Published on March 10, 2014
SLAUGHTERING AND PRODUCT PROCESSING 1
INTRODUCTION A slaughterhouse or abattoir i/ˈæbtwɑr/ or meat works is a facility where animals are killed ə for consumption as food products. Slaughterhouses which process meat not intended for human consumption are sometimes referred to as Knacker's yards or Knackeries.In the United States, around nine billion animals are slaughtered every year. (this includes about 150.4 million cattle, bison, sheep, hogs, and goats and 8.9 billion chickens, turkeys, ducks, etc.; in 2009, 13,450,000 long tons (13,670,000 t) of beef were consumed in the U.S. alone. In Canada, 650 million animals are killed annually. In the European Union, the annual figure is 300 million cattle, sheep, and pigs, and four billion (an unverified number) chickens..Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant logistical problems and public health requirements. Public aversion to meat packing in many cultures influences the location of slaughterhouses. In addition, some religions stipulate certain conditions for the slaughter of animals. There has been criticism of the methods of transport, preparation, herding, and killing within some slaughterhouses, and in particular of the speed with which the slaughter is sometimes conducted. Investigations by animal welfare and animal rights groups have indicated that in some cases animals are skinned or gutted while alive and conscious. In some cases animals are driven for hundreds of miles to slaughterhouses in conditions that often result in injuries and death in route. Slaughtering animals is opposed by animal rights groups on ethical grounds.Livestock animals are usually stunned mechanically, but some sheep slaughter facilities also use electrical stunning. The feet are removed from the carcasses before they are suspended by the Achilles tendon of a hind leg for exsanguination. The carcasses are then skinned with the aid of mechanical skinners called “hide pullers.” Sheep pelts are often removed by hand in a process called “fisting.” (In older operations, hides and pelts are removed by knife.) The hides (cattle and calves) or pelts (sheep) are usually preserved by salting so that they can be tanned for leather products. Heads are removed at the first cervical vertebra, called the atlas joint. Evisceration and splitting are similar to hog procedures, except that kidney, pelvic, and heart fat are typically left in beef carcasses for grading. Carcasses are then placed in a cooler for 24 hours (often 48 hours for beef) prior to fabrication into meat cuts. “Food processing is any deliberate change in a food that occurs before it’s available for us to eat. It can be as simple as freezing or drying food to preserve nutrients and freshness, or as complex as formulating a frozen meal with the right balance of nutrients and ingredients” In common terms we include here the so called “Food processing, any of a variety of operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumption, cooking, or storage.” A brief treatment of food processing follows. For fuller treatment of storage methods, see preservation. Food processing generally includes the basic preparation of foods, the alteration of a food product into another form (as in making preserves from fruit), and preservation and packaging techniques. A number of food-processing innovations have even resulted in new
products, such as concentrated fruit juices, freeze-dried coffee, and instant foods. Foods and food supplements have also been processed from such hitherto untapped sources. 3
LOCAL PROCEDURE IN HOG SLAUGHTERING
SELECTION AND CARE OF ANIMAL BEFORE SLAUGHTER Several factors should be considered before slaughtering a hog for home consumption. The most important considerations are health, kind of animal ‘(barrow, gilt, sow, or boar), expected meat yield, and care of the animal prior to slaughter. Health You should take care that an unhealthy animal is not selected for slaughter. At the time of selection, look for signs of sickness such asfever, increased breathing rate, and diarrhea. Animals suspected of being unhealthy should be treated by a veterinarian until the animal is returned to a healthy state. Animal Care It is important to exercise proper care of the animal prior to slaughter, if you expect to obtain high quality meat. Pen the animal in a clean, dry place the day before slaughtering. Restrict the animal from feed 24 hours prior to slaughter, but provide access to water at all times. The slaughter of hot, excited animals increases the risk of sickness, injury, and darker meat; therefore, do not run the animal or wrestle with it. Bruises and whip marks cause bloody Spots which must be trimmed out. Animal Type and Meat Yield Highest quality pork is producedfrom young, healthy, well-fed, meatyhogs that weigh from 175 to 240pounds. The meat-type hog shouldhave full, plump, meaty hams and3straight, smooth sides. Fat should befirm, evenly distributed, and notmore than 1.6 to 1.7 inches averagethickness over the back. The averagemeat-type hog produces as muchpork as a family of two consumes in10 to 12 months. Heavier, fatter hogsproduce less lean and more excess fat.A meat-type hog, when cut andtrimmed according to the methodsdescribed later, will yield approximately 65 to 70 percent of its carcassweight in ham, picnic shoulder, and loin, bacon, and Boston butt. Expectedyields of major and minor cuts froma U.S. No. 2 hog are presented intable 1.The slaughter of boars is not recommended. Meat from boars has astrong odor during cooking, and anoff-flavour. This “sex” odor and flavour is often identified as being “soapy,”and the odor increases as boarsapproach sexual maturity. If oldboars are to be slaughtered, theyshould be castrated and allowed toheal prior to being slaughtered. PREPARING FORSLAUGHTER Prior to the day of slaughter, selectthe slaughter site, accumulate allequipment, prepare for waste disposal, and, if necessary, arrange witha local processor or meat market forchilling and cutting the carcass. Ifyou plan to have the carcass chilledand cut up, make arrangements concerning the time and day on whichthe carcass can be accepted, thecharges, and specific instructions forchilling, cutting, and wrapping. 5
TABLE 1.1 CUTSPERCENTAGE OF USDA CARCASSWEIGHT Ham (trimmed) 19 Belly (untrimmed)18 Collar, fatback, and clear plate 18 Picnic shoulder and Boston but (trimmed)17 Loin (trimmed) 17 Feet, tall,and neck bones 5 Spareribs 3 Jowl (untrimmed)3 100 Site Selection Slaughter site selection is extremelyimportant. The amount of space andequipment needed will depend on the method (scalding or skinning) used. Ifthe carcass is to be scalded, be sure thata site is selected where a fire can bebuilt, and clean, running water isavailable. If a tree is to be used tosuspend the carcass, select a healthylimb, 6 to 8 inches in diameter and 8 to10 feet from the ground. This willensure that the limb will not breakfrom the weight of the carcass, and thecarcass can be fully extended abovethe ground for viscera removal andsplitting. If the animal is to beslaughtered in a building, be sure that astrong beam 8 to 10 feet from the flooris available. The floor should be cleanand, preferably, concrete.After selection of the slaughter site,clean up the area to ensure thatleaves and dirt are not blown on thecarcass during slaughter. If the sitehas a wooden or concrete floor, washthe floor and all equipment withplenty of soap and water. Be sure torinse thoroughly because sanitizersdiscolor the meat and may cause offflavors. If animals are to be slaughtered outdoors, use straw to cover thearea where the carcass will be suspended and eviscerated.The weather on the day ofslaughter should also be considered.During hot weather, the animalshould be slaughtered during thecooler early morning or late eveninghours. Since an inexperienced personwill take 2 to 3 hours to complete theslaughter operation, care should betaken to avoid long exposure of thecarcass to high temperatures. Duringcold weather of less than 30” F, theanimal can be slaughtered at anytime, because spoilage bacteria donot grow rapidly at cold temperatures. During periods ofextremely cold weather, avoid lettingthe carcass freeze immediately afterslaughter because the meat will beless tender than if it is permitted tochill without freezing. Slaughterduring high winds may result in dirtand other contaminants being blownonto the carcass.
Waste Disposal All waste products should be disposed of in a sanitary manner. If theanimal is to be slaughtered in theopen, select a site with good drainageso that blood and water can drainaway from the carcass. Do not allowblood and water to pollute nearbystreams or other water supplies.Disposal of viscera and hair isoften a problem. Arrange to have alocal processor or rendering plantpick up these wastes. If this is not possible, bury them so that dogs andother animals cannot dig them up.Hair can be burned. Slaughter Equipment Elaborate and expensive equipment is not necessary but certainitems are essential. Theamount of equipment will depend onthe slaughter procedure used. If thecarcass is to be scalded rather than Skinned, additional equipment will beneeded (items 16 to 23). The following slaughter equipment is recommended: 1) .22 caliber rifle with long orlong rifle cartridges 2) Sharp skinning knife and steel 3) Boning knife 4) Block and tackle or chainhoist - should be strong enough tohold weight of pig to be slaughtered 5)Chocks - concrete blocks workwell. 6) Meat saw 7) Oil or water stone 8) Ample cold water for washinghands, equipment, carcass andby-products 9) Tree with strong limb, beam ortripod 8 to 10 feet high, or tractorwith hydraulic lift 10) Spreader (gambrel or metalpipe) 11) Buckets (2 or 3) 12) Ice or cold water 13) Straw for placing under animalduring evisceration and splitting 14) Clean clothes or plastic for protection of meat during transport 15) Clean string 16) Scalding barrel 7
17) Pot or barrel for heating water 18) Bell scrapers (1 or 2) - theseare not necessary but helpful 19) Plywood or other solid material for scalding platform 20) Thermometer which registersup to 2000 F 21) Dry wood for fire 22) Hog or hay hook 23) Propane torch or blow torch be sure that all equipment that will come in contact with meat is thoroughly cleaned. Blood and other materials that get on the outer garments of workers during slaughtershould not be transferred to the carcass after it is washed.Additional equipment needed forCUTTING.
SLAUGHTER Antemortem Inspection Some of the major objectives of antemortem inspection are as follows: To screen all animals destined to slaughter. to ensure that animals are properly rested and that proper clinical information, which will assist in the disease diagnosis and judgement, is obtained. To reduce contamination on the killing floor by separating the dirty animals and condemning the diseased animals if required by regulation. to ensure that injured animals or those with pain and suffering receive emergency slaughter and that animals are treated humanely. to identify reportable animal diseases to prevent killing floor contamination. to identify sick animals and those treated with antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, insecticides and pesticides. to require and ensure the cleaning and disinfection of trucks used to transport livestock. Both sides of an animal should be examined at rest and in motion. Antemortem examination should be done within 24 hours of slaughter and repeated if slaughter has been delayed over a day.Spread hogs and animals affected with extensive bruising or fractures require emergency slaughter. Animals showing clinical signs of disease should be held for veterinary examination and judgement. They are treated as ―suspects‖ and should be segregated from the healthy animals. The disease and management history should be recorded and reported on an A/M inspection card. Other information should include: Owner's name The number of animals in the lot and arrival time Species and sex of the animal The time and date of antemortem inspection Clinical signs and body temperature if relevant Reason why the animal was held Signature of inspector Antemortem inspection should be carried out in adequate lighting where the animals can be observed both collectively and individually at rest and motion. The general behaviour of animals should be observed, as well as their nutritional status, cleanliness, signs of diseases and abnormalities. Some of the abnormalities which are checked on antemortem examination include: Abnormalities in respiration Abnormalities in behaviour Abnormalities in gait Abnormalities in posture 9
Abnormalities in structure and conformation Abnormal discharges or protrusions from body openings Abnormal colour Abnormal odour Abnormalities in respiration commonly refer to frequency of respiration. If the breathing pattern is different from normal the animal should be segregated as a suspect. Abnormalities in behaviour are manifested by one or more of the following signs: The animal may be: walking in circles or show an abnormal gait or posture pushing its head against a wall charging at various objects and acting aggressively showing a dull and anxious expression in the eyes An abnormal gait in an animal is associated with pain in the legs, chest or abdomen or is an indication of nervous disease. Abnormal posture in an animal is observed as tucked up abdomen or the animal may stand with an extended head and stretched out feet. The animal may also be laying and have its head turned along its side. When it is unable to rise, it is often called a ―downer‖. Downer animals should be handled with caution in order to prevent further suffering.Abnormalities in structure (conformation) are manifested by: swellings (abscesses) seen commonly in swine enlarged joints umbilical swelling (hernia or omphalophlebitis) enlarged sensitive udder indicative of mastitis enlarged jaw (―lumpy jaw‖) bloated abdomen Some examples of abnormal discharges or protrusions from the body are: discharges from the nose, excessive saliva from the mouth, afterbirth protruding from the vulva, intestine protruding from the rectum (prolapsed rectum) or uterus protruding from the vagina (prolapsed uterus) growths on the eye and bloody diarrhoea Abnormal colour such as black areas on horses and swine, red areas on light coloured skin (inflammation), dark blue areas on the skin or udder (gangrene). An abnormal odour is difficult to detect on routine A/M examination. The odour of an abscess, a medicinal odour, stinkweed odour or an acetone odour of ketosis may be observed.
Since many abattoirs in developing countries have not accommodation station or yards for animals, Inspector's antemortem judgement must be performed at the admission of slaughter animals. Stunning PROVISIONS The Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 section 79 requires that all food animals, except for ritual slaughter (MIR section 77), be rendered unconscious (stunned) in a manner that ensures that the animal does not regain consciousness before death or be killed by an appropriate method prior to being bled. For more information regarding stunning methods, equipment’s and animal restraining methods see Chapter 12 of this manual. Where it is intended that an animal will be passed for human consumption the following methods may not be used to humanely stun or render the animal insensible due to the risks posed from general dispersal of emboli which may contain brain tissue or foreign material such as hair and/or pathogenic micro-organisms resulting in the adulteration of the carcass and its parts: any penetrating percussion device which injects air into the cranial cavity; and any pithing method used as a supplemental follow-up procedure to one of the approved stunning methods. 11
The animal should be killed asquickly and humanely as possible. Inmost slaughter plants, hogs areimmobilized either by electrical stunning or carbon dioxide gas suffocation. On the farm a hog can bestunned by striking it one sharp blowwith a mechanical stunner or byshooting it in the forehead midwaybetween and slightly above the eyes.The first attempt should be successful. Improperly placed bulletscould cause the animal much painand injure helpers or other livestock.Animals that become excited duringstunning will not bleed as well asthose less excited. As always the casewhenever using firearms, exercise allappropriate safety precautions. Bleeding Bleeding is a very important partof the slaughtering operation. Theanimal should be bled within 2minutes after it is down because theblood pressure may increase and thusbreak the capillaries and cause anunattractive condition in the meatcalled “blood splash.” Although meatwith this condition is safe for consumption, it is quite unpleasant inappearance.After the animal stunned, the animal place iton its back, perfectly straight with thehead close to the ground. A helpercan stand over the animal and holdits front legs. Locate the tip of thebreastbone, along the midline.A 6-inch sticking knife sharpened onboth sides of the tip is best. However,a regular boning or skinning knifecan be used. Hold the knife at a 35-to 40-degree angle, thrust it under thebreastbone with the point aimedtoward the tail and then give anupward thrust (dip the point) to severthe carotid artery. Notwisting or cross-cutting of the knifeis necessary. If the hog does notbleed. Insert the knife a little deeper asecond time and there should be littledifficulty getting a good stick. Toavoid a “shoulder stick.” do notinsert the knife too far to either side.The bloody tissue resulting from ashoulder stick will subsequentlyrequire trimming. Care should alsobe taken to make certain that the hog does not kick you or the knife. Hair or Skin RemovalOnce the animal is bled, the haircan be removed by scalding theanimal in hot water and scraping; orthe skin and hair can be removed byskinning. Traditionally, hogs havebeen scalded and scraped, and theskin is left intact. Both procedureswill be discussed because
manypeople now find the skinning methodto be easier, to require less equipment, and to result in an equally acceptable final product. STICKING/ BLEEDING 13
Scalding and Scraping Method: For scalding, the most importantconsideration is maintaining an adequate supply of properly heatedwater. Approximately 50 gallons ofnear boiling water will be needed foreach pig. This water should be ready(boiling) before the animal is stunned and bled. After the hot water isplaced in the scalding barrel, it can beadjusted to the proper temperaturefor scalding by adding cold water.The animal can be scalded byseveral methods. The easiest methodis to have two barrels, one for heatingthe water and one for use as a scalding vat. Fifty-five gallon barrelswill be large enough for most hogs.The scalding barrel can be buried inthe ground at a slight angle; thus movement of the hog in and out ofthe barrel is easier. Be sure theangle of the barrel is not too flat orthe barrel will not hold enough waterto cover the carcass. Another methodfor scalding is to have a scalding vator a barrel under which a fire can bebuilt. This method requires moreconstruction, and the temperature ofthe water is difficult to control.Slow scald is usually best. Scaldingwater temperatures between 140degrees and 150degrees F are optimal. At these optimaltemperatures, 3 to 6 minutes ofscalding are required to loosen thehair and scurf (layer of accumulatedoil, dirt, and the outer layer of cellson the skin). In the fall when thewinter hair is beginning to grow, thehair of most hogs is difficult toremove. Higher water temperatures(146Oto 150O F) or longer submersion times are usually requiredfor scalding during this “hard-hair”season. About ¼ cup of rosin, lime or some other alkaline materialadded to the scald water to aid inscurf removal results in a whiter skin.On the farm, regulation of watertemperature is difficult. Add boilingwater to the scalding barrel, and then addcool water to adjust to the propertemperature. Begin with the scaldingwater at 155” to 160” F because itcools rapidly. At these high temperatures, the carcass must be kept inmotion and pulled from the barrelseveral times. This movement prevents over scalding. Over scaldingcauses the skin to contract aroundthe base of the hair (“setting thehair”) and cooks the skin. If the carcass is over scalded, the hair isextremely difficult to remove.After the proper water temperaturehas been attained, place the pig in thebarrel, and head first. Rotate thecarcass in the barrel, pulling it in andout of the water occasionally. Checkthe hair often for ease of removal.The hair slips first over the back andsides, then in the flank regions. Whenthe hair can be pulled easily in theflank regions behind the shoulders,remove the hog from the barrel andplace the rear of the hog in the water.While the rear of the hog isscalding, pull the toe nails and dewclaws from the front feet by insertinga hook into the top of the nail andpulling. (Scrape as much of thehair on the head as possible,especially around the ears and snout. When the hair slips in the rear flanks, remove the hog from the barrel. Remove the toe nails and dewclaws from the rear legs and pull thehair from the tail.Grip the legs with both hands andtwist to pull off the hair. Remove thehair in the difficult areas (head, feet, and jowl) first, and then proceed to the easierareas (back, sides). If you use the bellscraper, tilt the scraper upward onthe forward edge and pull the scraperforward, applying as much pressureas possible .Scrape the hot carcass as quicklyas possible because the skin tends to“set” as it cools. If patches of hairand scurf are difficult to scrape, coverthem with a burlap bag and pour hotwater over them. Scraping is madeeasier by
moving the legs or the headin order to stretch the skin,smoothing the wrinkles along thesides.After most of the hair has beenremoved, pour water over the carcassand continue scraping. Place thescraper flat against the skinand moveit in a rotary manner. This procedure aids in removal of scurfand dirt as well as removal of the restof the hair. If patches of hair cannotbe removed with the scraper, use aknife. Some people prefer to use aknife for the entire operation.The carcass is now ready to be suspended. Clean the feet by cuttingaway the soles of the feet and cuttingbetween and around the toes.Expose the gambrel tendons by cutting through the skin on the backs ofthe rear legs from dew claws to hock. Cut down each side of thetendons, being careful not to cut thetendons. Insert the spreaderor gambrel under both tendons on each leg. Secure the legs to thespreader bar and suspend the carcass. If available, a propane torch orblowtorch can be used to singe theremaining hair and scurf.Singeing removes most of the hairand allows small, light hairs to beseen. Use caution during singeing toprevent burning the skin. Shave theremaining hair and wash the carcassthoroughly. REMOVING THE ENTRAILS 15
Skinning Method: The skinning procedure used forpork carcass is similar to that usedfor beef carcasses. Skinning requiresless equipment and can be done fasterthan scalding and scraping. We havecommonly believed that the skin wasneeded on hams and bacon to assureproper curing; however, this
belief isnot necessarily correct. A poor skinning job can lower the quality of thebelly for bacon.After stunning and bleeding theanimal, move the carcass to thelocation of the hoisting equipment.Place the carcass on a sheet of plywood, a concrete slab, or straw.Wash the blood and dirt from thecarcass. Turn the carcass on its backand hold it in place with blocks placed on each side. Cut the hide around the rear legs,just below the dew claws .Make a cut through only the hide,down the back of the leg, over thehocks, and to the midline at the center of the hams. Skinaround each side of the leg, removingthe hide to a point below the hock. Open the hide down the midlinefrom the point where the animal wasPN-5315 .Suspending the carcass.Stuck, around each side of the pubisarea and continue to the anus. Make this cut by inserting thepoint of the knife under the skin withthe blade turned up. This procedureis referred to as cutting from insideout and protects against meat contamination from materials on thehide. Avoid cutting too deeplybecause you may puncture the intestine and contaminate the carcass.Remove the hide from the insidesof the hams. Be careful, it is very easy to cut through the fat intothe lean. Continue skinning along thesides toward the breast. Grasp theloosened hide in the opposite handand pull it up and out. This placestension on the hide, removes wrinkles, and allows the knife to glidesmoothly. Holding the knife firmly,place it against the hide with theblade turned slightly outward. Skin as far down the sides aspossible, but not around the front legs. Return to the rear of the carcassand remove the hide left on the rear of the hams .Do not skins theoutside of the hams at this time.Remove the rear feet by sawingthrough the bone about 2 inchesabove the hock .Insert thespreader under the large tendons onthe rear legs and secure thelegs to the spreader.Hoist the carcass to a convenientworking height (waist high) for skinremoval from the outside of thehams. Skin around the outsides ofthe hams, leaving as much fat as possibleon the carcass. Remove the hidearound the anus and cut through thetail at the joint closest to the body. Pull the hide down over thehips. The hide along the hipsand back can be pulled off, leavingthe fat on the carcass. Occasionally,you may need to use a knife to cutbetween the skin and the fat if largepieces of fat are being pulled off.Hoist the carcass to a fully extended position. Open the hidedown the rear of the forelegs.Remove the hide on each side of theforelegs. Skin along theinside of the forelegs and neck. Skinalong the outside of the shouldersand jowls to a point approximatelyhalf way to the back of the carcass.Slowly pull down and out on thehideremoving it along theback. If the fat begins to tear, use aknife to correct the torn area andthen continue pulling the hide.Remove the hide as far down theback as possible. When itbecomes difficult to pull along thetop of the neck, complete removalwith a knife.If the head is to be saved, skin over the poll and down the face .Remove the hide at the snout.Remove the front feet by sawing just below the knee joint. Continuewith evisceration and splitting. 17
Evisceration It is suggested that for ostriches the evisceration begins by removal of the breast plate (rattus) by cutting the ribs on both sides of the plate. The breast plate is then pulled down to expose the thoracic viscera. For rheas and emus, the breast bone may be split along the midline. The heart, lungs and the liver should be removed first to minimize potential contamination from the gastrointestinal tract. Evisceration continues with a midline abdominal incision caudal (posterior) to the breast plate as performed in beef cattle. Caution should be exercised not to perforate the friable intestine. The bagged vent is pulled through the vent opening into the abdominal cavity. The liver (if not previously removed) and spleen are removed with the intestinal tract, separated, and placed for inspection in the viscera inspection tray. The intestinal tract must be placed in a separate tray for inspection. Heart and lungs are removed (if not previously removed) as a unit and placed with the liver and spleen for inspection. Kidneys must be observed in the carcass by an inspector, then removed from their crypts by the eviscerator and presented with the heart for inspection. Lossen the anus by cutting aroundit, deep into the pelvic canal. Pulloutward and cut any remainingattachments; be careful not tocut into the large intestine. When theanus is loosened, tie it with a piece ofstring to avoid contaminating thecarcass. Remove the penis from a slaughteredbarrow. Cut through the skinand fatty tissue along each side of thepenis and around the penis opening.Lift upward and cut underneath italong the midline. Cut alongthe penis between the hams, pull thepenis upward and remove it at itsattachment at the base of the ham. Continue the cut made betweenthe hams, at their natural separation, exposing the white connective tissue.Cut through the tissue to the pelvic(aitch) bone. Continue cutting throughthe cartilage between the aitch bones and separate the hams. Thisprocedure is satisfactory in youngpigs; however, a saw may be needed tosplit the aitch bone in older hogs.Make a cut through the lean andPN-5332.-Pulling hide from back.Fat from the point where the pig wasstuck to the upper end of the sternumor breastbone. Insert theknife at the top edge of the sternum,cut downward and slightly off-centerto open the chest cavity. Open the midline,
beginning at theopening made when the aitch bonewas split. With the handle of theknife inserted in the opening and withthe blade pointed outward to avoidcutting the intestines, openthe midline to the opening made atthe breast. Allow the intestinesand stomach to roll outward andhang. Do not allow themto fall because the esophagus will tearand spill its contents onto the carcass.Pull the loosened large intestinedown past the kidneys. Severthe attachments to the liver andremove it by pulling outward andcutting the connective tissue.Remove the gall bladder from theliver by cutting beneath it and pulling. Be careful not to allow itscontents to spill onto the liver.Pull the stomach and intestinesoutward and cut through thediaphragm. This is the thinsheet of muscle and white connectivetissue that separates the stomach andintestines from the lungs and heart.Pull outward on the lungs and heartand cut down each side of the windpipe,severing its attachment at thehead. To separate the heartfrom the lungs, cut across its top. The heart should be split open toallow thorough washing. Wash theheart and liver thoroughly and putthem in ice or ice water. Presentation of Carcasses and Parts for Post-Mortem Inspection The operator shall present all carcasses and some of their parts in such a way as to permit proper and efficient post-mortem inspection. Carcasses and their parts shall be presented according to the presentation standard as agreed beforehand with the Veterinarian in Charge. The operator shall develop, implement and maintain a control program as prescribed by the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 to ensure proper and consistent presentation of carcasses and parts that requires a post-mortem inspection. This control program shall include monitoring procedures, corrective actions and preventive measures to be taken when deviations to proper presentation occur. The operator shall ensure that: All parts presented are within reach of the inspector when it is necessary to handle them for inspection; No part is hidden by contamination to an extent that it hinders the inspection; and 50% or more of each carcass part is readily visible without manipulation by the inspector. In the case where a part of a carcass is missing or incomplete, the veterinarian or inspector may take into consideration the nature of this part, the condition of the carcass and the rest of the viscera, and the health status of the herd of origin to determine the disposition of this carcass and its parts. Corrective and preventive measures must be implemented by the operator to avoid such situations. Where the dressing of the carcass includes its splitting, the carcass shall be split prior to receiving a CFIA carcass inspection, unless otherwise prescribed in this chapter. 19
For plants operating under: High Line Speed Inspection System (HLIS) for beef, see also Annex B of this chapter; HACCP Based Slaughter Inspection Program (HIP) for Swinesees also Annex C of this chapter. This section describes the preparation of those parts which are removed from a carcass during the dressing process. Unless otherwise indicated in section 18.104.22.168 or defined as SRM; any carcass part derived from an approved carcass can be identified as edible. However, before harvesting any carcass part for human food which is not listed in section 22.214.171.124, approval must be provided by the Area Red Meat Program Specialist. Submission of a proposal to the CFIA must include: The demonstration through the HACCP system that potential hazards to human health are adequately controlled for this particular activity; Applicable GMP and examination procedures, including the monitoring program; and Assurance that parts are clearly identified and maintain their integrity all along the production/distribution chain up to the consumer. Examining the Carcass All the internal organs and thedressed carcassshould beexamined carefully for any abnormalitiesor conditions that might affect thefitness of the meat for food. Usually ameat inspector or graduate veterinarianis the only person qualifiedto do this, and one should be present to inspect the carcass; however, underfarm conditions, you may need tolook for the obvious signs of disease or damage yourself. If any part of theviscera or carcass is questionable, youshould obtain expert advice.Bruises, minor injuries, parasites inthe organs, enclosed abscesses, andsingle tumours are frequently localconditions that can be easily (_I’535xremoved. However, congestion orinflammation of the lungs, intestines, kidneys, inner surface of chest, orabdominal cavity and numerous yellowishor pearl-like growths scatteredthroughout the organs should beviewed seriously. Carcasses and viscerahaving such abnormalitiesshould be examined by a graduateveterinarian and his opinion obtainedas to the wholesomeness of the meat.You should check with a cooperatingveterinarian before you slaughter theanimal to be certain he will be availableif you should seek his advice. CUTTING Use the following guidelines indetermining cutting and packaginginstructions for the processor if thecarcass is not cut and wrapped on thefarm. Chops.-Can be broiled, braised, or pan fried. Chops should be at leastone-half to three-fourths of an inch thick for frying or braising, and 1inch thick for broilingtwo chops per serving. Allow three fourthsof a pound of uncooked meat (bone-in) per person as a guide.Roasts.- Allow three-fourths of apound per serving for bone-in
roasts(ham. picnic, shoulder) and one-halfpound per serving for boneless roast(boned and rolled Boston butt orshoulder).Sausage.-Allow one-third poundper serving. Carcass Cutting Equipment Elaborate and expensive equipmentis not necessary but certainitems are essential. The following equipment is recommended: I. Steel 2. Boning knife 3. Large steak knife 4. Meat saw 5. Freezer paper (see section on“wrapping”) 6. Freezer tape 7. Meat grinder (electric or handpowered) 8. Clean water Cutting the Carcass Remove the hind foot by sawingthrough the hock joint at the rightangle to the length of the foot. The ham may be removed twoways. The long-cut ham is cut off atthe pelvic arch (bend in the backbone)perpendicular to the length ofthe side. This style ham lendsitself to dry salt curing and aging.The popular short-cut ham is separatedfrom the side by a cut approximately halfway between the pelvicarch and the end of the pelvic bone ata right angle to the shank.The front foot is removed bysawing through the hock (knee) jointat a right angle to the length of thefoot. A shoulder hock maybe cut off about halfway up the leg. To separate the shoulderfrom the loin and belly, locate thesecond rib from the front and sawthrough the center of this rib.The remaining part (middle) isdivided into the loin and the belly bya straight cut from the edge of thetenderloin muscle on the ham endthrough a point on the first rib about2 inches from the protruding edge ofthe split backbone.The tail, backbone, and flank areremoved from the ham; and the fatover the inside (top), in the pelvicarea, and along each side is trimmedclose to the lean. Most of theskin and fat are left on the long-cutham with only a short bevel at the butt (loin) end. Five or six inches of skin may be removed from the shortcutham by cutting under the skin approximately half the distancebetween the butt edge and the hock. The exposed fat is thensmoothly tapered to a thickness ofabout one-half inch at the butt end. CHILLING THE CARCASS The surfaces of freshly slaughtered hog carcasses are contaminated with bacteria that can spoil the meat unless their growth is promptly checked. Bacterial growth can be slowed by prompt 21
chilling and keeping the carcass at low temperatures. If the weather is suitable (28” to 35” F), the carcass can be wrapped in a sheet, hung, and chilled in a well-ventilated shed. Wrapping with clean cloth will partially protect the carcass from contamination. Do not allow the carcass to freeze because freezing within 1 day after death may toughen the meat. If the carcass cannot be chilled to below 40” F on the farm, it should be transported to a local locker plant or market for chilling. The need for prompt and thorough chilling of warm carcasses cannot be overemphasized for the inhibition of bacterial growth. The carcass can be cut into retail cuts after it has been chilled for 24 to 48 hours. MEAT CUTTING VARIATIONS IN THE SENSORIC QUALITY OF MEAT Large differences exist in the tenderness, juiciness and flavour of the various meat animal carcasses because of breeding, age, feeding and management. Within each animal carcasses and associated with the different muscles there are variations in tenderness that dictate how different cuts of meat should be prepared to yield the most palatable foods. Because of these differences in tenderness, juiciness and flavour, each meat cut should be merchandised according to its availability and palatability characteristics. Consequently, different prices should be charged for different cuts from the various meat animals so that consumers have choices. The tenderloin of beef is a relatively small cut and therefore of limited quantity but it is extremely tender and requires a minimum of cooking. Generally it is high-priced because of its high quality and consumer demand for a cut that is easy to prepare and serve. Roasts from the
chuck or shoulder of beef are less tender than the tenderloin; however, when properly prepared by pot-roasting, they too will be tender, juicy, flavourful and will provide good nutritional value. Because there are more kilograms of chuck roast on any one beef carcass and because they require more time and effort to cook correctly, chuck roasts do not and should not demand the same high price per kilogram as tenderloin. Throughout the world, countries have varied natural resources and capabilities for producing livestock and different methods must be used to utilize all meat products correctly and completely whether they are cut from cattle, goats, sheep, swine, deer or other animals and whether they come from the tender or less tender parts of those animals. In order to get the maximum eating satisfaction and also the maximum nutritional value, each cut must be matched with the correct cooking procedure. Loin cuts which are generally tender should be prepared by broiling or other dry-heat methods while cuts with considerable bone and connective tissue from the shanks should be either braised or simmered for stews and soups. TABLE 3 Comparative differences in various compositional aspects of market weight beef, pork and lamb Beef Pork Lamb 454–544 95–104 45 Age (months) 36 6 8–12 Dressing percentage (carcass/live weight) 60 70 50 272–318 68–73 23 Lean 52 50 55 Fat 32 32 28 Bone 16 18 17 Average live animal weight (kg) Carcass weight (kg) Carcass composition (%) Generally, meat animals should be maintained in an environment that permits optimum growth and development. Animals gaining weight rapidly are usually in good condition and the meat derived from their carcasses will be fatter, juicier and richer in flavour. Additionally, the amount of meat in proportion to hide, bone and offal will be greater.The age to slaughter animals varies depending on many things. The highest quality beef comes from animals that are under 36 months of age. Old cows produce highly acceptable beef if properly fattened and processed. Depending on the calf and the feeding regime, calves are best slaughtered between three and 16 weeks of age. Hogs may be killed any time after they reach six weeks of age, but for the most profitable pork production may need to be fed for five to ten months. Sheep and goats may be killed anytime after six weeks, but the more desirable age is from six to 12 months. 23
All meat animal carcasses are composed of muscle, fat, bone and connective tissue. The chief edible and nutritive portion is the muscle or lean meat. The muscle is seldom consumed without some of the attached fat and connective tissue. The carcass composition of animals slaughtered after usual fattening periods is shown in Table 3. It can be noted that the carcass composition varies little between species and is somewhat dependent on the fatness of the animal at slaughter. The lean of each meat animal carcass consists of about 300 individual and different muscles of which only about 25 can be separated out and utilized as single muscle or muscle combinations. The separated muscles are not all the same. They vary widely in palatability (tenderness, juiciness, flavour) depending on the maturity or age of the animal and the body location from which they were taken. Generally, muscles of locomotion found in the extremities or legs are less tender and more flavourful than muscles that simply support the animal such as those found along the back. The latter are usually tenderer and less flavourful. Other factors may influence palatability but maturity and body location are probably the most important. Colours of the lean and fat are important characteristics of normal, wholesome products. Most diseased or unnatural conditions will change the colour from what is considered normal for the species. Generally the colour of the fat will be from pure white to a creamy yellow for all animals. Pink or reddish fat probably means that the animal had a fever or was extremely excited prior to slaughter. The colour of the muscle tissues for normal product should be: Meat Colour Beef Bright cherry red Goat meat Light pink to red Lamb Light pink to red Pork Greyish pink Veal Light pink to red Venison Dark red Almost always tissues from older animals are darker in colour. At times the fat on some carcasses from young animals will be dark yellow because of the breed which lacks the ability to convert yellow carotene to colourless vitamin A and/or because the animals have consumed large amounts of green forage. It is not uncommon for aged ruminant animals to have carcasses with yellow fat. At times animals will suffer from stress prior to slaughter and signs of their reaction will be evident in the carcass. Stressed cattle often produce dark cutters in which the muscle is not the normal bright cherry red but rather is dark red and sticky. Hogs suffering from porcine stress syndrome (PSS) prior to slaughter may yield carcasses that are pale, soft and exudative (PSE) or dark, firm and dry (DFD). Exudative carcasses are watery and rapidly lose water. None of these
conditions produced by ante-mortem stress renders the product inedible but both lower the palatability and eye appeal of the beef and pork and can be confused with other more serious disease conditions. EQUIPMENT FOR THE MEAT-CUTTING OPERATION Solid cutting table, preferably made of non-corrosive material (stainless steel, aluminium or galvanized material) with hard plastic top. If wood has to be used instead of plastic only tight wooden tops/cutters should be used. Oil or water sharpening stone Sharpening steel Knives Boning - 20 cm straight Steak - 30 cm curved Meat saw - hand or electric Totes, bins and meat trucks (plastic or other non-corrosive material) Wrapping table Paper or plastic foil/bags for meat wrapping Tool holder Metal mask/safety gloves Boning aprons/safety aprons Hand wash-basin Knife sterilizer BEEF CUTTING Four essential points when cutting beef (or any other meat animal carcass) are: Cut across the grain of meat when possible. Use sharp knives and saws for speed and good workmanship. Keep the cutting table orderly and have a place for everything. Be clean and sanitary in all operations. There are different ways to cut the fore- and hindquarters of beef depending on its use, the wishes of the consumers, and the quality of the carcass. Poor-quality meat is normally used for 25
further processing, while higher-quality and thicker-fleshed carcasses are used as fresh meat in the form of steaks and roasts. 55. The beef carcass and its bones Halving Halving is done immediately after the animal has been dressed and every effort should be made to saw the carcass into equal sides through the centre of the backbone. Quartering Quartering or ribbing down is the division of a side of beef between the twelfth and thirteenth ribs into fore-and hindquarters. One rib is usually left on the hindquarter to hold the shape of the loin and to make it easier to cut steaks.
Dividing between the twelfth and thirteenth ribs splits the carcass almost in quarters, usually with slightly heavier forequarters. Make this cut straight and neat. Locate the exact place between the ribs on the inside of the carcass and make the cut about 5 cm from the midline at the flank. The flank part should be left attached until the quarter is ready to be carried to the cutting table. Then saw the backbone, making the cut even with the incision that was made with the knife to produce a smooth and attractive appearance to the small end of the loin. Make this cut from the inside. The large muscle exposed when this cut is made is the “eye of beef” in which most of the quality characteristics of the meat can be seen including colour, marbling, firmness and texture. High-quality beef will have a bright cherry-red colour, some intramuscular fat or marbling, be firm to the touch and fine in texture. 27
When the person carrying the meat has a firm grip on the forequarter, the small strip of flesh holding the quarters together should be cut. With some practice and experience, one can learn to carry a forequarter easily by holding below the shank so that the full weight of the quarter is on the carrier's shoulder when it is cut down. By taking a step forward as the cut is being made, it is easier to have the quarter drop with the right proportion of weight on the shoulder. The right forequarter should be carried on the left shoulder and the left forequarter on the right shoulder. When placing the forequarter on the cutting table, always have the inside up. Bone-in method By far the easiest way to merchandise meat is to have some basic information relative to the bone and muscle structure of the carcass and to utilize an electric saw to cut up the whole carcass. This is now being done to a large extent by meat packers who cut out what is commonly referred to as a wholesale or primal cut such as a whole chuck (shoulder), rib, loin or round of beef. The cut may or may not be trimmed of some bone and fat and then vacuumpackaged and shipped to a retail store. The vacuum-packaging provides an anaerobic atmosphere and the refrigerated shelf-life of the product may be extended as much as two or three months. The store personnel need have only the slightest knowledge of meat cutting. The primal is positioned correctly and run across the saw in a prescribed fashion, the saw dust is scraped off, and the consumer-sized cut packaged for retail sale. Common wholesale or primal cuts of beef from the forequarter are the square-cut chuck, shank, brisket, plate and rib, and from the hindquarter the flank, loin and round. The kidney knob consisting of kidney and fat is removed from the loin. Since the hindquarter contains a higher proportion of tender cuts, it is usually in greater demand and returns higher prices. Forequarter. The first cut to make is between the fifth and sixth ribs counting from the neck back. This cut is made parallel with the ribs and produces a cross-cut chuck consisting of a square-cut chuck (also called chuck and blade), foreshank and brisket. Next the foreshank and brisket are removed by cutting through the first sternal cartilage (the first soft segment of the breastbone), and making the cut almost parallel with the backbone of the carcass. Foreshank. The foreshank is separated from the brisket by following the natural connective tissue seam between the muscles with a knife. The foreshank can then be sawn into small pieces to be used for soup stock or the lean may be removed and used for ground meat. Brisket. The brisket, boned and made into a roll, can be used either as a pot roast or can be cured (corned). Square-cut chuck. This wholesale cut contains the first five ribs of the forequarter and may be sawn into steaks or roasts. Several cuts are usually made across the bottom or shank end of the chuck resulting in arm steaks or roasts. The chuck is then turned and cuts are made parallel with the ribs, resulting in blade steaks and roasts. If the carcass is of high quality and thickly
fleshed, steaks cut from the rib end of the chuck or across the arm bone will be highly desirable. Blade cuts to be used as roasts should contain two or three ribs and should be trimmed as for standing rib roasts, although for convenience in carving all bones may be removed. The portions nearest the neck usually have more connective tissue and are recommended for simmering rather than for steaks and roasts. Removing foreshank and brisket (left) from square-cut chuck Arm steaks Blade steaks Only the neck remains to be processed. It is usually severed at a point where it enlarges to meet the shoulder. The neck contains a large amount of bone and connective tissue and is generally used for simmering, corning or grinding. All bloody portions should be trimmed off before other cutting is done. Short plate. The cut to divide the short plate from the rib is made 18–25 cm from the inside edge of and parallel with the chine or backbone. This division varies according to the thickness of the carcass. With a thick carcass, the cut may be made further down the ribs, and with a thin carcass nearer the spinal column. The plate may be used for different purposes, but it is commonly used for stews or further processing. Short ribs, which are suited for broiling, are also cut from the upper portion of the plate, usually about 5–8 cm in length. If the plate is to be used for corning, all of the ribs should be removed. If used for stews, the ribs can be left in and the plate sawn crosswise into small pieces. The plate can also be boned and the meat used for ground meat or sausage products. Before cutting the plate in any way, remove the tough membrane lining the inner portion below where the ribs join the breastbone. 29
Rib. The rib cut is made up of the rear seven ribs in the forequarter. This is the most valuable piece of meat from the forequarter because it is the tenderest and has the least amount of bone. It has a large bundle of muscle fibre that runs parallel to the backbone. There are several different ways to prepare the rib cut for cooking as a roast. It may also be used for steaks). It may be prepared as a bone in, folded or rolled roast. If prepared as a bonein roast, the superior spinous processes of the vertebrae or featherbones are loosened from the meat and then cut off with a saw. In making this cut, keep the knife as close to the bone as possible to avoid removing the thin lining that surrounds the bundle of muscle fibre next to the bone. With the saw, cut across the ribs at intervals of about 8 cm, just deep enough to cut through the ribs. Also remove the yellow connective tissue or ligament found between the outer covering and the layer of muscle. The only difference between bone-in and a folded rib roast is that a small 5-cm piece of rib is removed so that the thin end of the cut may be folded and skewered to the heavy portion. This simply makes a neater, more compact package. Hindquarter. Place the hindquarter on the cutting table with the inside of the carcass up because the first cut made is to remove the kidney knob from the inside of the loin. (However, loosening of meat cuts is also possible from the hanging beef side or beef quarter.) Dividing the short plate (left) from the rib (right) Cutting short ribs from the blade
Cutting rib steaks Kidney knob. Begin removing the kidney fat at the lower end and loosen it with a knife where it is attached to the loin, leaving a thin covering on the inside of the loin and being careful not to cut into the tenderloin muscle. Flank. Remove the flank next by cutting into the scrotum or udder, following the round muscle and cutting close enough so little of the lean meat is taken from in front of the stifle joint. Continue cutting along and below the outer portion of the line of the kidney fat, or in a straight line to leave 10 cm of the thirteenth rib in the flank. This cut may vary with the thickness of the carcass and is lowest in thick or heavy carcasses. The tough membrane covering the inside of the flank must be removed by cutting off a thin strip on the lower side and then peeling off the membrane. A small piece of lean meat on the inside of the end portion of the flank, weighing 1.2–1.4 kg, is known as the flank steak. This heavy bundle of muscle fibres is dry and if used for steak is often scored on both sides, marinated or sliced thin to make it more tender and desirable as a steak. The entire defatted flank may be used for stew or ground beef or rolled around stuffing and pot-roasted. Round. The round and loin are divided at about the fourth sacral joint in the spinal column to almost parallel with the back end of the round, or to about 5 cm in front of the stifle joint . The aim is to cut the tip of the ball-and-socket bone in the hip joint, cutting off a piece about 2.5 cm in diameter. The round includes the rump, round cushion (consisting of knuckle piece and inside round muscle or topside), outside round muscle (also called bottom round muscle or silverside) and hind shank. Remove the rump by cutting just below the exposed pelvic or aitchbone. The rump usually has a large amount of bone. The most desirable piece of rump is cut from the upper portion and is composed of eye and bottom round muscles. The removal of bone and tying the rump means that it requires less oven space and is easier to carve. Round steak is cut in comparatively thin slices from the full round after removal of the rump. The choicest round steaks are cut from the centre section. The remaining portion is made up of the hind shank and the piece called the heel of the round. The heel of round is used as a pot roast and is removed by cutting close to the bone and tearing away as much meat as possible from the backside. The shank can be sawn into pieces to be used for soup stock. 31
Loin. The loin is usually completely sawn into steaks beginning at the large end. Sirloin steaks are cut first and the first three or four are known as wedge or round bone sirloin steaks. These are the least desirable pieces of the sirloin. The last sirloin is cut where the hip-bone is separated from the spinal column and the steak cut there is known as the hip-or pin-bone sirloin steak. The small portion of the loin known as the short loin is the source of bone steaks. This area contains the two tenderest muscles in the whole carcass, namely, the loin eye muscle above the bone and the tenderloin muscle below the bone. T-bone steaks are cut to about 10 cm from the end of the short loin. This tip portion can either be used as a roast or be cut into rib steaks. Rib steak from the short loin is identified by the piece of the thirteenth rib remaining on. When beef is to be cured and dried, pieces should be taken from either the chuck or the round. If the round is used, remove the rump and follow the procedure for muscle boning. If taken from the chuck, use the heavy muscle lying over the outside of the shoulder-blade commonly known as shoulder clod. Muscle-boning method One excellent approach to the cutting up of meat animal carcasses which is becoming more popular and utilized by large meat processors is the procedure commonly referred to as “muscle-boning”. While this procedure is particularly adaptable to large carcasses such as beef, it can be successfully used on carcasses or cuts of any size. Muscle-boning is also popular among hunters who do not have meat saws but who want to cut up a whole carcass with a knife while removing the bone that would otherwise fill valuable freezer space. Any animal carcass with a complete and thick layer of subcutaneous or cover fat would have to have most of the fat removed in order to expose the muscles. Once the fat is removed, a boning knife can be used to separate each large individual muscle or group of muscles. This is done along the seams of connective tissue that encases each muscle. Once separated the muscle mass is then cut from the bone, thus the term “muscle-boning”. The advantages of this procedure are numerous; however, the principal reasons for using it are to obtain small-sized portions for sale or preparation; to permit each muscle or muscle combination to be treated or prepared according to its individual characteristics of size, tenderness, flavour or fibre orientation; and to remove much of the bone and fat that would otherwise take up packaging and storage space. Directions for muscle-boning a side of beef are given here. Initially for muscle-boning, the side of beef is divided into fore-and hindquarters as described for the bone-in method. Also, both the fore-and hindquarters are placed on the cutting table with the inside up. One muscleboning method is as follows: Forequarter. The forequarter is sawn into square-cut chuck, foreshank, brisket, rib and plate as in the bone-in method.
Foreshank. The foreshank has attached to it, behind the elbow joint, a relatively large, thick piece of muscle. This is usually cut out by following the connective tissue seams and produces a fairly large triangular-shaped cut correctly identified as boneless arm roast. The remainder of the foreshank can be sawn into soup bones or can be separated into bone and soft tissue with a knife. The soft tissue is composed of muscle, fat and a large amount of connective tissue which is best utilized as ground meat. Brisket. The ribs and sternum are lifted from the inside of the brisket and the excess fat is removed. The brisket can either be rolled or tied to be used as a pot roast or it can be cured. Square-cut chuck. The neck is sawn from the chuck and trimmed of bone, fat and the large prescapular lymph gland. The boneless neck can be utilized as a pot roast; however, it is more often cut into cubes for stew or ground meat. From the large remaining portion of the chuck, the ribs and feather bones (superior spinous processes) are removed with a knife and the heavy, yellow connective tissue or elastin is removed from the top of the cut. With a knife the thick portion is then separated into outside and inside portions by following the inside or smooth side of the blade-bone which is then lifted from the outside piece along with what remains of the arm bone. The inside portion which contains some of the rib eye muscle is often rolled and tied to be used as a pot roast. There is a part of the outside chuck, a muscle that somewhat resembles the tenderloin muscle in size and shape but not in tenderness, which is often cut into steaks known as chuck fillets. Rib. The rib is prepared by first sawing across the rib bones to facilitate the removal of both the backbone and the ribs with the knife. Another procedure often used to bone out a rib is carefully with a sharp knife to loosen the small strip of meat found between the ribs. The ribs are then loosened by cutting close to the bone and removed by striking with a blunt instrument. After removing all bones and the heavy yellow connective tissue, the meat may be rolled into a tight bundle with the thin portion on the outside and tied tightly. Preparing ribs in this way makes for convenient carving and requires less cooking and storage space. About 25 percent of the initial rib weight is lost when the bones are removed. The boneless rib may also be sliced into boneless rib steaks Plate. After the heavy connective tissue lining is peeled from the inside of the plate, the bones are removed and the lean meat cubed for stew or prepared for grinding in a way similar to the trimming of the brisket. Hindquarter. As a first step, the kidney and accompanying fat are removed from the hindquarter carefully with a knife so as not to cut into the tenderloin muscle. The hindquarter is then separated into flank, round and loin as described in the bone-in method. Lank. Remove the flank by cutting into the scrotum or udder, following the round muscle and cutting close enough so that little lean meat is taken from the front of the stifle joint. Continue 33
cutting along and below the outer portion of the line of the kidney fat in a straight line and saw through the thirteenth rib. Again the flank steak is removed as described in the bone-in method. Round. The round and loin are separated with a saw as described in the bone-in method. The pelvic bone is removed from the round and the muscle sections of the round are exposed Muscle-boning the round means that the large muscle masses of the round are separated from each other by following the natural connective tissue seams. In front of the stifle joint, the tip or knuckle piece is removed, then the topside or inside round muscle, and then the remaining silverside or bottom round muscles. The latter is often divided and the eye of the round removed separately. All of the separated muscles may then be used as roasts or sliced into steaks. Muscle-boning is particularly useful when beef is prepared for roasting for large groups such as pit barbecuing. Hind shank. The hind shank, somewhat like the foreshank, has a large muscle group attached to it that can be removed and utilized as a pot roast. This cut is sometimes referred to as the “duck” of beef. Loin. The tenderloin muscle is carefully cut from the inside of the loin and usually cut into individual steaks. The remainder of the loin is then sawn just in front of the hip-bone into the short loin and sirloin sections. The bone is removed from the sirloin which is a somewhat complicated procedure because the pelvic bone is fused with the backbone. The short loin is boned and the muscle that is known as boneless top loin is usually cut into boneless top loin steaks. On-the-rail boning This is a modification of the muscle-boning method. Typical for on-the-rail boning is the hanging position of the hindquarter or the entire beef side during the boning procedure. The removal of the different meat cuts from the hanging carcass is considerably facilitated. Beef cuts can easily be pulled downwards under their own weight after cutting them free along their natural connective tissue seams. Special hooks with handles used by the operators are an additional aid for the correct fixation of the cuts during boning. On-the-rail boning is the most hygienic way of meat cutting. Contamination by hands of operators, tools, cutting-boards, etc. is less than with other methods. The technique is also suitable for smaller operations. Final trimming of the meat cuts takes place on cutting tables as usual. When meat cuts are produced by muscle-boning it is often difficult to identify them, primarily because traditionally the size and shape of the accompanying bone has been used as the major means of identification. Also, the traditional shape of muscle in a cut of meat is often
determined because of its attachment to bone. Many conventional cuts of meat combine muscles because of their association, size and proximity to bone or general location. The basic principle of merchandising meat is to separate the tender from the less tender and to sell each according to its palatability characteristics and its possible method of preparation. Muscleboning facilitates this type of merchandising. PORK CUTTING Halving is done immediately after the animal has been dressed and every effort should be made to saw the carcass into equal sides through the centre of the backbone. The side to be cut should be laid on the cutting table with the inside up. The primal cuts of pork are: ham, fore-end or forequarter, loin and belly. Hind foot. The hind foot is removed by sawing through the hock joint at a right angle to the long axis of the leg. Ham. The ham may be removed in several ways to make either long-cut or short-cut hams. One
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