Published on March 15, 2014
VIDEO CLIPS What We Now Know About Teaching EFL With Paul Maglione, Co-‐founder, English A@ack! TESOL Greece 2014
Why Video? • Our brains are wired for it à hunMng / danger • The human eye is a@racted to movement, even more than our ears are to sound • Closest to life, to everyday human experience TESOL Greece 2014
Explosion of social networks, online services and new content is making video a BIG part of our everyday lives. TESOL Greece 2014
New devices make video accessible anywhere, any Mme.
Online video is transforming educaMon For anything that lasts more than 30 seconds — or any explana7on — it makes sense to have it in video form. • 10 million students per month • 300 million lessons viewed KHAN ACADEMY
What about video in the context of EFL?
High variance in English proﬁciency levels across naMons: what can explain it? Smaller countries with “diﬃcult” languages…BUT ALSO: television and movies not dubbed in local language PORTUGAL is top-‐ranked “La7n” country… also does not dub US/UK ﬁlms into local language
Lowest-‐ranked countries tend to be “cut oﬀ” from Anglophone culture and media for cultural and/or poli7cal reasons. “Western” na7ons where TV series / ﬁlms are dubbed into local language High variance in English proﬁciency levels across naMons: what can explain it?
Exposure to English For learners not living in an English-‐speaking country, regular exposure to spoken English through video is the easiest, most eﬀecMve way to create the neural pathways that facilitate language learning.
Why Video? WHAT and HOW Video?
Step 1: What is your objecMve in using video? SMmulaMon A@enMon Interest MoMvaMon Engagement ApplicaMon RepeMMon Usage LEARNING
SMmulaMon A@enMon Interest MoMvaMon Engagement ApplicaMon RepeMMon Usage LEARNING
Graded or AuthenMc? • BeVer at sparking emo7on à creates the intellectual opening for learning to occur • Huge choice means we can mo7vate anyone according to their interests BUT: -‐ Impossible to shoehorn into structures like CEFR -‐ If not packaged properly, can be too diﬃcult for beginners • Can be 7ghtly targeted at speciﬁc skills or tasks • Created for speciﬁc levels / consistency re level BUT: -‐ Produc7on values / entertainment o[en lacking -‐ Can be perceived by learners as “talking down” to them
Subject MaVer of Authen7c Video (in order of popularity with English AVack! users) 1. Current Movies 2. TV Series 3. Music Videos 4. Documentaries 5. How-‐To
Subject MaVer of Authen7c Video Other topics of interest • News (“evergreen” best, normal headline stories age fast) • Business (movie scenes can be eﬀec7ve) • AdverMsing (especially crea7ve / humorous extended ads) CHOICE = AUTONOMY = MOTIVATION
Ideal length • Too short (sub-‐1 minute): liVle chance to absorb dialogue in context • Too long (5 minutes+) : too many linguis7c elements upon which to focus à confusion • Ideal length is between 1 and 3 minutes – Average length of Youtube video is 4 minutes – 87% of video shared on Facebook is between 1 and 4 minutes long
Diﬃculty Level • Subject maVer • Vocabulary • Speech speed • Speech clarity • Accent • Idioms • Slang • Visual clues • Is there a story or an understandable context? Related exercises need to be calibrated to the video’s intrinsic diﬃculty level
Diﬃculty vs Content • Our experience to date shows that the content type is the primary mo7vator. Learners don’t mind a diﬃculty “stretch” if the video content is of interest to them. 5,580,000 searches 22,000,000 searches (learn English) (songs in English) Google France searches:
SubMtles? Can with comprehension but creates listening “tune out” in favor of reading. So call me maybe.. Donc appelle-‐moi peut-‐etre… ♫ ♪ ♬♭ ♭ ♫ ♪ ♬♭ ♭ English L1 None Great… if you want learners to improve their L1 reading skills. Full emo7onal impact of source; no skills confusion; forces learner to focus and to look for visual clues.
Video Transcript? • Be clear on purpose of providing: to work reading skills • Thus, do not mix with gist comprehension exercises à provide only sequen7ally, a[er listening skills have been covered • Can be used for Detail comprehension and to prac7ce scanning for informa7on.
SMmulaMon A@enMon Interest MoMvaMon Engagement ApplicaMon RepeMMon Usage LEARNING Moving from engagement to applicaMon
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • The fun-‐factor of video should not obscure the need for a pedagogical structuring of the video-‐based lesson. • The sequencing of a video-‐based lesson must be planned as carefully as any other lesson Gist Comprehension Listening Skills Detailed Comprehension Vocabulary Grammar & Usage TESOL Greece 2014
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • Pre / Tasks / Post / jumping-‐oﬀ point for class discussion PRE TASKS POST • Summary • Target Vocab • Prac7ce Games • Discussion TESOL Greece 2014
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • Error Correc7on / Posi7ve Reinforcement TESOL Greece 2014
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • Score vs Grade: integra7ng the mo7va7onal dynamics of gamiﬁca7on into the video exercise scoring logic TESOL Greece 2014
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • Providing assistance à dic7onaries, transla7on TESOL Greece 2014
Structuring the Video-‐based lesson • In-‐class vs. Homework Requirements: interac7vity, good design, visibility, s7mula7ng content Requirements: large selec7on of s7mula7ng content, Teacher Tools for assignment and compliance monitoring
SMmulaMon A@enMon Interest Engagement MoMvaMon ApplicaMon RepeMMon Usage LEARNING ConsolidaMng intake with repeMMon
Achieving RepeMMon for MemorizaMon Prac7ce Game: Swap Mania Prac7ce Game: Word Rescue Prac7ce Games are dynamically driven by target vocabulary items in learning units TESOL Greece 2014
SMmulaMon A@enMon Interest MoMvaMon Engagement ApplicaMon RepeMMon Usage LEARNING Finally, locking in acquisiMon through usage
Making video-‐based learning Social • Pos7ng comments • Facebook • TwiVer TESOL Greece 2014
AuthenMc video is a great spark for in-‐class discussion Vocabulary Storyline Grammar Themes
Sample Video Lesson Intermediate Level
Pre-‐Task Target Vocabulary Clip Summary Task Set-‐Up InstrucMon
First Exposure to Video Clip Learners can start, pause, and replay video
Gist comprehension exercise set-‐up
Gist comprehension exercise Video resource Expandable vocab resource Instant error correcMon
Gist comprehension exercise debrief IntersMMal Score PosiMve Reinforcement
Listening exercise set-‐up
Listening exercise Learners can do the exercise in parallel with video playback Gap-‐ﬁlling from three similar-‐ sounding alternaMves actually completes the transcript, which will be available for next exercise.
Listening exercise debrief
Detail comprehension exercise set-‐up
Detail comprehension exercise Full video transcript available as a resource; learners can either review video or scan transcript to ﬁnd details in exercise.
Detail comprehension debrief
Vocabulary exercise set-‐up
Vocabulary exercise Vocabulary resource automaMcally switches to selected answer opMon Vocab exercise: using target lexis in similar story context
Vocabulary exercise debrief
Grammar / Usage exercise set-‐up
Grammar / Usage exercise Sample line of dialogue taken from video clip ExplanaMon as to why this form was used Exercise working same grammar or usage concept (with instant answer feedback)
Grammar / Usage exercise debrief
Video Booster Debrief screen Points total and breakdown Learn-‐o-‐Meter Learner comments RecommendaMons for further lessons Coaching instrucMons
Post-‐task: PracMce Games Lexical items from the video clip DeﬁniMon clues and sample sentence reveal
Post-‐task: In-‐class or Online Messenger discussion • How would you feel about asking your parents for money if/when you are an adult? • How would you feel about your son or daughter asking you for money when they are adults? • Have you even had someone try to discourage you from your dream occupa7on or goal? Describe what that felt like. • What does “Being A Man” mean to you? Sample Class Discussion Topics
Conclusions • Video is a powerful, emo7ve s7mulus to learning. • Short-‐format authen7c video without sub7tles can be a highly mo7va7onal and eﬀec7ve pedagogical tool for helping build EFL/ESL competence. • Video-‐based lessons need to be engineered just as carefully as any classroom lesson, with pre-‐ and post-‐tasks and a natural ﬂow from exposure and gist comprehension through to more detailed or nuanced skills. • Specialist online learning plaoorms such as English AVack! package authen7c video together with exercises to oﬀer a huge choice of learning units of all diﬃculty levels across many topics and categories. Paul Maglione, Co-‐founder, English A@ack! TESOL Greece 2014
License packages English AVack! is a “freemium” site, with Free Trial content available free of charge. Access to all content and func7onali7es is available under several license plans: English A@ack! for Companies Flexible, Company co-‐branding, trainer packages, possibility of specialist content. English A@ack! for Schools, Language InsMtutes, UniversiMes Flexible, aﬀordable, school co-‐ branding, Teacher Tools Independent Teacher License Full suite of Teacher Tools; for situa7ons where learners will pay for their own Premium access. Contact us at pro@english-‐firstname.lastname@example.org to set up a pilot program in your school or company
• English AVack! • English AVack Blog paul.maglione@english-‐email@example.com • English AVack for Schools • English AVack for Companies For more informaMon: infogreece@english-‐firstname.lastname@example.org
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