Published on October 29, 2018
1. Link full download: https://nursingtestbankdownload.com/product/test-bank- for-methods-in-psychological-research-3rd-edition-by-evans-rooney/ Test Bank for Methods in Psychological Research 3rd Edition by Evans Rooney Chapter 11: Data Collection Methods Multiple Choice 1. What do observational research, survey research, questionnaires, andfocus groups have in common? A) They are all non-experiment approaches. *B) They are all methods of data collection. C) They all involve multiple independent variables. D) Each is a qualitative data collection technique. E) None of the above 2. What is the difference between observational research and casual people watching? *A) Research includes systematically recording behavior. B) Observational research is always non-experimental. C) People watching does not involve hypothesis testing. D) A & B E) all of the above 3. According to the textbook, naturalistic observation is a favorite techniqueof such as Jane Goodall. A) Sociologists *B) Ethnologists C) Psychologists
2. D) Social psychologists 4. Naturalistic observation is used when . *A) Reactivity is a problem B) We wish to study behavior that occurs very infrequently C) We want to conduct a field experiment D) A & B E) None of the above 5. The tendency for people to alter their behavior when they know theyare being observed is called the . A) McCulloch effect B) Hawthorn effect *C) Reactivity effect D) McClintock effect E) None of the above 6. When conducting naturalistic observation . A) You want to be unobtrusive in your record taking B) You want to be inconspicuous in your presence C) You should always use video as a backup *D) A & B E) All of the above 7. In the research example of naturalistic observation the authors were interested in .
3. A) Observing whether men who are successful in making contact with women consume more alcohol than men who are not successful *B) Observing whether men who are successful in making contact with women produce different non-verbal behaviors than men who are not successful C) Sex differences in alcohol consumption is social settings D) A & C E) All of the above 8. In the research example of naturalistic observation, what did theauthors find? A) Successful men made short direct glances at the women more frequently. B) Successful men made more space maximizing movements. C) Successful men made more non-reciprocal touches with other men. D) B & C *E) All of the above 9. In the research example of naturalistic observation, why were two observers used? A) So that each would have a different view. *B) So that inter-rater reliability could be calculated. C) Two observers lessen the chances of discovery. D) B & C E) All of the above 10.The textbook indicates that the strength of naturalistic observation is . A) High internal validity *B) High external validity C) High construct validity
4. D) High replicablity 11.According to the textbook, participant observation research is often . A) Quantitative *B) Qualitative C) Conducted by social psychologists D) Dangerous 12. In the research example of participant observation, the researchers . *A) Wanted to gather information about on-line pro-anorexia support groups B) Created a bogus on line user profile C) Gathered information via chat rooms, messaging, and email D) Used a mail-out questionnaire to gather the data E) A, B, and C 13.In the research example of participant observation, what statisticalanalysis was used? A) T-test B) ANOVA C) Pearson’s r *D) No statistics 14.In the research example of participant observation of the pro-ana on line community, the authors concluded that . A) Pro-anorexia websites educated individuals on typical anorexic and bulimic behaviours *B) It was difficult to gain acceptance into the on-line pro-anorexia community C) Pro-anorexia websites promoted eating disorders as a life style
5. D) The majority of individuals joined the on-line pro-anorexia community for support. E) C & D 15.Why might you choose to do laboratory observation instead ofnaturalistic observation? A) You want to maximize the external validity of your study. *B) The behavior of interest only occurs under specific conditions. C) You wish to make causal inferences. D) All of the above 16.A major advantage to naturalistic observation is . A) The high external validity B) The high internal validity C) That you can collect information on factors that may not be observable *D) A & C E) All of the above 17.In observation, subjectivity is a(an) . A) Naturalistic; unavoidable consequence B) Participant; advantage C) Participant; disadvantage D) A & C *E) B & C 18. What would be the best research approach if your research question is “what does it feels like to be homeless”? A) Naturalistic observation
6. *B) Participant observation C) Laboratory observation D) Survey 19.As stated in the textbook, laboratory observation is a trade-off between . A) Internal validity and level of control *B) External validity and level of control C) Internal validity and the ability to generalize your results D) External validity and the ability to generalize your results 20. In the research example of laboratory observation the researchers were interested in . *A) The behaviors that children use to exclude a newcomer B) The behaviors that adults use to exclude a newcomer C) Cheating behavior of children playing the game “Pictionary” D) Diffusion of responsibility in small groups 21.In the research example of laboratory observation the researchers recorded behavior . A) From behind a one-way mirror B) From videotape C) With an automated system to guard against bias D) In 10 second intervals *E) B & D
7. 22. In the research example of laboratory observation, what inferential statistic was used? A) T-test *B) ANOVA C) Pearson’s r D) No statistics 23.In the research example of laboratory observation, the authors found . A) That girls are more socially exclusive than boys B) That girls are not more socially exclusive than boys C) That boys and girls employ different techniques when they engage in social exclusion D) A & C *E) B & C 24. Observation research is to , as survey research is to . *A) Behaviors; attitudes and opinions B) Recording; counting C) Measuring; counting D) Listening; watching 25.What is the difference between a survey and a questionnaire? A) A survey is less formal than a questionnaire. B) A survey does not have a specific research question. *C) A survey is the action of collecting the data whereas a questionnaire is a list of questions. D) A survey is a short set of questions whereas a questionnaire may be many pages long.
8. 26.According to the textbook, interviews can be . A) Very expensive B) Time consuming C) Require trained interviewers D) A & B *E) All of the above 27.When would an interview be the preferred survey technique? A) When you want to explore sensitive topics. B) When you may want to use probing questions. C) When you have a limited budget. *D) A & B E) All of the above 28. Mary is interested in how students at her university feel about planned tuition increases. For those who strongly object she’d like to learn how they will cope and what actions they may take to protest the increase. How should she collect her data? *A) Face-to-face interview B) Telephone interview C) Mailed questionnaire D) Focus group 29.Although you don’t need to have respondents complete an informed consent form before they answer your questions, it is good practice to . A) Tell them how much they will be paid
9. B) Tell them who the survey is for C) Tell them how long the survey will take D) A & C *E) B & C 30. What is(are) the advantage(s) of the face-to-face interview? A) You gather information directly from the people you are interested in. B) You can explore complex issues. C) You can use probing questions D) A & B *E) All of the above 31.What are probing questions? A) Questions that explore personal topics. B) Profound questions that require a great deal of thought. *C) Open-ended questions that permit a range of responses. D) Sharp questions that cut to the heart of an issue. 32.According to the textbook, what is(are) the disadvantage(s) of face-to-face interviews? A) They can be very time consuming. B) They can be very expensive C) Respondents may not feel comfortable revealing intimate information. D) A & B *E) All of the above
10. 33.You are interested in identifying the barriers faced by new immigrants when looking for employment. Which of the following is the best approach? *A) Face-to-face interview B) Telephone interview C) Mailed questionnaire D) Group administered questionnaire 34.Probe questions can bias your data by leading respondents to aparticular response. The textbook suggests .? A) That probe questions be neutral B) That probe questions should be scripted beforehand C) That it is not a problem because some probe questions will lead respondents in one direction whereas others will lead respondents in the opposite direction *D) A & B E) None of the above 35.Durant and Carey (2000) investigated whether women would give different responses to questions asked in a face-to-face interview (FTFI) compared to a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ). What did they find? A) There was a high level of agreement between the responses, butthere were discrepancies. B) There was no difference between FTFI and SAQ. The responses were the same. C) SAQ produced more accurate responses than FTFI. *D) A & C E) None of the above 36. Social desirability can be a problem in face-to-face interviews. What is social desirability?
11. *A) The tendency for people to respond in a way that makes them appear better than they are. B) The tendency for people to want others to like them. C) The phenomenon whereby a bond is formed between the interviewer and the respondent. D) The tendency for people to want to form groups with other people. 37. In the research example of face-to-face interviews, the researchers were interested in . A) Evaluating the association between impulsivity and alcohol dependence B) Identifying the motives associated with initiating a bar fight for both men and women. *C)The factors that predict the severity and overall aggressiveness of women who were involved in a bar fight D) dentifying the risk factors associated with spousal abuse 38. The main advantage of the telephone survey is that . *A) There is no travel B) You don’t have to train your interviewers C) You can conduct the interview in your pajamas D) There is less reactivity 39.A telephone survey is the best choice if . A) Your interested in a sensitive topic, the telephone provides some level of anonymity *B) You require information from respondents who are spread over a large geographical area
12. C) You have complex questions that take time to explain D) All of the above E) None of the above 40.It is suggested in the textbook that telephone interviews . A) Can be up to an hour long if they respondent agrees B) Can be short or long depending on the subject matter C) Should be no longer than 20 minutes *D) Should be kept to about 10 minutes long 41. A major disadvantage of telephone interviews is . *A) Selection bias from people screening calls B) It is very expensive C) It can take a long time to collect data D) None of the above 42.In the research example of telephone interviews the researchers were interested in . A) Public concern over rising educational costs *B) Confirming the relationship between psychological traumaand schizotypal symptoms C) Investigating the relationship between work stress and alcohol use in a sample of Japanese workers D) Comparing men and women on the type of abuse they experienced as a child 43.Relative to the interview, what is(are) the advantage(s) ofthe selfadministered questionnaire?
13. A) They are cheaper. B) They are faster. C) They are anonymous. D) A & B *E) All of the above 44.Bill wants to collect data on plagiarism in his school. What data collection method should he use? A) Face-to-face interview B) Mailed questionnaire *C) Group administered questionnaire D) Focus groups 45.In the survey research example presented in the textbook, what inferential statistic was used? A) One-way ANOVA B) Two-way ANOVA *C) Three-way ANOVA D) Regression analysis 46.In the survey research example presented in the textbook, what main effect(s) were significant? A) Season of the year B) Day of the week C) Type of medium *D) B & C E) None of the above
14. 47.In the survey research example presented in the textbook, the researchers found significant interactions. Evans and Rooney, the authors of your text, noted that . A) The interactions were impossible to interpret because the samples sizes were so large B) The interactions were important and made the main effects unimportant C) The interaction effects did not change the interpretation ofthe main effects D) The statistical significance of the interactions may have been a result of large sample sizes rather than a result of any important effect *E) C & D 48. Relative to mailed questionnaires, group administered questionnaires . *A) Produce a much higher response rate B) Produce a lower response rate C) Have similar response rates D) Provide more anonymity 49.Mail surveys . A) Produce representative results due to high response rates *B) May produce biased results due to low response rates C) Have similar response rates to group administered questionnaires D) Often have response rates as high as 80% 50.If you wanted an easy way to survey a special group which method would be best? A) Telephone survey
15. B) Face-to-face interview C) Mailed survey *D) Internet questionnaire 51. The tendency for people to alter their behavior when they know they are being observed is called the reactivity effect. *A) True B) False 52.The goal of participant observation is to try to remain hidden, or at least unobtrusive, while you observe. A) True *B) False 53.Laboratory observation is a form of experimental research. A) True *B) False 54.Observational research is inexpensive because observers do not need any special training. A) True *B) False 55.The major difference between an interview schedule and a questionnaire is that a trained interviewer will read a schedule, but your respondent reads a questionnaire. *A) True
16. B) False 56. The most important step in developing a questionnaire is to pre-test your items. *A) True B) False 57. Mailed questionnaires are likely to have the lowest response rate. *A) True B) False 58.The purpose of focus group research is to survey large groups ofindividuals. A) True *B) False Type: E 59.Describe the difference between naturalistic and participant observation. *A) In naturalistic observation, the researcher observes from the outside whereas in participant observation, the researcher becomes a member of the group he orshe is observing. Type: E 60.Define the term reactivity.
17. *A) The tendency for people to alter their behavior when they know they are being observed. Type: E 61.External validity may be compromised in laboratory observational research. Briefly explain this statement. *A) Behavior may be different in an artificial setting than it is in its natural environment. Type: E 62.List two general survey instruments for collecting data. *A) Interview, questionnaire Type: E 63.List a major problem with mail out questionnaires. *A) Poor response rate Type: E 64.What is a focus group? *A) A moderator led small group discussion