Tertiary Education Africa Peter Materu

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Information about Tertiary Education Africa Peter Materu
Education

Published on January 16, 2008

Author: Michela

Source: authorstream.com

Do African countries need tertiary education to succeed in sustainable capacity development? :  Do African countries need tertiary education to succeed in sustainable capacity development? Talking Notes by PN Materu for the BBL on The Challenges of Tertiary Education in Africa Washington, DC March 8, 2007 Overview:  Overview Is Tertiary Education Important for Economic Development in Africa? Recent evidence Current Status & Challenges Going Forward Slide3:  Is Tertiary Education Important for Economic Development? Conceptual Framework:  Conceptual Framework The Array of Higher Education Benefits :  The Array of Higher Education Benefits Public Private Economic Social Increased Tax Revenues Greater Productivity Increased Consumption Increased Workforce Flexibility Decreased Reliance on Government Financial Support Higher Salaries and Benefits Employment Higher Savings Levels Improved Working Conditions Personal/Professional Mobility Reduced Crime Rates Increased Charitable Giving/Community Service Increased Quality of Civic Life Social Cohesion/Appreciation of Diversity Improved Ability to Adapt to and Use Technology Improved Health/Life Expectancy Improved Quality of Life for Offspring Better Consumer Decision Making Increased Personal Status More Hobbies, Leisure Activities Source: The Institute for Higher Education Policy, “Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going to College”, March 1998. Additional public benefits:  Additional public benefits Produces well trained teachers for all levels of schooling Trains physicians and health workers Nurtures governance and leadership skills Of 38 heads of state in Africa in 2005 with recorded educational attainment levels, 23 had formal higher education. Public benefits - evidence:  Public benefits - evidence Bloom, Hartley, and Rosovsky (2004) showed: High school graduates working in US states with higher proportions of college graduates earn more than otherwise comparable workers in states with lower proportions of college graduates. A positive correlation between higher education and entrepreneurship: more-educated entrepreneurs created more jobs than less-educated entrepreneurs A positive correlation between higher education and good governance Moretti (2004) Recent Evidence:  Recent Evidence Economic growth model:  Economic growth model Key results (Bloom Report 2006):  Key results (Bloom Report 2006) Increasing overall education tends to increase the steady-state level of GDP. Increasing higher education tends to increase the rate of technological and income convergence. Capital and Labor have the largest effect. Pooling resources through regional collaboration for small economies has great potential. Summary estimates:  Summary estimates A 1-year increase in the stock of Africa’s tertiary education would boost the annual rate of economic growth by a sizable 0.63 percentage points. If the current stock of tertiary education in Africa increased to the level of Egypt (0.59 years/person), the annual rate of GDP growth would increase by a modest/non-trivial 0.28 percentage points. Poverty reduction effects Emerging Global Consensus:  Commission for Africa Report 2005 NEPAD HD Strategy African Union – 2nd Decade for Education World Bank AAP Still, many African countries do not have tertiary education as a priority in their development strategies Emerging Global Consensus Commission for Africa (2005):  Commission for Africa (2005) Recognizes higher education’s value for development Suggests $500 million/year over 10 years is needed to strengthen higher education institutions Current Status & Challenges:  Current Status & Challenges World Bank Higher Education Activities:  World Bank Higher Education Activities Higher education Projects: Mauritania Mozambique Uganda Science & Technology Projects with HE comp: Burkina Faso Cameroon Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Lesotho Tanzania FY07 DRC FY07 Kenya FY07 Namibia FY07 Projects in Science & Technology Uganda MSI Nigeria STEPB ESW and Regional: Ethiopia, 2003 Uganda S & T, 2004 HE & Economic development 05 Univ staff retention, 2005 SADC policy dialogue, 05/06 Francophone HE conf, 2006 Nigeria S & T, 2006 HE Cost and Financing in Francophone Afr. 2006 Innovation Funds for HE 06 Quality Assurance, 07 Agric Education & Training, 07 Tertiary Education & Growth 07 ICTs and Education 07 Trends :  Trends Africa has the fastest increase in tertiary enrollment (grew at an average of 15.6% increase a year between 1991-2004) But coverage is still the lowest in the world (gross enrollment ratio 5%) Gender parity has been improving (40% female students) Rising enrollment share in private sector (8 % on average and share exceeds 20% in 10 countries) Increasing diversification (28% of students in short technical programs) Financing:  Financing Public spending on higher education declined on average (in real terms and as a share of education spending) Public spending per student has been falling sharply but remains high in relation to GDP(3 times the GDP per capita) Low efficiency and high social spending (particularly in Francophone Africa) Financial sustainability is a concern Efficiency and Relevance:  Efficiency and Relevance Low efficiency (particularly in Francophone countries) Mismatch between output of graduates and labor market demand (many unemployed tertiary graduates) Research and Development is nascent (approx. 48 researchers/million inhabitants, R&D spending approx. 0.3% of GDP) Aging faculty, difficulty in staff retention Weak governance poor alignment of incentives to quality Limited ICT capacity and connectivity Going Forward:  Going Forward Improve Quality & Relevance:  Improve Quality & Relevance Adopt an integrated post-basic education strategy Strengthen Teaching & Learning (staff, facilities, pedagogy, e-learning) Emphasis on Science, Technology and Innovation Forge stronger link to productive sectors (refer to on-going study) Strengthen institutional and national QA systems (See Hannushek’s Paper) Strengthen Research Capacity:  Strengthen Research Capacity Better Equip Research Labs Encourage Collaborative Research Networks Research management Training Capacity to move from lab results to products and services Incentives Stronger Partnerships and Regional Collaboration …:  Stronger Partnerships and Regional Collaboration … In Select Areas e.g. PG Training & Research Problem of sustainability: How can partnerships and regional cooperation be reformed to become strategic tools for development? Is there a role for international development partners? Increase Enrollment :  Source: UNESCO and World Bank Increase Enrollment Create a favorable Climate for Retention of Skilled Personnel :  Create a favorable Climate for Retention of Skilled Personnel Improve Working environment – incentive system Local Postgraduate Training through partnerships – are there promising practices to learn from? Address issue of remuneration – merit-based tenure system at Universities? Skilled Migrants/Total Migrants:  Skilled Migrants/Total Migrants TE Students Abroad/Home country Students:  TE Students Abroad/Home country Students Engage the African Diaspora:  Engage the African Diaspora Paradigm shift: View Diaspora as resource, not a loss Learn from Others (e.g. Asia) Deliberate strategies to engage Diaspora What strategies could be applied to engage the African Diaspora? Are there promising practices we could learn from? Improve ability to respond quickly to change :  Reforms Policy & Governance: Autonomy vs Accountability in public tertiary institutions. Financing: Demand-driven, link to performance, accountability mechanisms Diversification: encourage private providers, non-university tertiary Curriculum & Pedagogy Improve ability to respond quickly to change Advocacy for Tertiary education in development policy dialogue:  Advocacy for Tertiary education in development policy dialogue Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) Very few mention higher education as a means to reduce poverty, and most see it as less important than primary and secondary education. In 2005, only 3 of 31 countries see higher education as a poverty reduction tool. Number is increasing In SADC out of 5 IDA countries in 2005 with PRSPs, two did not mention higher education and two called for reduction of public spending on higher education. For more information…:  For more information… www.worldbank.org/afr/teia

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