The Art of Skillful Investigation

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Information about The Art of Skillful Investigation
Technology

Published on March 21, 2014

Author: jmeerts

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Slides of the presentation that I did at the Belgium Testing Days 2014.

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 The Art of Skillful Investigation Belgium Testing Days Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 v1.0

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 About me • Joris Meerts • Software tester since 2007 • Capgemini • Context-driven school • www.testingreferences.com • Member of the Dutch Exploratory Workshop on Testing (DEWT) • @testingref

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 I want something that explains what testing IS not what it SHOULD BE

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Normative theories

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. What are normative theories?

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Normative theories in testing • Development of normative theories started early. • We have many of them. • IEEE 829, IEEE 1012 (V&V), TMap, ISEB, ISQTB, TMMi, ISO 29119

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 • Normative theories are hiding behind a ‘toolbox of practices’. • They are never truly seen as theories. • They are not challenged as theories would be challenged. Why are normative theories still around?

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 “Whether this method is successful or not, is not known. There are no scientific publications on the subject.”

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 • William Howden - Reliability of the Path Analysis Testing Strategy (1976) • Richard Hamlet - Theoretical Comparison of Testing Methods (1989) • Elaine Weyuker - The Evaluation of Program-Based Software Test Data Adequacy Criteria (1988) • Lee J. White - A Domain Strategy for Computer Program Testing (1980) • Luc Bougé - Test sets generation from algebraic specifications using logic programming (1986) • Jefferson Offut - Criteria for Generating Specification-based Tests (1999) • Richard A. Kemmerer - Testing Formal Specifications to Detect Design Errors (1985) • Robert M. Hierons - Testing from a Z specification (1997) • John Goodenough, Susan Gerhart - Toward a Theory of Test Data Selection (1975) • Thomas J. Ostrand, Elaine Weyuker - Theories of program testing and the application to revealing subdomains (1980) • Jeremy Dick, Alain Faivre - Automating the Generation and Sequencing of test cases from model-based specifications (1993) • Deepinder Sidhu, Ting-Kau Lung - Formal Methods in Protocol Testing: a Detailed Study (1989) Mind you, there is research in testing!

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 “A scientific discipline emerges . . . with the discovery of useful and helpful concepts. Scientific thought comprises in addition the conscious search for the useful and helpful concepts.” Edsger Wybe Dijkstra On the role of scientific thought (1974)

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Descriptive theories

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 “Descriptive theories are needed when nothing or very little is known about the phenomenon in question.” Jaqueline Fawcett The Relationship of Theory and Research (1986)

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 “Anyway, I think we should stop teaching testers practices that they might or might not need. Instead we should focus more on teaching testers how to evaluate their situation” Markus Gaertner Software Tester – From New to Good to Great (2014)

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Testing as investigation

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Testing is the art of skillful investigation by experimentation

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 • Mind maps • Drawings • Relationships • Interaction How to investigate: mental models

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 How to investigate: comparisons (1) • Product history • Manuals • Standards • Conversations • Other products (such as ketchup) • Analogies

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 Sequence, Concurrence, Confluence, Synchronization, Share, Interaction, Continuity, Hierarchy, Priority, Dependency, Repetition, Loop, Parameter, Prerequisite, Configuration, Rule, Customize, Constraint, Resource, Access, Lock, State, History, Roll back, Restore, Refresh, Clone, Temporary, Trace, Batch, Void, Absent, Feedback, Saturate, Sort, Scale, Corrupt, Integrity, Invoke, Timing, Delay, Velocity, Instance, Format, Precision, Duplicate, Transmit, Wait, Source, Trigger, Lost, Reality, Classification How to investigate: comparisons (2)

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 experiment

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 How to investigate: conducting an experiment • Set up a theory • Conduct the experiment • Observe the result

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 How to investigate: observation from a frame of reference • William Kahan • Father of the floating point

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 How to investigate: reasoning • Testers must provide sound evidence • On the basis of theory • On the basis of observations

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 • Jonathan Baron – Thinking and Deciding • Norwood Russell Hanson – Patterns of Discovery • Joy Paul Guilford – The Nature of Human Intelligence • Karl E. Wieck - Theory Construction as Disciplined Imagination • Ron Ritchhart - Intellectual Character : What It Is, Why It Matters, and How to Get It • Malcolm Gladwell – The Ketchup Conundrum • Philip N. Johnson-Laird - The Psychology of Syllogisms • Carl Sagan - The Demon-Haunted World • Shirley Gregor - The Nature of Theory in Information Systems • Paul Feyerabend – Against Method • Peter Naur - Programming as Theory Building • Jacqueline Fawcett - The Relationship of Theory and Research • Richard P. Feynman - Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! • Philip N. Johnson-Laird - Mental Models • Plato - Selected Dialogues of Plato: The Benjamin Jowett Translation • Herbert A. Simon - The Sciences of the Artificial • Russell L. Ackoff - Towards a System of Systems Concepts • Jerome S. Bruner - Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing • National Center for History in the Schools - Historical Thinking Standards • William Kahan - Needed Remedies for the Undebuggability of Large-Scale Floating-Point Computations in Science and Engineering • Rikard Edgren, Martin Jansson, Henrik Emilsson - 37 Sources for Test Ideas References

The Art of Skillful Investigation Joris Meerts, 18 March 2014 joris.meerts@capgemini.com @testingref www.testingreferences.com Thank you for attending my presentation!

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