Published on February 5, 2014
The Bible: A Human Text Written and translated by: José Alonso Hernández 2013 The word Bible, is a term that comes from the Greek: "ta biblía", that means 'the books', but actually is knowing like a group of canonical books, for the Judaism (Tanaj/Old Testament) and Christianity (New Testament). Originally, the Scriptures, are texts written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek during a period of 1,000 years, since the 900 B.C. until the year 100 A.D. The problem about the Bible, for secular critical, it isn't its antiquity, but yes the premeditation of the Book, meanwhile some people see it like a simple book written by human beings, for the Christianity it constitutes the unequivocal and inspired word of God, for that, the debate is centered in determining if the Bible is a Divine Text or a Human Text. To determine this, a travel to the past is necessary and to know firstly as the Canon, Old and New Testament, was formed. Old Testament The old part of the Bible, narrates the humanity's history and the formation of the Israeli town, written in Hebrew, with small portions in aramaic. The word Canon, refers to a rule or measure, for so many people is considered books "divinely inspired"; which consists of 39 books, although the Catholic Church includes more books, considered Deuterocanonical books: Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther , Wisdom, Sirach or Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, including the Letter of Jeremiah Additions to Daniel, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees. The Old Hebrew Testament is conformed by three parts: The Torah, or law, consistent in the first five books: Genesis, Exodus, Levíticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy; continued by the Prophets, which are divided in Former Prophets: "Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings I and II, Kings III and IV", and Latter Prophets:"Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the twelve minors prophets, to those that Hebrews count as a single book". The last part, call the Writings, better 1
acquaintances for Hagiographa (sacred writings): "Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, or Ezra II". However to beginnings of the century I, a dispute arises on the canon, for the Sadducees who sustained that only the Torah ('the Law') or Pentateuch ('five books'), it was inspired, nevertheless after the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD., the predominant Jewish group was the Pharisees, considering the three parts as definitive. The two more old complete canons, of which one has knowledge is the Palestinian and the Alexandrine. The specialists locate the beginning of the Palestinian Canon in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, by the middle of the century V b.C. in favor of this point is the declaration of Flavious Josephus, in his book: "Against to Apion", there describes that the texts of Palestinian's Hebrews was formed a closed and this sacred collection dates from the days of Persian King's Artajerjes Longiamanus (465-425 B.C.). Enumerating 22 books, to coincide with the number of letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The fourth book of Ezra, written toward the end of the century I AD, affirms that the number of the sacred books is of twenty-four. The author of this book, gives us a description of a legendary way to how, Ezra, scribe and priest, can to recast the sacred books destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. It is commented that it was dictating four scribes, during forty days, ninety four books. Of these, twenty-four should be read by the worthy ones and the unworthy ones, and the other seventy it was necessary to give them to the well educated men (4 Ezra 14,44). The number of twenty-four books corroborates the figure of 22 books that gives us Josephus, evidently and that it is gotten joining Rut with Judges and the Lamentations with Jeremías. In consequence, the small difference of twenty-four and of twenty-two it is only apparent. Although some think that the Canon began to form in the time of King Josiah, after the invasion of Assyria to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Josiah wanted to unite Judah and Israel in a only one country and for that began a campaign on the creation of the book that it would determine the legal and religious statutes, according to this 2
relate, around the year 621 B.C., the high priest Helcías found in the temple of God "The book of the Law", specialists consider that it was the Book of the Deuteronomy, until that time there was not in Israel any text legal codex, neither any other work that was recognized universally as coming from the supreme divine authority: "And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem and the king went up into the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great: and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the LORD.statutes" 2 Kings 23:1,2. Regrettably Josiah failed in his objective, because he was murdered by the Pharaoh Necho II and time later, in the 597 B.C., the Babylonians entered, plundered later to Judah and eleven years after Nebuchadnezzar entered in Jerusalem, destroying the temple and the inhabitants went exiles to Babylon, including the King Zedekiah. During the Council of Jamnia, in the first century after Christ, under the direction of the Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai, according to some specialists took place the ratification of the Canon of the Old Testament, being this way the 39 books, excluding the 7 Deuterocanonicals. About the Alexandrine canon, it is believed it was given during the conquering Alexander the Great, during the foundation of the library of Alexandria. This requested to the King Ptolemy that will order a version in Greek of the Hebrew texts, the high priest Eleazar consented to choose 6 priests for each tribe of Israel to conform the 70 men that would travel to Alexandria to make the translation, to this, actually, it's known like the version of the seventy or Septuagint. 3
New testament The New Testament Canon was officially in the year 397 AD, during the Synod of Carthage, when Saint Jerome announces the beginning of his translation from the Bible to Latin, called the Vulgate, in this edition the 27 books are included and was finished in the 405 AD, but the story of this began time ago, until the same apostolic time by the middle of the century I. For example, we have the foreword of Lucas's Gospel, which dates of around the year 80 AD., he affirms that already for that date writings of Jesus' teachings existed: "Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us, even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word; it seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, that thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed. Luke 1:1-4. Another fact of interest is about the word "gospel" which appears only in the New Testament in singular, but it was Justin Martyr, 150 AD., who used this term in plural "Gospels", to designate the text and stories of Jesus' life. The chapter 14 of the Second Epistle of Clement, more or less from the same date, speaks of the teaching of the "Books of the apostles". Besides the Gospels other Christian texts circulated in the primitive church; but the Epistles of the Apostle Paul occupied the first place. Paul generally wrote for specific problems in certain towns; however, at the same time it fomented the distribution of his letters, like it's evident for example in colossians: " And when this epistle is read among you, cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea". Colossians 4:16. Another testimony of this is in the Second Letter of the Apostle Peter, around the year 65 AD. that he affirms that the text of the Apostle Paul was already known: 4
"And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.". 2 Peter 3:15-16. As for the first Canon, not official, of which has knowledge it was of the Marcion, dated by the middle of the century II, he was anti-Semitic, for that reason eliminated the whole Old Testament and some books of the apostolic era. His Bible consisted in: "Lucas's Gospel, the texts of the Apostle Paul and a book called Antithesis, in which presented his arguments to reject the Old Testament". His collection of Paul's epistles, called Apostólikon, it consisted of ten letters of Paul: Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, 1 and 2 Tessalonians, " Laodiceans" (Ephesians), Colossians, Philippians and Philemon. The work of Marcion forced to the church to be defined regarding the books that could be considered as part of the Scriptures. To beginnings of the century III AD. begin to appear evidence about the texts that officially would conform the New Christian Testament, for example, the canon of Muratori, named this way by his discoverer, L. A. Muratori, in the library of a monastery of Milan in 1740 AD. These writings have been dated at the end of the century II, and it presents a list of the books that they could be read openly in the church and it also mentions several books that should not be read. In the portion that it lacks in the beginning of the Muratorian fragment there was an observation evidently about Matthew; followed by a note about Mark of which a line has only been conserved. As Luke it is called the third Gospel and John the fourth, without any doubt Matthew headed the list. Next it continues the Acts of the Apostles, and after the epistles come in this order: 1 and 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, 1 and 2 Tessalonians, Romans, Philemon, Titus, 1 and 2 Timothy. It also includes Jude and 1 and 2 John. They have been 5
omitted Hebrew, James, 1 and 2 Peter and 3 John. About the Revelations it's declared in the Fragment that although John wrote to the seven churches, he spoke to all. Also was accepted the list of books for the New Testament from Saint Irenaeus, half-filled of the century II, picked up through their multiple appointments: It recognizes the four Gospels (Against Heresies iii. 11. 8). it also accepts 13 epistles of Paul 1 Peter, 1 and 2 John, Acts and Revelations. Evidently Irenaeus considered the Shepherd of Hermas like canonical because it introduces an appointment of that work with the words: "The Scripture declared" (Id., iv. 20. 2). Another father of the Church that confirmed many of the books of the New Testament was Tertullian, final of the century II, with the following variants, he didn't consider the Letter to Hebrews as canonical, because he thought that it had been written by Barnabas (On the modesty/ sobre el recato cap. 20). Tertullian accepted the Shepherd of Hermas during his first years, but it rejected it later. Time later, when the Christianity became the religion of the Roman Empire, year 313 AD, specialists consider that a differentiation already existed between accepted books and rejected, based on a text of Eusebius of the year 325 AD (ecclesiastical history iii. 25), it divided in three classes: accepted, disputed and rejected. The accepted books consist of four gospels, Acts, Paul epistles (how many and whether they include Hebrews are not specified), 1 John, 1 Peter and Apocalypse of John (or Revelation). Disputed books include James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John and Gospel according to Hebrews; while books like Acts of Paul, Apocalypse of Peter, Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas, Didache, but also Revelation belong to rejected books. Note that Revelation was listed as both accepted and rejected books. It shows the two different opinions of the canonicity of Revelation, which was especially true between the eastern churches. An important factor to institute the canon in the Greek church was the declaration of Athanasius of Alexandria in his 39.a festival Letter (367 AD), affirming that the New 6
Testament consisted of 27 books. Nevertheless some theologians of the East rejected the Revelations until the century V; but finally it was accepted. Divine Scripture or Human Scripture? Once having the formation of the complete biblical canon, does the question arise these books are of origin Divine or Human?, should it understand each other several things to give a good answer, but for a simply answer the Scripture it was written by humans, in any part of the Bible declare that the Scripture have been written by the hand of God, to exception of the ten original commandments: "At that time the LORD said unto me, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto me into the mount, and make thee an ark of wood and I will write on the tables the words that were in the first tables which thou brakest, and thou shalt put them in the ark and I made an ark of shittim wood, and hewed two tables of stone like unto the first, and went up into the mount, having the two tables in mine hand and he wrote on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten commandments, which the LORD spake unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly: and the LORD gave them unto me". Deuteronomy 10:1-4. Nevertheless, the Bible is clearly inspired by God, for example: "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. 2 Timothy 3:16-17. The word inspiration means to the influence that God gave to the human authors that wrote it; and that intervention is usually awarded to the Holy Spirit: "For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.". 2 Peter 1:21. But, if the Bible was inspired for God, How to explain errors or contradictions inside the book, if the same Scripture affirms that God is perfect?, even when the Holy 7
inspiration have support, once again it should be been careful because this word is not synonymous of "dictation", nevertheless for some specialists of the Bible, that the Bible possesses errors or contradictions, isn't a fraud sign, but if the personal vision of the scribe to the moment of the events, if it was present, or the conclusion about an investigation. For example exist two versions of the victorious entrance of Jesus in Jerusalem; Mark 11:7 and Luke 19:35, both say: "And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.". while Matthew 21:7, affirms: " And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon". that menas for one side it is spoken of a single animal, a young colt, and for the other one it is spoken of two, a young colt and an ass, even when this is contradictory, first it is to know that none of the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, it was really written by them, therefore the scribe to the moment to write the data, have been taken of the oral tradition, of other texts or of present information, that is what wrote. For example, if at the present time an accident is given in the highway that involves two cars, and four witness from different angles, each who will say their version of how it perceived the accident, and although there are small differences, none is lying, it is the same thing, if the Bible contains errors or contradictions, the specialists affirm that are just simply errors without importance that don't deviate the general truth of the Scripture. After all, the believers consider a miracle that a complete book written for approximately 40 different authors in a period approximate of 1500 years, and only it possesses tiny errors, after all historically it is known that the Hebrew copyists of the Scriptures, denominated masoretics, between the centuries VI and X, they used to count the letters to avoid errors and if they made one they began of zero. But leaving the errors of perception, the critics argue historical errors, in fact many passages of the Bible, don't coincide with the secular historical thought, for example, evidences of Abraham, Joseph and Moses in Egypt, the patriarch's existence, the conquest of Canaan and many others, it cannot refuse that it also 8
possesses many successes, for example the existence fo the King Sargon II of Assyria, confirmed in 1843, Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in Babylonian tablets, the city of Nínive. The Cylinder of Ciro that Narrates the conquest of Babylon for Cyrus the Great, the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah and others. Another criticized aspect, but that at the same time it fascinates it is the prophetic part, after everything to the Bible are awarded many fulfilled prophecies, as the Messiah's (Jesus), the destruction of the temple and others, however, the prophecy more interesting that even the sceptic are astonished is the destruction of the Ptolemaic empire, there is part of that prophecy here, explained by “Like The Master Ministries” www.neverthirsty.org Daniel 11:5: “Then the king of the South will grow strong, along with one of his princes who will gain ascendancy over him and obtain dominion; his domain will be a great dominion indeed”. (NASB) predicted that “the king of the south will grow strong, along with one of his princes.” The prince was Seleucus I. Together, Ptolemy and Seleucus grew strong. Eventually, there was a battle in the Gaza region and Antigonus the One-eyed was defeated. Consequently, Seleucus captured Babylonia and then Media, Susiana, and eventually the Indus region. Seleucus and Antigonus continued fighting until 308 B.C. Seleucus continued to expand his empire until it included most of Asia Minor. His empire was very large extending from Asia Minor on the west and into India in the east. Ptolemy’s kingdom was significantly smaller in comparison. What did scripture predict would happen between Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator? Daniel 11:5 says that Seleucus would gain “ascendancy over him” and that is exactly what occurred. Seleucus was more powerful and his empire was larger than that of Ptolemy I Soter. Daniel 11:6: "After some years they will form an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the South will come to the king of the North to carry out a peaceful arrangement. But she will not retain her position of power, nor will he remain with 9
his power, but she will be given up, along with those who brought her in and the one who sired her as well as he who supported her in those times”. In 250 B.C. Antiochus II Theos and Ptolemy II Philadelphus agreed to a peace treaty by an arranged marriage. Ptolemy II agreed that his teenage daughter Bernice would marry Antiochus II. The treaty required Antiochus to divorce his wife Laodice in order to marry Bernice. Within four years Ptolemy II died. Antiochus then decides to divorce Bernice and remarry Laodice, who then poisoned Antiochus, and murdered Bernice and those who came with her from Egypt. What does verse 6 say would happen? The passage predicted that an alliance would take place. A peaceful arrangement would be carried out when the daughter of the king of the south went to the king of the north. But she would die later along with those who came with her. The king would die and her father - “sired her” - would die. This prophecy agrees with history very accurately. Daniel 11:7-9: "But one of the descendants of her line will arise in his place, and he will come against their army and enter the fortress of the king of the North, and he will deal with them and display great strength. Also their gods with their metal images and their precious vessels of silver and gold he will take into captivity to Egypt, and he on his part will refrain from attacking the king of the North for some years. Dan 11:7-8 (NAS95S) History records that Bernice’s brother, Ptolemy III Eugeretes, became the new pharaoh in Egypt. He was so angry that his teenage sister had been murdered that he took military action against the Seleucid empire and murdered Laodice in revenge. He captured Syria for Egypt and plundered the northern empire of a vast amount of wealth and stole their gods. This was an insult to the Seleucid empire. Verses 9-10. Time elapsed after the embarrassment of being defeated by Ptolemy III Eugeretes. In response, Seleucus II Callinicus regained control of Syria and attempted to enter Egypt later, but was unsuccessful dying in 227 B.C. This is the 10
meaning of “the latter will enter . . . but will return to his own land.” History indicates that the following prophecy was accurate. Then the latter will enter the realm of the king of the South, but will return to his own land. His sons will mobilize and assemble a multitude of great forces; and one of them will keep on coming and overflow and pass through, that he may again wage war up to his very fortress. Dan 11:9 (NAS95S) History records that Seleucus II Callinicus had two sons named Seleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III The Great.. The first son, Seleucus III Ceraunus became king for only four years and died in battle in Asia Minor. He was succeeded by his brother Antiochus III The Great. The passage says that “one of them will keep coming and overflow and pass through.” The “one” is Antiochus. Antiochus gathered an army of 62,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and 102 elephants. He brought his “great force” against Egypt.. Egyptian control had extended up to the Seleucid empire including all of Palestine. History tells us that Antiochus’ army moved through Palestine easily. He waged “war up to his very fortress” refers to his campaign that was so successful that he recaptured the fortress at Raphia in 219 B.C. Consequently, he pushed Egyptian control back to the fortress at Raphia. Verses 11-12. Ptolemy III’s death occurred between verses 10 and 11. Verses 11 and 12 are focused on Antiochus III the Great‘s military campaign, and a new king. Ptolemy IV Philopator became king over Egypt two years after Antiochus III the Great. He was a man given to comfort and a life of ease. Yet, history records that he sought to regain control of Raphia in a battle with Antiochus III at Raphia. But his army was unsuccessful. Then he and his sister-wife, Arsinoe, gathered a large army of 70,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 73 elephants and defeated Antiochus at Raphia in 217 B.C. The actual Hebrew language, though awkward, gives us a better sense of what was predicted. And shall become the furious the king of the 11
south and will go out and fight with him, with the king of the north. And he shall raise a host great. And shall be given the host into his hand. (Literal Hebrew) The phrase “his hand” refers to Ptolemy. Now we understand that Ptolemy was predicted to be successful against Antiochus. This agrees with history. Ptolemy was happy with his great victory over Antiochus because he killed 10,000 infantry, 300 cavalry, and 5 elephants, and took 4,000 prisoners. He pushed Antiochus out of Palestine and then made peace. He had the advantage and did not secure his victory but decided to return home to comfort and his life of ease. History says that Ptolemy pursued a life of pleasure. He did “not prevail.” Verses 13-15. During 212-205 B.C. Antiochus III greatly expanded his empire into the Caspian Sea and to the border of India. That is the reason he is called Antiochus III The Great. But Antiochus had avoided Egypt until he heard that the thirty-five year old Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife had died and a four year boy, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, was the new king. Antiochus considered this to be wonderful news. After he made an agreement with Philip V of Macedonia, together they brought their armies against Egypt. Some Jews had attempted to help Antiochus defeat the Egyptians, but they were defeated. After the battle at Panias, the Egyptian commander Scopas led his army to Sidon. There Antiochus used siege works to capture the city. Notice the comment about “much equipment” and “siege mound.” God not only predicted these events, He predicted the method by which this fortress city would be defeated. Egypt was defeated. It was a crushing loss because the Egyptian commander Scopas was the best general Egypt had, and the troops he led were Egypt’s elite. What a sad picture of the human heart. We have seen men and women killing each other. Now we see a man taking advantage of a child. When given the opportunity, men and women often do just what they want. 12
Another aspect that without a doubt competes against other sacred books it’s the durability, so many people and cultures, even by the same religious, has been under attacked to destroy it. Year 303 AD, the emperor Diocletians emitted a real ordinance, in which declared that all Bible should be destroyed. Year 397 D.C., San Jerónimo announces the beginning of his translation from the Bible to Latin, call the Vulgata, concluded in the 405 AD, after that the Catholic Church decided that common people could not understand the Bible, so only it could be read and understood by priests, bishops and the Pope, so the language Latin was officialized, prohibiting the Bible to people, during the Protestant reformation, this heat vivified, when translations were made to the language common of people: English, French, German, Spanish and others, which the same church burned those Bible. Half of the XVIII century, thinkers like the french Philosopher Voltaire, decided to write against God, convinced that could destroy the whole Christian ideology in 50 years, Voltaire died in 1778 and twenty years after his death the Biblical Society Geneve bought his old house and it used it to print Bibles. Later become in the central headquarters of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Finally a historical truth is how through of the time many people have tried to destroy to the Scripture, emperors and kings have killed believers because of their faith, philosophers, thinkers and scientific have made fun of the Bible, but that book is still alive, maybe Jesus was in truth after all: "Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away". Matthew 24:35. 13
References: Como recibimos nuestra Biblia. La Biblia bajo ataque. The Middletown Bible Church. 349 East Street. Middletown, CT 06457. (860) 346-0907. The Amazinf Prophecy. Copyright © Like The Master Ministries. All Rights Reserved. www.neverthirsty.org Biblia. Wikipedia Tanaj. Wikipedia ¿Hay errores en la Biblia? Por Norman L. Geisler ¿Contiene la Biblia errores, http://www.gotquestions.org contradicciones, o discrepancias? ¿Qué significa que la Biblia es inspirada? http://www.gotquestions.org El Canon del Nuevo Testamento. © cristianismo-primitivo.org/.net/.com. Todos los Derechos Reservados. Los libros canónicos. Historia del canon de las sagradas escrituras. III. historia del canon del Nuevo Testamento. II. Historia del Canon del Antiguo Testamento. II. El canon del Antiguo Testamento entre los cristianos. http://www.mercaba.org/ Canon del Antiguo Testamento. Apologética católica. Tomado de Enciclopedia Católica. George J. Reid.. Transcrito por Ernie Stefanik. Traducido por Javier Algara Cossío. Documental. Sociedades Bíblicas Unidas. El libro Indestructible.2000 Documental. La Biblia desenterrada. France 5. Arte France. Eusebius and Canon of New Testament _ Viva Catholic. October 15, 2007. TruthMagazine. The Indestructibility of the Marion, Indiana. © Guardian of Truth Foundation 14 Bible. Cecil Willis
How to do Voodoo Are you working too hard and not getting the results?? Well,...
Son simples cuestiones que, aunque puedan resultar a priori inocentes, albergan in...
"The souls of the just are in the hand of God, and no torment shall touch them. " ...
... you understand that you will receive email communications from Bible Gateway, ... including the NIV Study Bible. With Bible Gateway Plus, ...
THE SELFISH TEXT: THE BIBLE AND MEMETICS ... In the case of a text such as the bible, ... between human beings, the bible, ...
Read God’s Word at anytime, anywhere using the YouVersion Bible App. Share Scripture with friends, highlight and bookmark passages, ...
Who Wrote the Bible? ... and writing styles are all discernable in the text—as are the ... God has given us a Bible that’s fully human and fully divine ...
As a canonical text, the Bible has two horizons: first, the ancient authors (divine and human) intention in the text itself and, second, the modern reader ...
How Does The Bible Influence Society? ... Jews and Muslims also consider the Bible to be a sacred text. ... My ideas so far is the Bible’s influence on ...
What does the Bible say about ... manual” that tells us how to operate the human body. That manual is the Bible, ... a medical text, ...
Origins of the Written Bible. ... Why do most biblical scholars see the Bible as an anthology of texts composed by human hands? Biblical Archeology.
Bible: King James Version. Simple Searches: Single word and phrase searches throughout the entire Bible; ... Browse the Bible: Select individual books;
From Hebrew Bible to ... which he interprets as an allegory about human ... The Interpretive Life of Biblical Texts. (Cambridge: Harvard ...