activities Requirements Planning

The BA & PM partner to conduct requirements phase planning and to

Understand (or create if non-existent)

Business vision, drivers, goals and objectives

Business needs, environment & constraints

Business case, project charter, and scope definition

Assemble and educate the requirements team

Define the requirements artifacts to be produced (documents, graphs, models, matrices)

Develop the requirements management plan

Use your PM to help plan requirements activities

Discovery Interview management and end users Review current business process, supporting systems, studies Document business problem and opportunity Current Vs. future business architecture Develop/refine current state models (“As Is”) Develop/refine future state models (“To Be”) Scope statement, WBS and scoping models Start with information in the business case Build to clearly defined and approved scope Use Problem Domain (aka Conceptual Domain) models to describe the context in which the business solution will operate Business Planning & Scope Definition

Discovery

Interview management and end users

Review current business process, supporting systems, studies

Document business problem and opportunity

Current Vs. future business architecture

Develop/refine current state models (“As Is”)

Develop/refine future state models (“To Be”)

Scope statement, WBS and scoping models

Start with information in the business case

Build to clearly defined and approved scope

Use Problem Domain (aka Conceptual Domain) models to describe the context in which the business solution will operate

Conduct requirements gathering sessions with customers, users, and stakeholders Requirements gathering techniques include Requirements workshops Discovery sessions Interviews Surveys Prototyping Note taking and feedback loops to customers, users, and stakeholders Acquire/hone your facilitation skills! Requirements Elicitation and Discovery

Conduct requirements gathering sessions with customers, users, and stakeholders

Requirements gathering techniques include

Requirements workshops

Discovery sessions

Interviews

Surveys

Prototyping

Note taking and feedback loops to customers, users, and stakeholders

Acquire/hone your facilitation skills!

Requirements Analysis Process 2. Decomposing requirements 4. Studying and assessing requirements feasibility 5. Prioritizing requirements 1. Modeling requirements 3. Confirming Scope

Structure requirements information into various categories Evaluate requirements for selected qualities Represent requirements in different forms Derive detailed requirements from high-level requirements Negotiate priorities Determine function and performance characteristics Define context of implementation Identify stakeholder constraints, measures of effectiveness, and validation criteria Requirements Analysis – The Key Requirements are first stated in simple terms, then decomposed, restated and captured to:

Structure requirements information into various categories

Evaluate requirements for selected qualities

Represent requirements in different forms

Derive detailed requirements from high-level requirements

Negotiate priorities

Determine function and performance characteristics

Define context of implementation

Identify stakeholder constraints, measures of effectiveness, and validation criteria

What is Requirements Modeling? Describes requirement using specialized notation, languages, and symbols Goal: Simplify reality and filter out “noise” Aid understanding of complex systems and processes Provide different views and perspectives on what is important to different audiences Assure that all aspects of problem are considered Translate more easily into solutions Because you have multiple models that you can apply, you need to know their strengths and weaknesses to be effective in their use. Since each modeling technique has its pros and cons, to be effective you will want to have several requirements modeling techniques in your toolkit. Source: Scott W. Ambler 2005

Describes requirement using specialized notation, languages, and symbols

Goal:

Simplify reality and filter out “noise”

Aid understanding of complex systems and processes

Provide different views and perspectives on what is important to different audiences

Assure that all aspects of problem are considered

Translate more easily into solutions

Because you have multiple models that you can apply, you need to know their strengths and weaknesses to be effective in their use.

Since each modeling technique has its pros and cons, to be effective you will want to have several requirements modeling techniques in your toolkit.

Source: Scott W. Ambler 2005

Modeling Categories

What is Requirements Specification? Process of documenting a system’s requirements in a structured, shareable, and manageable form Structures functional and supplemental requirements Provides structured requirements repository with attributes specified Source: Karl E. Wiegers, Software Requirements Business Need Written Functional Requirements Graphical Functional Requirements Supplemental Requirements

Process of documenting a system’s requirements in a structured, shareable, and manageable form

Structures functional and supplemental requirements

Provides structured requirements repository with attributes specified

The Importance of Requirements Specification The amount of information we must manage increases rapidly as we move lower down the pyramid Prepares for requirements allocation Provides foundation for requirements traceability (ability to follow a requirement forward and backward) Accomplishes cross-referencing of project deliverables Modified from Dean Leffingwell

The amount of information we must manage increases rapidly as we move lower down the pyramid

Prepares for requirements allocation

Provides foundation for requirements traceability (ability to follow a requirement forward and backward)

Accomplishes cross-referencing of project deliverables

Identifier a unique reference Acceptance criteria nature of the test to demonstrate the requirement has been met Author who wrote the requirement Complexity how hard the requirements will be to implement Ownership the individual or group that needs the requirement Performance how the requirement must be met Priority the relative importance Source who requested the requirement Stability how mature the requirement is, to determine whether the requirement is firm enough to start work on Status indicating whether it is proposed, accepted, verified with the users, or implemented Urgency how soon the requirement is needed Assign Requirement Attributes for Manageability

Identifier

a unique reference

Acceptance criteria

nature of the test to demonstrate the requirement has been met

Author

who wrote the requirement

Complexity

how hard the requirements will be to implement

Ownership

the individual or group that needs the requirement

Performance

how the requirement must be met

Priority

the relative importance

Source

who requested the requirement

Stability

how mature the requirement is, to determine whether the requirement is firm enough to start work on

Status

indicating whether it is proposed, accepted, verified with the users, or implemented

Urgency

how soon the requirement is needed

How Do I Recognize “Good” Requirements? “Good” Requirements The requirements have been specified uniquely in well-written, unambiguous language Absent duplicate or overlapping requirements Stated in their entirety Do not make assumptions about how the requirement will be implemented – solution free Not outside the capability of current technology Used to conduct further analysis Reduced rework caused by defects in requirements Invalid Requirements: Incomplete in some way Vague Ambiguous Inconsistent Incorrect Un-testable or not measurable

“Good” Requirements

The requirements have been specified uniquely in well-written, unambiguous language

Absent duplicate or overlapping requirements

Stated in their entirety

Do not make assumptions about how the requirement will be implemented – solution free

Not outside the capability of current technology

Used to conduct further analysis

Reduced rework caused by defects in requirements

Invalid Requirements:

Incomplete in some way

Vague

Ambiguous

Inconsistent

Incorrect

Un-testable or not measurable

Requirement Guidelines and Pitfalls Guidelines: Use natural non-technical language Text Vs. diagrams: Use clearly written text Vs. diagrams for the precise definition of concepts Use diagrams to express structure and relationships Pitfalls : Incomplete understanding Failing to ask for clarification Incorrect interpretation Applying personal filters to the information that alter the intent Writing about implementation (the how ) instead of requirements (the what ) Implementation decisions should be deferred to as late a point in the requirements gathering process as possible Using undefined acronyms Using incorrect sentence structure

Guidelines:

Use natural non-technical language

Text Vs. diagrams:

Use clearly written text Vs. diagrams for the precise definition of concepts

Use diagrams to express structure and relationships

Pitfalls :

Incomplete understanding

Failing to ask for clarification

Incorrect interpretation

Applying personal filters to the information that alter the intent

Writing about implementation (the how ) instead of requirements (the what )

Implementation decisions should be deferred to as late a point in the requirements gathering process as possible

Using undefined acronyms

Using incorrect sentence structure

Requirements Validation Benefits Defect reduction: avoid errors before they propagate to later development phases Reduce project risk Reduce ambiguity in requirements Improve planning Avoid insufficient involvement from development team Address issues of minimal specifications Requirements validation is the process of evaluating requirement documents, models, and attributes to determine whether they satisfy the business needs and are complete enough that the technical team can commence work on system design and development

Benefits

Defect reduction: avoid errors before they propagate to later development phases

Reduce project risk

Reduce ambiguity in requirements

Improve planning

Avoid insufficient involvement from development team

Address issues of minimal specifications

Requirements Phase Exit Prepare for Phase Exit: Conduct requirement risk identification, analysis and risk response planning Develop detailed plans for design and construction phases Update business case Conduct phase exit control gate reviews Prepare for Requirements Management: Baseline requirement specifications Ensure requirement documentation is structured and easily accessible Develop requirements change management plan, process, and tools Communicate need for requirements change management process, change control board (CCB), roles and responsibilities Begin to build the requirements traceability matrix and process

Prepare for Phase Exit:

Conduct requirement risk identification, analysis and risk response planning

Develop detailed plans for design and construction phases

Update business case

Conduct phase exit control gate reviews

Prepare for Requirements Management:

Baseline requirement specifications

Ensure requirement documentation is structured and easily accessible

Develop requirements change management plan, process, and tools

Communicate need for requirements change management process, change control board (CCB), roles and responsibilities

Begin to build the requirements traceability matrix and process

Allocating requirements to different subsystems or sub-components of the system. Tracing requirements throughout system design and development Managing changes and enhancements to the system to add, delete, and modify requirements during all phases of the solution development life cycle Continue validating and verifying requirements to: Ensure the system satisfies the customer Determine whether the system satisfies specifications and conditions imposed upon it by the requirements Requirements Management

Allocating requirements to different subsystems or sub-components of the system.

Tracing requirements throughout system design and development

Managing changes and enhancements to the system to add, delete, and modify requirements during all phases of the solution development life cycle

Continue validating and verifying requirements to:

Ensure the system satisfies the customer

Determine whether the system satisfies specifications and conditions imposed upon it by the requirements

Organizational Change Management Planning for the organizational change is often overlooked by IT-focused project teams, including: Business unit knowledge and skill assessment Training/retooling/acquiring staff for skill gaps Reorganization Communication Managements’ role in the championing the change Updated policies, procedures, business rules

Planning for the organizational change is often overlooked by IT-focused project teams, including:

Business unit knowledge and skill assessment

Training/retooling/acquiring staff for skill gaps

Reorganization

Communication

Managements’ role in the championing the change

Updated policies, procedures, business rules

Requirements Best Practices Stakeholders actively participate Confirm scope with customers and sponsors Focus on how, not what Prioritize needs, wants and desires Deliver in increments Speak business and user terminology Ensure management support Choose the right size modeling and documentation effort

Stakeholders actively participate

Confirm scope with customers and sponsors

Focus on how, not what

Prioritize needs, wants and desires

Deliver in increments

Speak business and user terminology

Ensure management support

Choose the right size modeling and documentation effort

Ranks of IT and the business As the IT development role is being outsourced, business savvy IT staff are transitioning into the role of BA Expertise Conventional business knowledge Supplemented by IT domain knowledge As with any leadership role, competency comes from: Acquiring education and training Seeking mentoring and coaching Leveraging organizational support Jumping in headfirst to learn the discipline Where do Exceptional Business Analysts Come From?

Ranks of IT and the business

As the IT development role is being outsourced, business savvy IT staff are transitioning into the role of BA

Expertise

Conventional business knowledge

Supplemented by IT domain knowledge

As with any leadership role, competency comes from:

Acquiring education and training

Seeking mentoring and coaching

Leveraging organizational support

Jumping in headfirst to learn the discipline

Business outcome thinking Ability to conceptualize and think creatively Capacity to articulate vision Interpersonal skills, ethics, and integrity Negotiation and conflict management skills Customer management skills Analytical and communication skills Broad (not deep) IT technical knowledge BA Development Program: It’s More About the Business than IT

Business outcome thinking

Ability to conceptualize and think creatively

Capacity to articulate vision

Interpersonal skills, ethics, and integrity

Negotiation and conflict management skills

Customer management skills

Analytical and communication skills

Broad (not deep) IT technical knowledge

It’s a difficult and risky business Requirements definition is difficult Estimation of IT projects is often unreliable until requirements and the solution are well understood Requirements change because: Difficult to articulate – always unclear in the beginning Iterative nature of requirements definition Dynamic business environment Concepts to consider Firm basic requirements – not expected to change Iteration – the best defense against ambiguity Agile requirements – allows requirements to emerge Scalability – barely sufficient is enough to move on Final Words: Requirements Engineering Considerations

It’s a difficult and risky business

Requirements definition is difficult

Estimation of IT projects is often unreliable until requirements and the solution are well understood

Requirements change because:

Difficult to articulate – always unclear in the beginning

Iterative nature of requirements definition

Dynamic business environment

Concepts to consider

Firm basic requirements – not expected to change

Iteration – the best defense against ambiguity

Agile requirements – allows requirements to emerge

Scalability – barely sufficient is enough to move on

Lean methods alone will not ensure project success Follow the Recipe For Project Success Ingredients: minimization, communications, standards Mix with : f ull-time core team (business analyst, project manager, business visionary, lead architect/developer) coached by an involved project sponsor Bake: no longer than six months, no more than six people, at no more than $750,000 Recipe for Project Success Source: Standish Group International, Inc., Unfinished Voyages, A Follow-Up to The CHAOS Report (1999)

Lean methods alone will not ensure project success

Follow the Recipe For Project Success

Ingredients: minimization, communications, standards

Mix with : f ull-time core team (business analyst, project manager, business visionary, lead architect/developer) coached by an involved project sponsor

Bake: no longer than six months, no more than six people, at no more than $750,000

Kathleen B. (Kitty) Hass, PMP 303-663-8655 [email_address] For Further Information

Kathleen B. (Kitty) Hass, PMP 303-663-8655 [email_address]

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