Published on February 25, 2014
The American Identity: Europeans, Black Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans “In the next century, we will have an opportunity to become the world's first truly multiracial, multiethnic democracy. ” B. Clinton “The US – a nation of diversity and promise.”
Population in the USA Population in 2012- 30.09.2012 314,488,3471 Population Growth in 2000-2010 9,9%2 (about 1% per year) Expected population by 2050 – 423 mil3 1 September 2012 U.S. Census Bureau. 2 http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-01.pdf 3 http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/analytical-
Population Growth *Источник: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/SummaryTabA1.pdf
Racial and ethnic groups of American Population in 2008 (305 mil) • White • Black Americans • Hispanics • Asians • Native Americans 66% 14% 15% 5% 1,6%
Ethnic make-up of the population in 2010 *2010 г: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf
Increase in racial and ethnic diversity • In 1990 respondents of the Census Bureau could select only one of the 5 categories : White, Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Aleutian, Asian or Pacific Islander. • The 2000 Census gave people the option of choosing from 63 race options!
American population in 2010 and 2050 2010 2050 Whites 63.7% 46.3% Asians 4.8% 7.8% Blacks 12.6% 13% Hispanics 16.3% 30.2% http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/files/nation/summary/ np2008-t4.xls
Geographical distribution of racial and ethnic groups (2005) Minorities Whites The West 36% 64% The South 30% 70% The Northeast 23% 77% The Midwest 15% 85% US Census Bureau, California, racial breakdown,
Racial composition of the Regions • Hispanics and Asians are likely to live in the West • Blacks in the South • Whites in the Northeast, Midwest and Mountain states
Racial composition of metropolitan areas vs suburbs • Hispanics and Asians tend to live and settle down in NYC, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Diego, Las Vegas, San Francisco – metropolitan areas • 60% of White Americans live in the suburbs
Data Set: 2006 Population Estimates United States by State ( 300 mil) • Legend The most populous state
During the Twentieth Century annual numbers of births fluctuated considerably. The numbers reached a low during the depths of the Great Depression, and peaked during the post-World War II Baby Boom.
Population Age-Sex Structure On age-sex pyramids the bars on the left represent male cohorts by five-year age categories.
Non-Hispanic Whites • Non-Hispanic whites are currently 64% of the U.S. population and are projected to be 46% in 2050. • Growth rate of Whites is the lowest one • Today non-Hispanic whites are in the minority in four states -- Hawaii, New Mexico, California and Texas -- and the District of Columbia
Non-Hispanic Whites • Whites tend to live in nonmetropolitan areas – more “footloose” • Ethnics – people who are identified with a national origin (French communities in New Orlean, Russians in NYC, etc) • WASPs – White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
Region Whites Ethnic Minorities Midwest 85% 15% Northeast 77% 23% South 70% 30% West 64% 36% Midwest – the highest concentration of whites NYC 44,66 % of whites California 43,8 % of whites. 1 1 US Census Bureau, California, racial breakdown, 2005
Black Americans • Blacks are the largest minority group - 40.7 mil - 14% • The Black population is projected to rise from 14 % in 2008 to 15 % in 2050 • They are likely to be found in the South and in huge metropolitan areas
Black Americans • 1808 Congress bans importation of slaves • The Compromise of 1820 prohibits slavery in territories north of Missouri. • 1861 Lincoln takes the presidential oath of office. • 1861 The Southern Confederacy ratifies a new Constitution and elects Jefferson Davis as the first Confederate president. • 1861-1865 Civil War
Black Americans • 1863 - The Emancipation Proclamation abolishes slavery • 1865 13th Amendment abolished slavery • 1868 14th Amendment gave Blacks the right of citizenship • 1870 15th Amendment gave Blacks the right to vote
The Civil Rights Movement • 1896 The Supreme Court rules that “separate but equal” accommodations for African Americans and whites are сonstitutional. This decision allows for legalized segregation • 1950s-1960sThe Civil Rights movement. Martin Luther King. • 1954 The Supreme Court rules in Brown vs Topeka Board of Education that “separate but equal” educational facilities are unconstitutional • 1964 The Civil Rights Acts ensures voting rights and prohibits housing discrimination.
Hispanics • Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic minority (15% the US population) • The Hispanic population is projected to nearly triple, from almost 47 mil to 133 mil, during the 2008-2050 period, and will jump from 15% to 30% of the population.
Hispanics • Hispanics are people who reported that their normal language is Spanish; they are also described as being of any race • Hispanic is considered an ethnicity, not a race; people of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race
Why are Hispanics classified as a distinct group ? they have come since about 1950 in very large numbers; they tend to remain in the certain parts of the US; they are slow to learn English; majority of them appear to be ethnically different from white or black Americans.
Asians • Asians are the second fastest-growing group in the United States • According to the August 14 2008 Census Bureau report Asians will increase from 5% of the U.S. population in 2008 to 7.8 % by 2050 • They are attracted by 3 metropolitan areas – NYC, Los Angeles, San Francisco • Educational attainment and average income of Asians are above the average for the general population
Why are immigrants from Latin America and Asia attracted by metropolitan areas? American Immigration Laws based on family reunification Immigrants from these countries depend on their communities’ social and economic support Historical places of concentration of Asians and Hispanics were and are big cities.
Recent Tendencies among Ethnic Groups Income Employment Residential patterns Education
Percentage of Population living in poverty in 2008 Total U.S. population White AfricanAmerican Hispanics 15,1% 12,2% 33,1% 30,6% U.S.Unemployment Total U.S. Population White AfricanAmerican Hispa nics 6,1% 5,3% 11,5% 10%
What regions are the poorest ones?
INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY FIFTH (20%) LOWEST FIFTH SECOND FIFTH THIRD FIFTH FOURTH FIFTH TOTAL U.S. POPULATION $19 070 $32 985 $48 985 $72 260 WHITE $20 916 $35 046 $51 000 $75 000 AFRICANAMERICAN S $10 200 $20 000 $32 296 $51 016 HISPANICS $11 479 $19 677 $30 022 $48 492
Median Household Income 2005 What are the wealthiest regions and states?
American Indians/ Native Americans • American Indians and Alaska Natives are projected to increase from 1.6 % (4.4 mil) in 2008 to 2 % in 2050. • The largest populations live in California, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Alaska. • Native Americans speak more than 250 languages, and there are 561 federally languages recognized tribal governments in the United States. • Some live on rural or remote reservations, in villages and pueblos, or on Rancherias
The number of reservations on the territory of the US – 314 The majority of the reservations are in the West. More than 1/2 of American Indians reside in California(413,382) Arizona(294,137) Oklahoma(279,559)
American Indians • 25000 BC - The Native Americans are believed to have arrived in North America • 1786 - The U.S. establishes first Native American reservation • 1830 - Congress passes the Removal Act, forcing Native Americans to settle in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River • 1887 - The Dawes Act dissolves many Indian reservations in United States • 1924 - Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act
Indian Reservations Today • In 1934 the Indian Reorganization Act or the Indian New Deal encouraged NA to set up their own councils to run the affairs of their reservations • An Indian reservation is a formal term for land which is managed by a Native American tribe under the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs. • The land is federal territory and Native Americans have limited national sovereignty, there are legal casinos on reservations.
Tribal Governments • There are 560 tribal governments with a direct government-to-government relationship with the federal government. • There are about 300 Indian reservations in the USA, meaning not all of the country’s 500-plus recognised tribes have a reservation. • These governments’ responsibilities: administering their own judicial systems and police forces, • operating schools and hospitals, managing a wide range of business enterprises.
Harvard University Research The State of Native Nations (2008) • Most of the social and economic indicators are moving in a positive direction • Many tribal governments are strong • Educational attainment levels are improving • There is a cultural renaissance occurring in many tribal communities.
A new program at the University of North Texas (UNT) launched in 2009 by the International Indigenous and American Indian Initiative • A variety of Native-oriented courses; • An Indigenous Studies major /minor, a significant presence of Native faculty and staff at all levels • Ongoing Native student recruitment and funding; • Language preservation; • Significant Native-generated library holdings; • A viable indigenous student organization; • Indigenous-related research; • Strong relations with Native nations, tribal colleges, and American Indian organizations.
Population Aging • One in five people will be 65 and older by 2050. • By 2050, there will be 19 mil people age 85 and older, more than 3 times today’s number. • The population in the “working ages” of 18 to 64 is projected to fall from 63 % to 57 % between 2008 and 2050, and over half (55 %) will be minorities.
Percent of a country’s residents aged 65+ http://www.censusscope.org/us/map_65plus.html
References • • • • • • • • • http://www.census.gov/ http://usgovinfo.about.com/ http://www.ssa.gov/ http://us-america.ru/ http://www.mineful.com/demographics http://usgovinfo.about.com/ http://www.newgeography.com/ http://www.gallup.com America's Changing Demographics http://www.pbs.org/nbr/site/features/special/changing_ demographics/ • Birthrate Is Lowest in a Century. The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/28/us/28birth.html • www.boomerslife.org/
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