The Art of public speaking

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Information about The Art of public speaking
Education

Published on September 8, 2012

Author: imprintcenter

Source: authorstream.com

The Art of public speaking: The Art of public speaking Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com The communication process : Communicating involves a SENDER who takes his/her thoughts and encodes them into verbal and nonverbal messages that are sent to a RECEIVER. The receiver then DECODES the messages and attempts to understand what the sender meant to communicate. The communication process is completed when the receiver transmits verbal and nonverbal FEEDBACK to indicate his/her reception and understanding of the message. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com The communication process The Communication Process and Public Speaking: The communication process can break down in any number of ways, and an effective speaker should not take the audience's understanding of messages for granted. An effective speaker makes sure to learn all that is possible about the audience and to adapt the message to that audience. Non-verbal messages are usually believed more than verbal messages. When there is a conflict between nonverbal and verbal messages, the audience tends to believe the nonverbal. An effective public speaker makes sure that the nonverbal messages compliment and strengthen the verbal messages. More communication does not equal better communication. An effective public speaker focuses on the quality of communication, not the quantity Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com The Communication Process and Public Speaking Become an Effective Listener : The main thing to remember is that hearing does not equal listening. Hearing is a physiological process that involves the reception of vibrations by the delicate structures within our ears. Listening is a psychological process that involves the interpretation of what we hear. Hearing is passive--it takes no effort on our part, while listening is active-- it take effort and a willingness to tune in. One of the most important parts of public speaking is learning how to listen to or read your audience. This means being able to observe and to utilize the feedback from the audience. Being a good listener also helps in the development of your speech because it allows you to gain skills in analyzing messages and retaining information. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Become an E ffective Listener Selecting an Appropriate Topic : Introduction Trying to find a topic that will "blow the audience away." Trying to find a topic that your audience will like. Trying to find a topic that will make you look really cool. Finding a "Good" Topic that you have some knowledge about, or wish to gain knowledge about; that you care about; and that is appropriate for the audience and the setting Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Selecting an Appropriate Topic Purpose for Communication : Your first step is to focus on what you want to accomplish with this speech. There are four basic types of speech purposes: To Inform To Persuade To Entertain To Accomplish a Special Purpose Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Purpose for Communication Researching your Topic : Planning Your Research Start a file where you can keep all your materials in one place. Make sure that you record ALL sources of information. Plan a strategy for gathering materials. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Researching your Topic Guidelines for Gathering Material : Start at home Use the most valuable resource - people . Learn how to do computer searching . Question the credibility of information . Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Guidelines for Gathering Material Audience Analysis: Demographic traits Age Education level Occupation Gender Martial status Religion Racial/ cultural/ ethnic background Group membership Hobbies/ Interests Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Audience Analysis Audience Analysis (contd): Situational traits Size Physical setting Seating & Visibility Temperature Distraction Formal and informal settings Disposition toward topic Interest Knowledge Attitude Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Audience Analysis ( contd ) Audience Analysis (contd): Situational traits Disposition towards Speaker Credibility Reputation Expectation Disposition toward occasion Why is the audience attending Is their attendance voluntary or compulsory Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Audience Analysis ( contd ) Gathering Audience Data : Interview someone who is a member of the group you are addressing Prepare ahead of time Be on time and respect the interviewee's time Find out from them additional sources, if needed Questionnaires Distribute at meetings Follow up with personal interviews Encyclopedia of Associations Available in most libraries Good for gathering initial information to prepare for interviews Go to a meeting Extremely valuable when speaking to an organization Contact them ahead of time Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Gathering Audience Data Speech Structures : Space Classification Comparison Contrast Cause-effect Problem- solution Time Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Speech Structures Introductions: Get the attention and interest of the audience Reveal the topic of your speech Establish credibility and goodwill Establishes WHY the audience should listen to you . Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Introductions Tips for Developing Effective Introduction : Keep it brief Use visual language Use an effective attention getting device Stories - keep them short and dramatic Shocking statistics - make sure that they are both shocking and easily understandable Quotations - keep them brief and to the point Relate everything to the audience Rollovers - a story that is begun in the introduction and finished in the conclusion. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Tips for Developing Effective Introduction Conclusion : Signal the end of the speech Reinforce the residual message Provide a sense of closure Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Conclusion Tips for effective Conclusion : Don't give new information in the conclusion. Only review points, do not add to them. Refer to your introduction. End with a bang, not a whimper. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Tips for effective Conclusion Using Visual Aids : There are two types of visual aids -- static and dynamic. Static visual aids do not change during the presentation . Posters Overheads Slides Non-animated computer graphics Blackboard drawings that are prepared ahead of time Dynamic visual aids change in some way during the presentation . Video Audio Animated computer graphics Drawings and overheads Actual objects Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Using Visual Aids Rules of thumb for Using Visual Aids: Visuals should add to the presentation, not distract from it. Your visual aids must be clearly visible and understandable by the entire audience. Use a simple fonts Avoid distributing objects to the audience while you are speaking Practice with you visuals well ahead of time so that you can smoothly integrate them into your performance. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Rules of thumb for Using V isual Aids Rules of thumb for Using Visual Aids (Contd): Be prepared for disaster ! Visual aids can only add to a good speech, they cannot rescue a poorly developed speech. Speak to your audience, not your visual aids . Keep video and audio presentations short and to the point . Try to have only one piece of information on a poster or overhead transparency . Statistical information is easier for your audience to understand when presented visually through charts and graphs Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Rules of thumb for Using V isual Aids ( Contd ) Practice & Delivery: Know what you are going to say, not how you are going to say it. Know your speech well enough so that you will only need a minimal amount of words or phrases on your index card. Be aware of distracting elements and strive to correct them while speaking. DO NOT start speaking until you are fully situated in front of the audience, and have taken a deep breath! Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Practice & Delivery Practice & Delivery (contd): Realize that NOTHING WILL TAKE THE PLACE OF PREPARATION . When practicing your speech, go through the entire speech before stopping to make corrections. Prepare well enough in advance so that you can get a good night's sleep before your speaking date. DO NOT PUT THIS ASSIGNMENT OFF TILL THE LAST MINUTE Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: imprintspdp@gmail.com Practice & Delivery (contd)

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