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Published on March 14, 2008

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What we know about men who buy sex. Dr Teela Sanders University of Leeds t.l.m.sanders@leeds.ac.uk:  What we know about men who buy sex. Dr Teela Sanders University of Leeds t.l.m.sanders@leeds.ac.uk UKNSWP Annual Conference 6th October 2006 Britannia Hotel, Manchester Aims of the presentation:  Aims of the presentation Brief over-view of the literature on men who buy sex from female sex workers Evaluation of rehabilitation programmes Why the re-focus on ‘kerbcrawlers’ in policy? The impact of criminalisation? Prevalence of Men buying sex:  Prevalence of Men buying sex National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles 1990 – 2000 from 2% to 4.2% (Johnson et al 2001) 8.9% in Greater London Ward et al (2005) survey of 6,000 men in 1990 & 2000 in UK. 1990, 5.6 % had purchased sex 2000, increased to 8.8% 10% (n=267) of population in sexual health clinic survey in Glasgow had purchased sex (Groom and Nandwani, 2006) All statistics are under-representation Global view of prevalence:  Global view of prevalence Sweden: 13% (Ekberg, 2004) Australia: 15.6% (Rissel et al, 2003) Spain: 39% (Leridon, et al 1998) Thailand: 73% (Anderson & O’Connell Davidson, 2003) Why the increase?:  Why the increase? Increase in divorce / decline in marriage Growth in adult entertainment industry Availability & visibility Growth of Internet and global communications Increase in travel Increase in amount of adult time spent alone Increased cultural acceptance / less stigma Change in sexual morality attitudes? Scott (1998) still high condemnation for extra-marital affairs Who are the men that buy sex?:  Who are the men that buy sex? Across socio-economic groups Professional, managerial and manual jobs Full time employment Marital status: majority in long term partnerships (Gibbens & Silberman, 1960, Groom & Nandwani, 2006) No criminal record (Hester & Westmorland, 2004) Age – clients more likely to be over 39 years (Sullivan & Simon, 1998) Facts correspond with large scale surveys from USA (Monto, 2000). Motivations for buying sex:  Motivations for buying sex Attraction of the illicit encounter (McKeganey & Barnard, 1996) No sexual activity / isolation / loneliness (Campbell, 1998) Different sex acts from regular partners Different women Uncomplicated / non-emotional Convenience / simplicity Regulars – repeat customers Companionship, socialising, time (Lever & Dolnick, 2000) Different markets = different clients:  Different markets = different clients Differences between men who go to different markets Different motivations / type of service Men rarely go to both street and indoor markets (Benson & Matthews, 1995; Groom & Nandwani, 2006) Perceived risks of street (drugs/violence/danger) (Sanders, 2007) Expansive range of markets Perceptions of lap dancing /Amsterdam / stag night very different from street UK men buying sex abroad (Netherlands, Thailand, Spain, Germany) Re-framing who is the ‘problem’:  Re-framing who is the ‘problem’ 1980’s + men who buy sex problematised Small number of communities dominate parliamentary debates (Kantola &Squires, 2004) Increase in laws against ‘the kerbcrawler’ 1985 Sexual Offences Act - shift in who was the problem 2001 Criminal Justice & Police Act - kerbcrawling an arrestable offence 2003 Criminal Justice Act - conditional cautioning Peak between 2000-4: 993 men arrested (2002) Coordinated Prostitution Strategy: Tackling Demand:  Coordinated Prostitution Strategy: Tackling Demand Enforcement of existing laws for kerbcrawling Addressing concerns from communities Informal warning / court diversion / prosecution Crackdowns, zero tolerance decoys, supporting naming and shaming, media coverage, driving licenses revoked, fines, rehabilitation programmes Rehabilitation programmes: A coherent approach?:  Rehabilitation programmes: A coherent approach? Court diversion schemes Success of UK programmes based on low re-offending rates Strategy ignored evaluations / evidence No evidence that programmes in North America have lasted more than 2 years Range of reasons for ineffectiveness Evaluation of Effectiveness:  Evaluation of Effectiveness Re-offending cannot be used as an effectiveness measuring tool (Monto & Garcia, 2000) Recidivism not due to programme – other factors lead to behavioural change Some evidence of attitude changes but not behaviour (Wortley, et al 2002; Kennedy et al, 2004) Resource intensive – Clubs & Vice: 12 crackdowns a year yields 25-35 arrests each time. 20 officers needed for each week long crackdown. Criticisms of the programmes:  Criticisms of the programmes Bias programme content – 1995 radical feminist campaign in San Francisco (Campbell & Storr, 1998) Not balanced view of law or prostitution (Van Brunschot, 2003) Against legal theory & due process (Brooks Gordon, 2006) Damage of shaming schools – confrontational shaming ritual (Sawyer et al, 1998) Need for wider educational awareness programme with all men Impact of tackling demand?:  Impact of tackling demand? Still legal to buy sex: confusion Mixed messages: condoning or enabling commercial sex? No awareness of impact of crackdowns / zero tolerance on sex workers or industry Temporal, spatial and tactical displacement Impact of naming & shaming on families So…….?:  So…….? Will the Strategy reduce demand? Up against multi-million £ and $ industry and an embedded commodification culture Slide16:  Anderson, B and O’Connell Davidson, J (2003) Is trafficking in human beings demand driven? A multi-country pilot study. International Organisation for Migration, Benson, C., & Matthews, R. (1995). Street Prostitution: Ten Facts in Search of a Policy. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 23, 395-415. Brooks-Gordon, B. (2005). Clients and Commercial Sex: Reflections on Paying the Price: A Consultation Paper on Prostitution. Criminal Law Review, 425-443. — (2006). The Price of Sex: Prostitution, Policy and Society: Willan Publishing. Campbell, R. (1998). Invisible Men: Making Visible Male Clients of Female Prostitutes in Merseyside. In J. Elias, V. Bullough, V. Elias & G. Brewer (Eds.), Prostitution. On Whores, Hustlers and Johns (pp. 155-171). New York: Prometheus Books Slide17:  Campbell, R., & Storr, M. (2001). Challenging the Kerb Crawler Rehabilitation Programme. Feminist Review, 67, 94-108. Ekberg, G. (2004). The Swedish Law that Prohibits the Purchase of Sexual Services: Best Practices for Prevention of Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings. Violence Against Women, 10, 1187-1218. Fischer, H., Webster, C., & Wortley, S. (2002). Vice lessons: A survey of prostitution offenders enrolled in the Toronto John School Diversion Program. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44, 369-402. Gibbens, T., & Silberman, M. (1970). The Clients of Prostitutes. The British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 36, 113-117. Groom, TM and Nandwani, R (2006) Characteristics of men who pay for sex: A UK sexual health clinic survey, Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82, 5, pp364-367 Hester, M., & Westmarland, N. (2004). Tackling Street Prostitution: Towards a Holistic Approach. London: Home Office. Johnson, AM., Mercer, CH, Erens, B etal (2001) Sexual Behaviour in Britain: partnerships, practices and HIV risk behaviours. Lancet, 358, pp 1835-42 Slide18:  Kantola, J., & Squires, J. (2004). Discourses Surrounding Prostitution Policies in the UK. European Journal of Women's Studies, 11, 77-101. Kennedy, M. A., Klein, C., Gorzalka, B. B., & Yuille, J. C. (2004). Attitude Change Following a Diversion Program for Men Who Solicit Sex. Journal of Offender rehabilitation, 40, 41-60. Leridon, H van Zessen, G., Hubert,m (1998) The Europeans and their Sexual Partners in Hubert, M, Bajos, N and Sandfort, T (eds) Sexual behaviour and HIV/AIDS in Europe, London UCL Press Lever, J., & Dolnick, D. (2000). Clients and Call Girls: Seeking Sex and Intimacy. In R. Weitzer (Ed.), Sex for Sale (pp. 85-100). London: Routledge. McKeganey, N., & Barnard, M. (1996). Sex Work on the Streets. Buckingham: Open University Press. Monto, M. (2000). Why Men Seek Out Prostitutes. In R. Weitzer (Ed.), Sex for Sale (pp. 67-83). Routledge: London. Monto, M. A., & Garcia, S. (2001). Recidivism Among the Customers of Female Street Prostitutes: Do Intervention Programs Help? Western Criminology Review, 3. Rissel, C.E., Richters, J., Grulich AE., et al Sex in Australia: Experiences of Commercial Sex in a Representative Sample of Adults Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 27:191-7 Slide19:  Sanders, T (2007) Paying for Pleasure: Men who Buy Sex Cullompton, Willan Sawyer, S., Rosser, B. R. S., & Schroeder, A. (1998). A Brief Psychoeducational Program for Men Who Patronize Prostitutes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 26, 111-125. Scott, J (1998) Changing Attitudes to Sexual Morality: A Cross-National Comparison, Sociology, 32, 4 pp 815-845 Sullivan, E., & Simon, W. (1998). The Client: A Social, Psychological and Behavioural Look at the Unseen Patron of Prostitution. In J. E. Elias, V. L. Bullough, V. Elias & G. Brewer (Eds.), Prostitution: On Whores, Hustlers and Johns (pp. 134-154). Amsherst, NY: Prometheus. Van Brunschot, E. G. (2003). Community Policing and "John Schools". Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthroplogy, 40, 215-232. Ward, H., Mercer, CH., Wellings K et al (2005) Who pays for sex? An analysis of the increasing prevalence of female commercial sex contacts among men in Britain. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81:467-71

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