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Published on May 23, 2007

Author: equitywatch

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Evolving ways to use ecology for economy

Towards Green Villages

Objectives To understand the biomass economy To debate and dialogue environmental sustainability To take stock of current state of rural development To evolve ways to use ecology for economy

To understand the biomass economy

To debate and dialogue environmental sustainability

To take stock of current state of rural development

To evolve ways to use ecology for economy

Structure Not a skill sharing but deepening understanding Content is evidence based Focus on sharpening our advocacy/ implementation strategy Speakers represent key areas Emphasis on group works

Not a skill sharing but deepening understanding

Content is evidence based

Focus on sharpening our advocacy/ implementation strategy

Speakers represent key areas

Emphasis on group works

Expectation To broaden our understanding To seek/form alliance for greater common good To initiate change

To broaden our understanding

To seek/form alliance for greater common good

To initiate change

India’s Biomass Economy

India’s Biomass Economy SD is development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs Economics often gives the wrong signals It is internally consistent but makes the wrong assumptions It works in the short term but leaves us vulnerable in the long term It should create employment and eliminate poverty It should create wealth for everyone This requires an economic system that is strongly altruistic and cooperative

SD is development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

Economics often gives the wrong signals

It is internally consistent but makes the wrong assumptions

It works in the short term but leaves us vulnerable in the long term

It should create employment and eliminate poverty

It should create wealth for everyone

This requires an economic system that is strongly altruistic and cooperative

India’s Biomass Economy Ecology contributes 80 percent of income of poor Around 29 percent of ‘national wealth’ sustains 60 percent of population The ‘informal’ sector employs 92 percent of India. Private and public together only 8 percent Over 60% people depend on agriculture, fisheries and forests Agriculture: directly employs 234 million people

Ecology contributes 80 percent of income of poor

Around 29 percent of ‘national wealth’ sustains 60 percent of population

The ‘informal’ sector employs 92 percent of India. Private and public together only 8 percent

Over 60% people depend on agriculture, fisheries and forests

Agriculture: directly employs 234 million people

India’s Biomass Economy Agriculture contributes 21% of GDP Though declining, dependence increasing GDP may not be showing the right dependence Industry’s major resources are biomass Latest trends show that people still feel agriculture as the livelihood So GNP (Gross Nature Produce) is the right indicator

Agriculture contributes 21% of GDP

Though declining, dependence increasing

GDP may not be showing the right dependence

Industry’s major resources are biomass

Latest trends show that people still feel agriculture as the livelihood

So GNP (Gross Nature Produce) is the right indicator

Ecosystems in India

Ecosystems in India Ecosystems are ecological governance units Ecosystems decide economic activities Effective socio-economic governance based on this

Ecosystems are ecological governance units

Ecosystems decide economic activities

Effective socio-economic governance based on this

Ecological Regions of India Ecological Regions of India

Ecosystems in India Importance of ecosystems   Key components of eco-systems They are the origin of all ecological maladies A small change in ecosystem triggers poverty The most effective unit for development They define precisely the local needs based on ecology They have clues to persistent poverty issues They are the basic unit for sustainable development

Importance of ecosystems

 

Key components of eco-systems

They are the origin of all ecological maladies

A small change in ecosystem triggers poverty

The most effective unit for development

They define precisely the local needs based on ecology

They have clues to persistent poverty issues

They are the basic unit for sustainable development

Ecosystems in India Ecosystems and current development plans Rural schemes are uniform Few of them are area specific like DPAP Centralised development ignores ecosystems So most programmes fail to impact

Ecosystems and current development plans

Rural schemes are uniform

Few of them are area specific like DPAP

Centralised development ignores ecosystems

So most programmes fail to impact

Ecosystems of India State of economy in ecosystems Very difficult to measure Arid and semi-arid ecosystems are the poor regions Most of migration happens from degraded ecosystems Majority of unemployment in these areas

State of economy in ecosystems

Very difficult to measure

Arid and semi-arid ecosystems are the poor regions

Most of migration happens from degraded ecosystems

Majority of unemployment in these areas

State of Poverty in India

State of Poverty in India India’s poverty line: Rs. 12/day in rural, Rs.18/day in urban India More than 300 million people below this line (70% in rural) Poverty > getting chronic, concentrated Natural resource rich areas the poorest (60%)

India’s poverty line: Rs. 12/day in rural, Rs.18/day in urban India

More than 300 million people below this line (70% in rural)

Poverty > getting chronic, concentrated

Natural resource rich areas the poorest (60%)

State of Poverty Economy grows at around 9%, agriculture at 2.3 % Food grain available: 152 kg /person (rural). 23 kg less than in 90s 30% households eat less than 1,700 kilo calories per day/person Rural poor spend 70 percent of income on food. Starvation 57% of land facing degradation (increase of 53 percent since 1994) Impact esp. on common lands & rain fed areas. About 68 percent of the net sown area drought prone . 60% of cultivable areas are rainfed (no irrigation). Produce 42% of food 2.5tons/ha productivity 80 % of India’s landholding is less than one hectare The average annual land fragmentation is 2.7/land holding 33% landless (22% in 1991-92) Every second farmer today indebted. Suicides

Economy grows at around 9%, agriculture at 2.3 %

Food grain available: 152 kg /person (rural). 23 kg less than in 90s

30% households eat less than 1,700 kilo calories per day/person

Rural poor spend 70 percent of income on food. Starvation

57% of land facing degradation (increase of 53 percent since 1994)

Impact esp. on common lands & rain fed areas. About 68 percent of the net sown area drought prone .

60% of cultivable areas are rainfed (no irrigation). Produce 42% of food

2.5tons/ha productivity

80 % of India’s landholding is less than one hectare

The average annual land fragmentation is 2.7/land holding

33% landless (22% in 1991-92)

Every second farmer today indebted. Suicides

State of Poverty Govt.’s anti-poverty schemes 60 years of targeted anti-poverty programmes More than 2000 rural development programmes Rs. 314 billion for poverty alleviation/year Rs. 260 billion for food subsidy/year Rs. 71 billion for irrigation/year Rs. 6 billion for afforestation/year Rs. 2,270 Billion to sustain the bureaucracy/annual It takes Rs. 3.65 to transfer Rs. 1 programme money to poor 58% subsidised food doesn’t reach poor 1/3rd employment creation against target

Govt.’s anti-poverty schemes

60 years of targeted anti-poverty programmes

More than 2000 rural development programmes

Rs. 314 billion for poverty alleviation/year

Rs. 260 billion for food subsidy/year

Rs. 71 billion for irrigation/year

Rs. 6 billion for afforestation/year

Rs. 2,270 Billion to sustain the bureaucracy/annual

It takes Rs. 3.65 to transfer Rs. 1 programme money to poor

58% subsidised food doesn’t reach poor

1/3rd employment creation against target

State of Poverty Growth vs Poverty Highest rate of economic growth in history Lowest rate of agriculture growth in history Employment per growth unit lowest ever, less than 1% Rural unemployment at 9.1 percent, double in 2 decades Poverty reduction slower during post-reform Need 108 jobs a minute for the next five years Can create 10 jobs from current growth Ecology has huge potential: 110 jobs/minute Need to redefine poverty GNP is effective gross nature produce

Growth vs Poverty

Highest rate of economic growth in history

Lowest rate of agriculture growth in history

Employment per growth unit lowest ever, less than 1%

Rural unemployment at 9.1 percent, double in 2 decades

Poverty reduction slower during post-reform

Need 108 jobs a minute for the next five years

Can create 10 jobs from current growth

Ecology has huge potential: 110 jobs/minute

Need to redefine poverty

GNP is effective gross nature produce

State of Poverty Increasing demands on Biomass Population is increasing by 2 per cent every year 1 Ha sustains now four people, 1.5 people/Ha in 1980s Firewood production must increase from 100 million ton to 300 million tonnes Green fodder production from about 230 million tonnes to 780 million tonnes. India’s per capita forests decreasing: 0.08 Ha now, 0.20 in 1951 Number of people dependent on forests is growing: from 184 million in 1996 to 226 in 2006. Timber demand (both housing and industrial): from 23 million cubic metres to 29 million cubic metres in 2006. Per capita consumption of paper rose from 3 kgs in 1995 to about 5 kgs in 2003 (in China it was 29.1 kg per person). In Asia, per capita paper consumption is five times higher than in India. But overall biomass production in India seems to be declining rapidly Around 240.62 million Ha of India’s 306.25 million Ha reported land are used for biomass production. Out of this only on a very small fraction of agricultural lands productivity has improved due to irrigation. On the rest, productivity has gone down. And it is declining.

Increasing demands on Biomass

Population is increasing by 2 per cent every year

1 Ha sustains now four people, 1.5 people/Ha in 1980s

Firewood production must increase from 100 million ton to 300 million tonnes

Green fodder production from about 230 million tonnes to 780 million tonnes.

India’s per capita forests decreasing: 0.08 Ha now, 0.20 in 1951

Number of people dependent on forests is growing: from 184 million in 1996 to 226 in 2006.

Timber demand (both housing and industrial): from 23 million cubic metres to 29 million cubic metres in 2006.

Per capita consumption of paper rose from 3 kgs in 1995 to about 5 kgs in 2003 (in China it was 29.1 kg per person). In Asia, per capita paper consumption is five times higher than in India.

But overall biomass production in India seems to be declining rapidly

Around 240.62 million Ha of India’s 306.25 million Ha reported land are used for biomass production. Out of this only on a very small fraction of agricultural lands productivity has improved due to irrigation. On the rest, productivity has gone down. And it is declining.

Ecological Poverty Explained India is biomass based thus dependent on ecology Poverty is caused by ecological degradation Poverty is caused by less access to ecology Thus India’s poverty is ecological poverty Ecological poverty is thus lack of access to natural resources To face the unprecedented demands from biomass this has to be fixed

India is biomass based thus dependent on ecology

Poverty is caused by ecological degradation

Poverty is caused by less access to ecology

Thus India’s poverty is ecological poverty

Ecological poverty is thus lack of access to natural resources

To face the unprecedented demands from biomass this has to be fixed

An Opportunity Ecological poverty is recognised now This gives us an opportunity to redesign rural programmes Programmes like NREGA and BRGF are instruments Civil society has more roles to play

Ecological poverty is recognised now

This gives us an opportunity to redesign rural programmes

Programmes like NREGA and BRGF are instruments

Civil society has more roles to play

Challenges for Ecological Poverty 0.6 million villages, .23 million elected local governments, 3.8 million elected representatives 2.3 villages per Panchayat (in Assam, as high as 29 villages/Panchayat) But a centralised approach: gradually the Federal government is in charge of resources Those who take decisions are not the ones who have to live with the consequences of those decisions Panchayats have all power over natural resources Panchayats are regarded as implementing agencies Only one state has devolved power In tribal areas, it is in more distress India has to make a fundamental shift to meet this challenge. A shift in state’s role from an often-corrupt regulator of the micro-environment to the provider of an enabling and more market-friendly environment

0.6 million villages, .23 million elected local governments, 3.8 million elected representatives

2.3 villages per Panchayat (in Assam, as high as 29 villages/Panchayat)

But a centralised approach: gradually the Federal government is in charge of resources

Those who take decisions are not the ones who have to live with the consequences of those decisions

Panchayats have all power over natural resources

Panchayats are regarded as implementing agencies

Only one state has devolved power

In tribal areas, it is in more distress

India has to make a fundamental shift to meet this challenge.

A shift in state’s role from an often-corrupt regulator of the micro-environment to the provider of an enabling and more market-friendly environment

Rainfed Areas, New Crisis Center

Rainfed areas, new crisis center Introduction Irrigation areas stagnating Food production less than pre-Green Revolution period Need to double up food production Rainfed areas are the answer

Introduction

Irrigation areas stagnating

Food production less than pre-Green Revolution period

Need to double up food production

Rainfed areas are the answer

Rainfed areas, new crisis center Rainfed agriculture in India extends over an area of 97 million ha and constitute nearly 67 % of the net cultivated area

Rainfed areas, new crisis center The ecology of rainfed areas One crop agriculture but 42% production Degraded natural resource base, low soil fertility, soil erosion 15-20% rainwater runs off from rainfed farms But has 65% of unutilized irrigation Most of backward districts in these areas 60-70% poor of India are in these areas

One crop agriculture but 42% production

Degraded natural resource base, low soil fertility, soil erosion

15-20% rainwater runs off from rainfed farms

But has 65% of unutilized irrigation

Most of backward districts in these areas

60-70% poor of India are in these areas

Rainfed areas, new crisis center Challenges - Opportunities Future food security: 37% extra food grain has to come from here Huge opportunity for regeneration of ecology Watershed approach: way out of chronic poverty Overall employment and livelihood opportunities

Future food security: 37% extra food grain has to come from here

Huge opportunity for regeneration of ecology

Watershed approach: way out of chronic poverty

Overall employment and livelihood opportunities

Ecological opportunities Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain Water conservation emerges as the core of these models Community governance is key to sustainability Lays key principles of sustainable development

Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain

Water conservation emerges as the core of these models

Community governance is key to sustainability

Lays key principles of sustainable development

Community-led Water Management Initiatives Jhabua - Government initiated but implemented successfully by local communities Hivre Bazar - Community initiated, highly successful - Second generation model

Jhabua

- Government initiated but implemented successfully by local communities

Hivre Bazar

- Community initiated, highly successful

- Second generation model

Jhabua Jhabua: A watershed in rural development? Background- history of ecological degradation From ecological degradation to ecological poverty- impacts on economy Migration

Jhabua: A watershed in rural development?

Background- history of ecological degradation

From ecological degradation to ecological poverty- impacts on economy

Migration

Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005

Jhabua 1985 A moonscape devoid of any vegetation Copyright Centre for Science and Environment, 1985

Jhabua 1997 Soil and water conservation begun in 1994 begin to bring life back to the land Copyright Centre for Science and Environment, 1997

Jhabua 2005 Dynamic community leadership in some of the mission villages has continued the conservation work Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005

A People’s Movement Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005

Jhabua 2005 But in other villages….. Copyright Supriya Singh, SANDEE 2005

Reasons for success of Jhabua Public participation was the key to success. This required appropriate financial and institutional strategies. Inter-departmental coordination to ensure there was no policy fracture. Political will in the form of the personal supervision of the Chief Minister. Multi tier governance structures created- decentralisation of works Success- increase in water level, crop yields, income; decrease in migration, Ecological regeneration- economic transformation

Public participation was the key to success. This required appropriate financial and institutional strategies.

Inter-departmental coordination to ensure there was no policy fracture.

Political will in the form of the personal supervision of the Chief Minister.

Multi tier governance structures created- decentralisation of works

Success- increase in water level, crop yields, income; decrease in migration,

Ecological regeneration- economic transformation

The missing links Decentralization caught up in bureaucratic red tape The government beat too hasty and abrupt a retreat 2000-2001- Sudden loss of jobs and a drought = migration Appropriation of benefits by the rich and powerful Valley to ridge approach Impractical time frame- Development proceeded too fast for the institutional mechanisms to keep pace Follow up work post watershed development missing Lot of funds generated are lying unutilized in banks

Decentralization caught up in bureaucratic red tape

The government beat too hasty and abrupt a retreat

2000-2001- Sudden loss of jobs and a drought = migration

Appropriation of benefits by the rich and powerful

Valley to ridge approach

Impractical time frame- Development proceeded too fast for the institutional mechanisms to keep pace

Follow up work post watershed development missing

Lot of funds generated are lying unutilized in banks

Hivre Bazar: A tall order A replication of Ralegaon Siddhi From punishment zone to model village Community leadership, charismatic leader Revival of community institutions Discipline Lesson – It takes little to reclaim your life- the economics of community led conservation

A replication of Ralegaon Siddhi

From punishment zone to model village

Community leadership, charismatic leader

Revival of community institutions

Discipline

Lesson – It takes little to reclaim your life- the economics of community led conservation

The starting point of ecological regeneration and economic revival was water The villagers took control of their ecological destiny in their hands. They started harvesting their rainwater endowment. With groundwater recharged, agriculture improved and animal productivity increased. Once they became concerned about their water, the villagers also became concerned about their watershed. The hills are today rich and green. Distress out-migration has stopped .

The villagers took control of their ecological destiny in their hands.

They started harvesting their rainwater endowment. With groundwater recharged, agriculture improved and animal productivity increased.

Once they became concerned about their water, the villagers also became concerned about their watershed. The hills are today rich and green.

Distress out-migration has stopped .

Key Lessons - A case for how ecological regeneration is married to economic well being Government for the people- collective leadership Importance of ecology in economy Let people control their natural resources (get rid of the state) Respect traditional knowledge (learn from the villagers themselves)

- A case for how ecological regeneration is married to economic well being

Government for the people- collective leadership

Importance of ecology in economy

Let people control their natural resources (get rid of the state)

Respect traditional knowledge (learn from the villagers themselves)

Ecological opportunities Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain Water conservation emerges as the core of these models Community governance is key to sustainability Lays key principles of sustainable development

Every village in India has the resources to self-sustain

Water conservation emerges as the core of these models

Community governance is key to sustainability

Lays key principles of sustainable development

A roadmap for sustainable village Key development tips   Need of a new development paradigm (flow chart) Redefined poverty as lack of access to natural resources Water invariably becomes the core Built strong institutions based on right based approach

Key development tips

 

Need of a new development paradigm (flow chart)

Redefined poverty as lack of access to natural resources

Water invariably becomes the core

Built strong institutions based on right based approach

A roadmap for sustainable village ECOLOGICAL POVERTY Create NATURAL WEALTH   Create ECONOMIC WEALTH

A roadmap to sustainable village Key governance tips   Government does not recognise these, ignore as sporadic cases Government never supports/empowers local institutions

Key governance tips

 

Government does not recognise these, ignore as sporadic cases

Government never supports/empowers local institutions

A roadmap

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