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Terahertz materials characterization in extreme environments

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Information about Terahertz materials characterization in extreme environments
Technology

Published on March 12, 2014

Author: cmilyard

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Dr. David Daughton presents information about the new 8500 Series Lake Shore THz system for materials characterization
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| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Terahertz Materials Characterization in Extreme Environments Emerging Tools for Materials Research David R. Daughton Applications Scientist

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Systems Probe Stations Hall Effect Measurement Systems (HMS) Magnetometers (VSM/AGM) Permanent Magnets High Density Recording Media Mineral Magnetism Electronic thin films Organic Electronics Spintronics Nanowires Magnetoresistance Organic electronics Thermoelectrics Solar Cells HEMTS Materials Characterization Systems 2 Systems Measure electrical properties of devices and materials in temperature- controlled environment AC/DC measurements:  Hall mobilities  Carrier concentration  Carrier type Measure magnetic properties:  Hysteresis M(H) loops  FORC curves  Temperature dependencies Fully integrated for material properties:  Electronic  Magnetic  Chemical

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Why THz? 3

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz 5 1012 Hz 2.5 THz ~ 10 meV  Alignment of THz energy levels with phenomena of interest – Vibrational resonances – Novel spin resonances – Free carrier motion in semiconductors

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Materials Phenomena 6 The Electromagnetic Spectrum D. N. Basov, et al. “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85(2), 471 (2011).

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz  THz wavelengths match the feature sizes of development-grade electronic materials – Non-contact electronic characterization – Novel magnetic materials 7 1012 Hz 0.6 THz ~ 0.5 mm 2” 10 mm

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz  Coupling to spin-based materials at THz frequencies – High speed computing paradigms – May require large fields 8 1012 Hz 0.2 THz ~7 T Nagashima, T.; Nishitani, J.; Kozuki, Kohei, "Lasers & Electro Optics & The Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2009. CLEO/PACIFIC RIM '09. Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,2, 30-3 Aug. 2009

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz 9 1012 Hz 6.5 THz ~ 300 K 480 500 520 540 560 580 0.1 1 THzTransmission Frequency (GHz) 5.8 K 75 K 150 K a-Lactose THzTransmission  Cryogenic temperatures – Homogeneous broadening of vibrational resonances

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz 10 1012 Hz  Cryogenic temperatures – Homogeneous broadening of vibrational resonances – Temperature dependent carrier concentration and mobility 6.5 THz ~ 300 K

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Equivalent Scales for THz 11 1012 Hz 10 meV7 T 300 K0.5 mm  Alignment of THz energy levels with phenomena of interest  THz wavelengths match the feature sizes of development- grade electronic materials  Coupling to spin-based materials at THz frequencies  Cryogenic temperatures

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz System Product Challenges  THz performance suitable for materials characterization – Continuous tuning over bandwidth – Spectral resolution  Ability to characterize samples while exposed to variable cryogenic temperatures and magnetic fields  Affordable THz-based measurement platform  Robust design  Proceduralized experimental methods and reliable analysis of the spectral results – Convenient sample insertion without complicated alignment – Enable materials developers to rapidly begin productive research 12

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Filling the THz Gap 13 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 ElectricField(a.u.) Time (ps)

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz with cryogenics & magnetics 14  Many materials of interest for THz require variable temperature and/or high magnetic fields  Optical cryostats are the standard approach – THz generation outside the environment – Must pass optical energy through windows, cutting signal power and spectral distortion  Not ideal for THz spectroscopies

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Variable Temperature and High Magnetic Field THz Platform 15 Cryostat Sample space ±9 T magnet Removable sample insert Cryo-compatible THz emitter with collimating optics Rotatable sample stage (10 mm × 10 mm) Thermally stable optical alignment stages

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Application software for turnkey operation  Experiment setup/run  Analysis of spectral data  Calculation of material properties Integrated THz System Details 16 Fiber-based optical platform for CW THz spectroscopy  CW THz spectrometer instrument  Amplitude and phase detection from 200 GHz to 1.5 THz  Spectral resolution under 500 MHz  Circularly polarized light Integrated controls  Model 336 cryogenic temperature controller  Model 625 superconducting magnet power supply Superconducting magnet  High magnetic fields to ±9 Tesla Integrated cryostat & insert  Variable temperatures from 5 K to 300 K  Sample size – 10 mm  Measurement – THz transmission

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Photoconductive THz Emitter 17 Photoconductive device -10 -5 0 5 10 -40 -20 0 20 40 Current(A) Bias (V) Dark Fiber illuminated device Room Temperature

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Photoconductive THz Emitter 18  THz-frequency transient current oscillations induced by amplitude modulated IR laser light  Current oscillations in the antenna structure radiate propagating EM waves.  A high resistivity Si lens is attached to the emitter device to couple the THz emission to free space. Photoconductive device

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy 19 fs I

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy 20 fs IA 0 10 20 30 40 0 ElectricField(a.u.) Time (ps) E

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy 21 ps fs Dispersion

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy 22 Dispersion Compensation fs

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy 23 Dispersion Compensation ps

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Continuous-Wave THz Spectroscopy 24 DFB Laser 1 DFB Laser 2 f1 f2

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Continuous-Wave THz Spectroscopy - Generation 25 f1-f2 f1-f2

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.26 Detected current No detected current Continuous-Wave THz Spectroscopy - Detection

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Continuous-Wave THz Spectroscopy - Frequency Tuning 27 DFB Laser 1 DFB Laser 2 f1 f2

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc.28 DFB Laser 1 DFB Laser 2 f1 f2

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Integrated Software for Turn-key Operation 29

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Integrated Software for Turn-key Operation 30

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Integrated Software for Turn-key Operation 31 Sample Reference Background BLOCK

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Integrated Software for Turn-key Operation 32

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Integrated Software for Turn-key Operation 33

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Case Study: Sr2CrReO6 Thin Films 34 In-plane  Double-perovskite ferrimagnet (Tc = 635 K)  Ms = 1.29 B per f.u.  Predicted 90% spin polarization  Large anisotropy  Stoichiometric, epitaxial, and well ordered  Well ordered films on STO and LSAT substrates

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Case Study: Sr2CrReO6 Thin Films 35 Stoichiometric, epitaxial, and well ordered  Grown with off-axis magnetron sputtering 1 µm thickness ~ 20 hours Low material yields  10 to 200 nm thick film on 10 × 10 mm substrate  After characterization, wafer is diced & distributed for device manufacturing Wafer real estate is at a premium  Electrical contacts for material evaluation reduce number of devices — non contact evaluation  Cryogenic characterization elucidates conduction mechanisms

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. CW-THz Transmission 36 0.5 1.0 1.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 THzTransmission Frequency (THz)

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. CW-THz Spectroscopy of Conductive Thin Films 37 Thickness Conductivity Ga-doped ZnO on ZnO

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. SCRO Film DC Conductivity 38 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 200 400 600 800 1000 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 120 m LSAT 5 K 50 K 100 K 300 K 1.4 mSCRO on 120 m LSAT THzTransmission Frequency (GHz) 300 K 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 200 400 600 800 1000 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 120 m LSAT 5 K 50 K 100 K 300 K 1.4 mSCRO on 120 m LSAT THzTransmission Frequency (GHz) 300 K

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Variable Range Hopping Conductivity 39 Variable Range Hopping 5 K 5 K

| Confidential Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. What’s Next 40 – Turn-key acquisition of temperature and field dependent THz spectra Taking orders March 2014! Model 8500 THz System for Material Characterization  Customer applications — samples  Sponsored research program to develop turn-key analysis software for CW-THz spectra

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