Terminator Technology

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Information about Terminator Technology

Published on February 26, 2014

Author: amitkumarbiotech

Source: authorstream.com

Terminator & Traitor technology for seed protection :  Terminator & Traitor technology for seed protection AMIT KUMAR M.Sc. Computational Biology Pondicherry University GURT Genetic Use Restriction Technology :  GURT Genetic Use Restriction Technology Methods for restricting the use of genetically modified plants by causing second generation seeds to be sterile . Suicide Seeds An Overview: An Overview The terminator technology was patented in the united states by Delta and Pine Land Company(D & PL) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1998. In 1999, Monsanto announced that it would not use the technology and other seed companies followed suit. Concerns have been also expressed that this technology could accidently be transferred to other plants or crops and have a disruptive effect on biodiversity and the environment. Types: Types V-GURT (Varietal GURT ) T-GURT (Trait GURT) V-GURT (Varietal GURT ): V-GURT (Varietal GURT ) This type of GURT produces sterile seeds meaning that a farmer that had purchased seeds containing V-GURT technology could not save the seed from this crop for future planting. This would not have an immediate impact on the large number of primarily western farmers who use hybrid seeds, as they do not produce their own planting seeds, and instead buy specialized hybrid seeds from seed production companies. V-GURT (Varietal GURT ): V-GURT (Varietal GURT ) The technology is restricted at the plant variety level, hence the term V-GURT. Manufacturers of genetically enhanced crops would use this technology to protect their products from unauthorised use. T-GURT (Trait GURT): T-GURT (Trait GURT) A second type of GURT modifies a crop in such a way that the genetic enhancement engineered into the crop does not function until the crop plant is treated with a chemical that is sold by the biotechnology company . Farmers can save seeds for use each year. However, they do not get to use the enhanced trait in the crop unless they purchase the activator compound . The technology is restricted at the trait level, hence the term T-GURT. Why is Terminator a problem?: Why is Terminator a problem? The top 10 largest seed companies control half the world’s commercial seed market . If Terminator is commercialized , corporations will likely incorporate sterility genes into all their seeds . That’s because genetic seed sterilization would secure a much stronger monopoly than patents — instead of suing farmers for saving seed, companies are trying to make it biologically impossible for farmers to re-use harvested seed. PowerPoint Presentation: Three-quarters of the world’s farmers routinely save seed from their harvest and exchange seed with their farm neighbours. Seed selection and plant breeding are the foundation for local food security . Terminator technology is an assault on food sovereignty because it has the potential to restrict the food producing capacity of farmers, and it threatens biodiversity. Market Study: Market Study Based on 2006 revenues, the top 10 seed corporations account for $13,014 million or 57% of the commercial seed market worldwide . The top 3 seed companies account for $9,000 million – or 39% of the commercial seed market worldwide. The top 4 seed companies account for 44% of the commercial seed market worldwide . The world’s largest seed company, Monsanto, accounts for 20% of the world’s commercial seed market. GURT: Advantages: GURT: Advantages Intellectual property protection of Biotech firms. Reduce the propagation of volunteer plants. Prohibit non V-GURT grain sprouting, which lowers the quality of grain. Prevent escape of transgenes into wild relatives and prevent any impact on biodiversity. Disadvantages: Disadvantages Suicidal condition for farmers . United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity recommended a de facto moratorium. India and Brazil have already passed national laws to prohibit the technology In 1999 the biotechnology giant Monsanto decided that they would never commercialize ' terminator gene ' technology. References: References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_use_restriction_technology Terminator Technologies, ETC Group www.etcgroup.org www.uniraj.ac.in/cct/swarnkar-pl

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