The Arab-Israeli Conflict

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Information about The Arab-Israeli Conflict
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Published on February 26, 2014

Author: milead

Source: authorstream.com

The Arab-Israeli Conflict A brief timeline.: The Arab-Israeli Conflict A brief timeline . AEA Year 10th Adolfo García Morillo Social Science Department Colegio de San Francisco de Paula Ancient history of Israel and Palestine : Ancient history of Israel and Palestine Philistines (Sea- People ) Babylonians Assyrians Chaldeans Egyptians Persians Macedonians Roman Empire Byzantines Caliphate Christian Crusaders Ottoman Empire (WWI) British Mandate United Nations (1947) Ancient history of Israel and Palestine: Ancient history of Israel and Palestine First Temple ( Solomon ) destroyed by … The Egyptians The Assyrians The Babilonians Ancient history of Israel and Palestine: Ancient history of Israel and Palestine Second Temple ( Cyrus ) attacked by … Alexander the Great ( considered the possibility ) The Seleucids (placed a Zeus statue in there ) Sacked and destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD Destroyed again in 135, after the Third Revolt . Ancient history of Israel and Palestine: Ancient history of Israel and Palestine 70 AD: The Diaspora started . 135 AD: The Jews were expelled from their land by the Romans . The Roman Province is renamed as “ Palestine ” Ancient history of Israel and Palestine: Ancient history of Israel and Palestine After the Arab conquest in the 7th century , Palestine became culturally assimilated to the Muslim world . Jewish and Christian minorities remained there , mainly in Jerusalem . Eventually , it became part of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire in 1516. 19th Century and Zionism: 19th Century and Zionism In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western European countries. The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded. 19th Century and Zionism: 19th Century and Zionism Antisemitism substitued Anti- Judaism . Nationalist agendas, based on ethnicity, usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race. (“They live among us but are not us”) 19th Century and Zionism: 19th Century and Zionism In the period before World War II, when animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, organization, or political party to self-identify as an Antisemite or Antisemitic . 19th Century and Zionism: 19th Century and Zionism Zionism arose as a nationalist and political movement aimed at restoring the land of Israel as a national home for the Jewish people. Tens of thousands of Jews, mostly from Europe but also from Asia, started migrating to Palestine . 19th Century and Zionism: 19th Century and Zionism Zionism saw national independence as the only answer to anti-Semitism and to the centuries of persecution and oppression of Jews in the Diaspora. The first Zionist Congress took place in 1897 in Basel The British Mandate for Palestine : The British Mandate for Palestine During World War I Great Britain captured part of the Middle East, including Palestine, from the Ottoman Empire. In 1917 the British had promised the Zionists a 'Jewish national home' in the Balfour Declaration. The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine Jewish immigration and land purchases met with increasing resistance from the Arab inhabitants of Palestine, who started several violent insurrections against the Jews and against British rule in the 1920s and 1930s. THIS HISTORY OF JERUSALEM in five minutes!: THIS HISTORY OF JERUSALEM in five minutes! The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine The radical Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al- Husseini revolted against the British Rule, with the result of the death of hundreds of Jews, and also a lot of Palestinian Arabs from competing groups. The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine The Zionists in Palestine (called the Yishuv ) established their own organizations like the Haganah and the (more radical) Irgun . The latter carried out reprisal attacks on Arabs from 1936 on. The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine Under Arab pressure the British severely limited Jewish immigration to Palestine. Several proposals to divide the area had been rejected by the Palestinian Arabs in 1937. The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine Jewish refugees from countries controlled by Nazi Germany now had no place to flee to, since nearly all other countries refused to let them in. The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine The Jewish answer : Organised illegal immigration . Demanded an independent State in Palestine . Terrorist attacks targeted also British institutions in Palestine . The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine Great Britain refused to let in Jewish immigrants - mostly Holocaust survivors - even after World War II. Illegal immigrants who were caught were sent back or detained on Cyprus. PowerPoint Presentation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IT9K1PIVHc&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gmBfWDW9tU The British Mandate for Palestine: The British Mandate for Palestine Because of Increasing international protests against this policy . Incompatible demands of the rulers and the ruled . Increasing violence by both Palestinian Arabs and the Zionists … United Nations Mandate: United Nations Mandate The British returned the Mandate to the UN. In 1947, a Partition Plan was suggested by the UN. It included a division into 7 irregular parts , with complicated borders and corridors . United Nations Mandate: United Nations Mandate Jerusalem and Bethlehem would remain as international territories . 56% of the land would go the Jews . 43% to the Muslims . The Zionists accepted the Plan. The Palestinian Arabs and the Arab Countries rejected it . United Nations Mandate: United Nations Mandate It soon became clear that the plan could not work due to the mutual antagonism between the two peoples. United Nations Mandate: United Nations Mandate In November 1947, the conflict escalated and Palestinian Arabs started attacking Jewish convoys and communities throughout Palestine and blocked Jerusalem, whereas the Zionists attacked and destroyed several Palestinian villages. The Arab League openly declared that it aimed to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state by force. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel A day after the declaration of the state of Israel (May 14, 1948) Arab troops from the neighboring countries invaded the area. Initially they had better weaponry and more troops, but that changed soon after.  Due to better organization, intelligence and motivation the Jews ultimately won their War of Independence. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel After the armistice agreements in 1949, Israel controlled almost 80% of the area, but Jordan had annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Jerusalem now was divided, with the Old City under Jordanian control. Jews were not allowed to enter the Old City and go to the Wailing Wall. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel The Jewish minorities in all Arab countries fled or were expelled (approximately 900,000), most of whom went to Israel, the US and France. These Jewish refugees all were relocated in their new home countries. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel The Arab countries refused to permanently house the Palestinian Arab refugees, because they - as well as most of the refugees themselves - maintained that they had the right to return to Israel. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel About a million Palestinian refugees still live in refugee camps in miserable circumstances (Jordan, Gaza Strip, Syria and Lebanon). Israel rejected the Palestinian 'right of return' as it would lead to an Arab majority in Israel, and said that the Arab states were responsible for the Palestinian refugees. The Establishment of the State of Israel: The Establishment of the State of Israel The question of the Palestinian right of return is the first mayor obstacle for solving the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Six Day War and Arab rejectionism : The Six Day War and Arab rejectionism The Arab-Israeli conflict persisted as Arab countries refused to accept the existence of Israel and instigated a boycott of Israel, while they continued to threaten with a war of destruction. The Six Day War and Arab rejectionism: The Six Day War and Arab rejectionism They also founded Palestinian resistance groups which carried out terrorist attacks in Israel, like Fatah in Syria in 1959 (under the guidance of Yasser Arafat), and the PLO in Egypt in 1964. PowerPoint Presentation: In May of 1967, the conflict escalated. Egypt formed a defense union with Syria, Jordan and Iraq and stationed a large number of troops along the Israeli border. Israel attacked in June 1967 and conquered the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Desert from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan (see map below). Initially Israel was willing to return most of these territories in exchange for peace, but the Arab countries refused to negotiate peace and repeated their goal of destroying Israel at the Khartoum conference .

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