The Berlin Wall 1961-1989

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Information about The Berlin Wall 1961-1989
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Published on February 4, 2014

Author: mckric

Source: slideshare.net

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A Yr1 University presentation about Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall 1961-1989 Richard M McKenzie MA – Reading University © University of Reading 2006 www.reading.ac.uk 1

Two Speeches • President John F Kennedy • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK907TwM7q0 • President Ronald Reagan • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8 • From 1.19 2

Lecture Outline • The beginning of the conflict • Issues of dissent • The building of the Berliner Mauer • Results 3

The Beginning of the Conflict • Potsdam Conference • 17th July – 2nd August – – – – – – 5 D’s Demilitarisation Denazification Democratisation Disarmament Decentralisation 4

The Beginning of the Conflict • Division of Berlin in to 4 occupation zones • What is the status of Berlin ? – – – – – Part of GDR? Occupied City Part of FRG? Capital of Germany? Escape opportunity? 5

The Beginning of the Conflict • 1948 – Berlin Airlift • Currency Reform – DM v RM • 1953 – Uprising • 1958 – Khrushchev Ultimatum • 1949-1961 – Refugees 6

Issues of Dissent • Marshall Plan – Soviet Bloc rejection • Truman Doctrine – – – – – Resist Soviet Pressure Greece and Turkey Korea Berlin Vietnam • West v East Integration – NATO • Bundeswehr – Warsaw Pakt • NVA – EEC – Comecon 7

Issues of Dissent – 1956 • Invasion of Hungry and Suez – 1958 • Berlin Ultimatum • Sputnik Launched – 1959 • Cuban revolution successful – 1960 • Gary Powers shot down over Russia • “Missile Gap” – 1961 • Bay of Pigs Invasion – 1961 • Berlin Wall – 1962 • Cuban Missile Crisis 8

Issues of Dissent • 1949-13th Aug 1961 – 2,686,942 People fled GDR • Erich Honecker charged with securing the DDR’s borders • Berlin Wall • 'Antifaschistischer Schutzwall' or "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" 9

Situation in the GDR • Walter Ulbricht – “Die Wahrheit ist doch die: die DDR wird bis 1961 auf allen wichtigen Gebieten der Versorgung der Bevölkerung mit Lebensmitteln und Konsumgüten Westdeutschland einholen und überholen” • Der Antifaschistische Schutzwall – “Für jeden der Augen zusehen und Ohren zu hören, wurde offenkundig, dass Westberlin in der Tat ein äußert gefährlicher Kriegsbrandherd ist (…). Es musste vielmehr dafür gesorgt werden, dass der Brand, der in Westberlin angeblassen wordern war und der auf die Häuser der Nachbarn überspringen sollte, rechtzeitig unter Kontrolle kam. Es war unsere Aufgabe, das zu tun. (…) Es kommt hinzu, dass wir als Teil des sozialistischen Lagers, also sozialistischer Staat, die hohe Verpflichtun habe, die Politik der friedlichen Koexistenz, did die ganze Welt braucht, nicht durch wahnwitzige westdeutsche Militarlisten und ihre westberliner Ableger stören zu lassen. 10

13th August 1961 11

13th August 1961 12

13th August 1961 13

13th August 1961 14

Results 15

Results • 238 people killed trying to cross the wall • Western Allies leave wall standing • Tension in Berlin reduces and DDR starts to be secure 16

www.germanwarfilm.co.uk 17

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