Published on July 8, 2016
1. THE BIRTH OF A FILIPINO NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS CIRILO GAZZINGAN, III BSCE - II SAINT PAUL UNIVERSITY PHILIPPINES
2. NATIONALISM WHAT IS NATIONALISM (NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS)?
3. Nationalism (Merriam-Webster) ▷Loyalty and devotion to a nation ▷A sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups
4. Philippine Revolts ▷ these revolts failed because of lack of communication and the absence of national leadership
5. 1. CAUSES OF NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS WHAT ARE THEY?
6. I. The Spanish Revolution of 1868
7. I. The Spanish Revolution (1868) ▷ The triumph of liberalism in Spain against the autocratic rule of Isabela II (1833-1869) resounded across the seas to the shores of her overseas colonies.
8. I. The Spanish Revolution (1868) ▷ The people in the Philippines came to enjoy for the first time the sweet taste of a liberal regime
9. II. Opening of Suez Canal
10. The Suez Canal This canal is 103 miles long.
11. I. Opening of Suez Canal ▷ The opening of Suez Canal (1869) gave more opportunities to the illustrados and elites to travel and gain education in different places in Europe.
12. II. Opening of Suez Canal ▷ The opening of Suez Canal to world shipping in 1869 stimulated Philippine progress.
13. II. Opening of Suez Canal ▷ The transformation of the Philippine economy into a raw material market for Europe unconsciously increased their contact with the intellectual tradition of the West
14. III. Spread of New Ideas
15. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Philippines was opened by Spain to World Trade ▷ Liberal ideas , contained books and newspapers, were ideologies of the American and French Revolutions and the thoughts of different philosophers such as:
16. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ MONTESQUIEU - separation of powers ▷VOLTAIRE - freedom of religion ▷LOCKE - liberalism ▷JEFFERSON - anti-slavery
17. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Liberal ideas from Europe filtered in when Spain gradually exposed Phil. To international commerce. ▷ The sons and daughters of the principalia were able to attain education, thereupon giving then exposure to libertarian ideas. Principalia The Principalía or noble class was the ruling and usually educated upper class in the towns of Spanish Philippines
18. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Liberal ideas from Europe filtered in when Spain gradually exposed Phil. To international commerce. ▷ The sons and daughters of the principalia were able to attain education, thereupon giving then exposure to libertarian ideas.
19. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Illustrados like Rizal, Del Pilar and Jaena who had their education in Europe obtained liberal ideas on these significant events in the history of the world. Ilustrados The Ilustrados constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century.
20. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Ilustrados like Rizal, Del Pilar and Jaena who had their education in Europe obtained liberal ideas on these significant events in the history of the world.
21. III. Spread of New Ideas ▷ Sentiments against the Principales - The masses had been skeptical about local aristocracy due to their proportion and influence in the society
22. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino People
23. IV. Race Prejudice against the Filipino Priests ▷ Two kinds of priests served the Catholic Church in the Philippines. These were the regulars and the seculars.
24. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino Priests ▷ Conflict began when the bishops insisted on visiting the parishes that were being run by regular priests. The regular priests refused these visits, saying that they were not under the bishop’s jurisdiction. They threatened to abandon their parishes if the bishops persisted.
25. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino Priests ▷ The regulars resented the move because they considered the Filipinos unfit for the priesthood. Among other reasons they cited the Filipinos’ brown skin, lack of education, and inadequate experience.
26. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino Priests ▷ The controversy became more intense when the Jesuits returned to the Philippines. They had been exiled from the country because of certain policies of the order that the Spanish authorities did not like.
27. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino Priests ▷ The issue soon took on a racial slant. The Spaniards were clearly favoring their own regular priest over Filipino priests.
28. Racial Hirerarchy
29. Racial Hirerachy Peninsulares Insulares Spanish mestizos, Principalia Chinese mestizos Natives or Indios
30. Peninsulares ▷They are the highest class in the Philippines, entrusted with the offices of high rank.
31. Insulares ▷Insulares. They are a rank below the peninsulares. The insulares are of European descent but born in the colonies of Spain.
32. Insulares ▷insulares enjoy various goverment and church positions but as economics and power shifted, they changed to capitalist driven entrepreneurs owning large parcels of lands.
33. Mestizo de Espanol ▷They are offsprings of Spanish people interbreeding with Filipinos. Mestizo is a term given to individuals inheriting foreign ancestry.
34. Mestizo de Espanol ▷They may have better relations with the local governors or with the church as they are favored more compared to the common man.
35. Mestizo de Sangley ▷A person of Filipino or any racial descent marrying a Chinese, the result is children that will be called mestizo de sangley.
36. Mestizo de Sangley ▷artisans and petty traders ▷ allowed to lease lands from friar estates and earned from it.
37. Natives or “Indios” ▷ pure-blooded Filipino People ▷ lowest class in the Philippine society during Spanish rule
38. Natives or “Indios” ▷ considered as “slaves”
39. IV. Racial Prejudice against the Filipino People ▷ Filipinos are considered as an inferior race with limited intelligence
40. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa
41. GomBurZa Gomburza or GOMBURZA refers to three Filipino Catholic priests (Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora), who were executed on 17 February 1872 at Luneta in Bagumbayan
42. On January 20, 1872, two hundred Filipinos employed at the Cavite arsenal staged a revolt against the Spanish government’s voiding of their exemption from the payment of tributes. The Cavite Mutiny led to the persecution of prominent Filipinos; secular priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora— who would then be collectively named GomBurZa— were tagged as the masterminds of the uprising. The priests were charged with treason and sedition by the Spanish military tribunal—a ruling believed to be part of a conspiracy to stifle the growing popularity of Filipino secular priests and the threat they posed to the Spanish clergy. The GomBurZa were publicly executed, by garrote, on the early morning of February 17, 1872 at Bagumbayan.
43. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa ▷ The Filipino people deeply resented the execution of Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora. ▷ They were acclaimed as the executed priests as true martyrs of their fatherland.
44. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa ▷ The execution of GOMBURZA speed up the growth of Philippine Nationalism, which ultimately brought about Spain’s downfall.
45. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa ▷ The concept of nationhood coincided with the development of the concept of Filipinos. ▷ Before, Filipinos would only refer to the españoles insulares. Later, it included the mestizos de sangley and the native elite who had Hispanized themselves
46. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa ▷ Also the invention of printing press helped the propagandist express and show their thoughts and ideas through newspaper. Because of this, Filipino masses became more aware on the events happening around them.
47. V. Martyrdom of GomBurZa ▷ The propagandists tried to infuse Filipino with national meaning, which later included the entire people in the archipelago ▷ Since then, Filipinos recognize the importance of expressing their self, their own nationality, and their freedom.
48. Summary Opening of Suez Canal Stimulated the spread of intellectual practices and traditions from Europe Spread of New Ideas The concept of liberalism engaged the Filipinos to fight for their rights and freedom The Spanish Revolution of 1868 Start of a liberal regime Race Prejudice against the Filipino People Filipinos are considered as an inferior race with a limited intellectual capabilities Martyrdom of GomBurZa Started the uprising of Filipino Nationalism
49. THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
50. PROPAGANDA What is PROPAGANDA?
51. Propaganda (Merriam-Webster) ▷ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to help a cause, a political leader, a government, etc.
52. Propaganda Movement The emergence of more Filipino ilustrados gave birth to a unifies nationalist movement.
53. Propaganda Movement The campaign was known in our history as the Propaganda Movement
54. Propaganda Movement Rizal, del Pilar and Lopez Jaena are considered to be the pillars of the Propaganda Movement
55. Aim of Propaganda Movement ▷ to have a peaceful assimilation, referring to the transition of the Philippines from being a colony to a province of Spain.
56. Graciano Lopez Jaena ▷ left the Philippines for Spain in 1880 after publishing a satirical novel, Fray Botod (Father Fatso).
57. Graciano Lopez Jaena ▷In 1889, he started the newspaper, La Solidaridad
58. Marcelo H. Del Pilar ▷ lawyer and journalist from the town of Bulacan
59. Marcelo H. Del Pilar ▷ became the editor-in-chief of the La Solidaridad
60. Jose Rizal ▷His more popular works were his two novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo
61. ▷He annotated the book, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas which showed that Filipinos had developed culture even before the Spanish occupation.
62. The Propaganda Movement ▷Many Filipino propagandists turned into masons because they needed the help of the masons in Spain and in other countries in their fight of reforms. ▷This organization is called Freemasonry
63. La Liga Filipina
64. La Liga Filipina ▷Rizal wrote the constitution of La Liga Filipina while living in Hong Kong with the help of Jose Ma Basa
65. “ “Unus Instar Omnium” - La Liga
66. The objectives of La Liga were: ▷ the unification of the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogeneous body ▷ protection in cases of want and necessity ▷ defense against violence and injustice ▷ study and implementation of reforms
67. La Liga Filipina ▷ On July 6, 1892, Rizal was secretly arrested by order of Governor Despujol and subsequently imprisoned at Fort Santiago.
68. La Liga Filipina ▷ The following day, the governor general ordered the deportation of Rizal to Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte as punishment of his allegedly submersive materials
69. End of the Propaganda Movement
70. The End of the Propaganda Movement ▷ Rizal’s arrest marked the crucial period of the propagandists ▷ La Liga Filipina collapsed ▷M.H. Del Pilar and Lopez Jaena died in Barcelona (1896)
71. The Revolution Begins The end of the propaganda movement marked the beginning of a revolution. The writings by the Propaganda Movement inspired Andres Bonifacio to establish the “Katipunan” and set the Philippines' revolution in place.
72. ““He who does not know how to look back at what he came from will never get to his destination.” - Jose Rizal
73. Good Afternoon! Thank you for listening
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