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Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Rebecca

Source: authorstream.com

Cotton Textile Production in the United States:  Cotton Textile Production in the United States The Development of America’s first large-scale manufacturing industry Stages of Textile Production :  Stages of Textile Production 1. Picking 2. Carding 3. Spinning 4. Warping 5. Weaving 6. Finishing Picking:  Picking Remove cotton from plant and remove foreign debris from fiber. By Hand: Tedious removal of seeds, leaves, etc. By Machine: Rotating teeth produce a thin lap for Carding. Carding:  Carding Comb fibers and align them into a smooth rope called a “sliver.” Slivers combined to create “roving.” By Hand: Pull fibers between teeth set in boards. Slivers twisted together. By Machine: Rotating cylinders perform same task. Spinning:  Spinning Twisted and drew out roving winding resulting yarn on a bobbin. By Hand: Spinning wheel used to spin yarn from roving. By Machine: Rollers used for task on machines called “throstles” and “spinning mules”. Warping:  Warping Gathering of yarns from a number of bobbins and wound close together on a spool or reel. Then transferred to warp beam and mounted on loom. By Hand: Yarns drawn together by hand. By Machine: Drawn in by machine. Weaving:  Weaving Crosswise woof threads interwoven with lengthwise warp threads on a loom. By Hand: Handloom used for weaving. By Machine: Actions mechanized with a power loom. Finishing:  Finishing Finished textiles dyed and pressed. By Hand: Hand dyed and pressed. By Machine: Actions mechanized with use of roller and surface printing machines. Textiles pressed with a mechanical press. U.S. Textile Production to 1790:  U.S. Textile Production to 1790 Sources of cotton Household manufacture Attempts and failures of large scale production Barriers Preventing Large-Scale Mechanization of Production:  Barriers Preventing Large-Scale Mechanization of Production Lack of labor and capital British colonial and foreign policy Revolution and economic instability Lack of Cheap and Efficient Transportation Difficulty in obtaining cotton Abundance of British imports British Textile Manufacturing to 1790:  British Textile Manufacturing to 1790 Exceptional growth in 1770’s and ‘80’s Hargreave’s jenny (1770) Arkwright’s water frame (1769) Crompton’s mule (1770’s) Carding machines (late 1700’s) Slide12:  British Spinning Jenny (as depicted 1818) Slide13:  British Water Frame (as depicted 1812) Slide14:  British Cotton Mule (as depicted 1812) Slide15:  British Carding Machine (as depicted 1818) Samuel Slater and the Rhode Island System:  Samuel Slater and the Rhode Island System Slater brings technology from Britain First water powered spinning mill established in Pawtucket (1790) Input - cotton Output - yarn and thread Rhode Island System Slide17:  Mill built for Almy, Brown and Slater in 1793 on the Pawtucket falls. Slide18:  Carding machine used by Slater in the 1790’s Slide19:  Water frame used by Samuel Slater (1790’s) 48 spindle model Characteristics of the First American Factory:  Characteristics of the First American Factory Substantial standardized output Complex operations carried out with: high fixed costs mechanization use of power Assembly of workers under organizational discipline Removal of the Input Barrier:  Removal of the Input Barrier Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793) Domestic cotton production expands Transportation:  Transportation Canals and Rivers Railroads Example: Lowell and Erie Canal Slide25:  Household manufacture of woolen cloth. Shaded areas indicate the one-third of the counties with the highest home production of woolen goods. Removal of Competition Barrier:  Removal of Competition Barrier Embargo Act of 1807 Non-Intercourse Act War of 1812 Tariff of 1816 Other periods of protection Labor Scarce and Expensive:  Labor Scarce and Expensive Innovations needed to use labor as efficiently as possible Britain vs. United States American mills had only 20% of spindles and 25% of workers but processed 40% as much cotton as Britain Example: Maynayunk, PA and RI Francis Cabot Lowell and the Waltham System:  Francis Cabot Lowell and the Waltham System Lowell travels to England Boston Associates Boston Manufacturing Company Power Loom Builds 1st fully integrated textile mill in Waltham, MA (1814) Slide29:  Boston Manufacturing Company mill on the Charles River in Waltham (1830) Slide30:  One of the early power looms developed in Waltham and Lowell between 1813 and 1848 Boston Manufacturing Company:  Boston Manufacturing Company Vertical integration Continuous process Division of labor Use of unskilled workers Avoided organized labor Waltham System - recruited daughters of farmers as workers The Founding of Lowell:  The Founding of Lowell Boston Associates buy land on Merrimack River and Pawtucket Canal Construction is begun Merrimack Manufacturing Company (1823) Other companies followed in the 1820’s and 1830’s Lowell Mills:  Lowell Mills By 1850 Boston Associates controlled 1/5 of U.S. cotton production 1846 mills turned out nearly 1 million yards of cloth a week Overlapping of Investors and Boards of Directors Profit averaged 24% a year (1824-1845) Slide34:  Map of Lowell Lowell Mills:  Lowell Mills 1850, 10 large complexes employing 10,000 By 1850, 2nd largest city in MA 1890 surpassed by Fall River as industrial center Lowell Population Lowell Workers:  Lowell Workers 3/4 young farm women (in early years) Lived in boarding houses 1830’s typical wage: $12-14 /month Worked 14 hour days with only Sunday off (until 1853) Very dangerous conditions Slide38:  Mill workers outside a Lowell boarding house Mill Workers:  Mill Workers Feb. 1834 - Strike! 1836 - more protest 1840’s - petitions for 10-hour day New influx of immigrants By 1845 Irish immigrants dominant Lowell Machine Shop:  Lowell Machine Shop Built in 1824 based on Waltham Outfitted Lowell mills with machinery but sold many units to mills in other cities George Washington Whistler builds steam locomotive (1835) James B. Francis - hydraulic turbines Lowell Machine Shop:  Lowell Machine Shop First Generation of American mechanical engineers Most important contributions Use of standardized interchangeable parts Development of precision machine tools Rapid Growth of Textile Mills:  Rapid Growth of Textile Mills Spindles in the United States (1805-1860) Distribution of Manufacturers (1860):  Distribution of Manufacturers (1860) Establishments Spindles Value of Product Early Water Power:  Early Water Power Undershot Wheel Overshot Wheel Early Industrial Water Power:  Early Industrial Water Power Breast Wheel Used in Lowell and other large textile mills Example: Merrimack Manufacturing Company Industrial Water Power:  Industrial Water Power Turbines Invented by Uraih Byden evolved and implemented by 1850’s Slide48:  Typical Turbine and Drive Gear Arrangement Other Developments:  Other Developments Steam Power:  Steam Power 1870’s became very popular power source By 1880 total steam power had surpassed water power in textile mills Other industries led into steam age by textile mills Immigrant Labor:  Immigrant Labor New England began shifting to immigrant labor by the 1840’s and ‘50’s Civil War hastens labor shift Nationalities included: Irish, German, and others Conclusion:  Conclusion Textile Industry led the way into the industrial revolution First American factory Catalyzed transportation and power improvements as well as the creation of precision machine tools and interchangeable parts Also provides efficient clothing production

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