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Technology to TEACH

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Information about Technology to TEACH
Education

Published on March 18, 2009

Author: pearson_digital

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This presentation was given by Kathy Maksimov, Curriculum Specialist from the Waterford Institute, at the Pacific District Executive Forum on March 11, 2009. The presentation focused on the ability of well-designed instructional technology to replicate teaching best practices across multiple environments and means of measuring program efficacy.
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Technology to TEACH Kathy Maksimov Curriculum Specialist

Modern Computing Technology

Manufacturers needed consistency

Scientists needed perfect recall and delivery

Businesses needed the ability to scale

Turned to Technology Consistent, replicable Perfect recall and delivery The ability to scale

As educators, we need consistency, perfect recall, the ability to scale, and … … the time to focus on just one child.

Our Students Pre-Literacy Training by First Grade Marilyn Jager Adams, Beginning to Read , 1990 Middle Class Low Income 3000 Hours 200 Hours

Pre-Literacy Training by First Grade

Our Students Early Predictor

Our Students - Hart and Risley, Meaningful Differences (1995) Welfare Parents 13 million words 2:1 negative to positive Working Class Parents 26 million words 2:1 positive to negative Professional Parents 45 million words 6:1 encouraging Vocabulary at age 4

- Hart and Risley, Meaningful Differences (1995)

A normal classroom Average Students Exceptional Students Troubled Students

The Average School Day - Eaton H. Conant (1973) Time at school Actual Instruction Individualized Instruction 7 Hours 2 Hours 1 Minute!

- Eaton H. Conant (1973)

“ The Work Problem” w = p * e w is the work produced by a system p is the potential of the system to create work e is efficiency of the system in creating work

w is the work produced by a system

p is the potential of the system to create work

e is efficiency of the system in creating work

Efficiency (e) How well workers work. Maximum = 100% Examples: Lesson manuals Professional development Mastery learning Managed schools, charter schools, etc. Accountability Grouping students

How well workers work.

Maximum = 100%

Examples:

Lesson manuals

Professional development

Mastery learning

Managed schools, charter schools, etc.

Accountability

Grouping students

Potential (p) Workers and tools Limited only by the worker or tool Examples: Teacher Paraprofessionals Manipulatives Chalkboards or digital whiteboards Books Software …

Workers and tools

Limited only by the worker or tool

Examples:

Teacher

Paraprofessionals

Manipulatives

Chalkboards or digital whiteboards

Books

Software …

w = p * e Example: Digging a Foundation

The Work Problem What if your students need this much work?

An Ideal Solution? Do I scale? Can I individualize? Am I interactive? Perhaps you just need more of me …

Do I scale?

Can I individualize?

Am I interactive?

Perhaps you just need more of me …

Costs too much … Can’t find enough experts … Too hard to consistently train existing resources … Not enough time … Why can’t we solve the work problem?

Costs too much …

Can’t find enough experts …

Too hard to consistently train existing resources …

Not enough time …

The Ideal Solution Described Scalable Affordable Perfect recall Consistently replicable Never tired, impatient, or frustrated Always the very best performance Constantly improving

Scalable

Affordable

Perfect recall

Consistently replicable

Never tired, impatient, or frustrated

Always the very best performance

Constantly improving

The Work Problem … What if your students need this much work?

The Work Problem … Solved!

Technology fundamentally changes potential … Communication example: Pony Express Telegraph (45.4 million times faster than a horse) Telephone Radio Television Optical fiber / Internet

Communication example:

Pony Express

Telegraph (45.4 million times faster than a horse)

Telephone

Radio

Television

Optical fiber / Internet

Musical Performance A pioneer father goes to see a concert …

A pioneer father goes to see a concert …

Teaching is a Performance What if you could capture and always deliver the best teaching?

What if you could capture and always deliver the best teaching?

The Formation of Waterford - Dusty’s Epiphany

Moore’s Law And so on…

Doubling Checkmate $184,000,000,000,000,000.00

In the beginning, most people only saw a penny.

In the beginning, most people only saw a penny.

Decision Science

Learner Profiles Can we apply decision science in education?

Can we apply decision science in education?

Approximation to Precision

Linear vs. Exponential Growth Source: Kurzweil 2005, The Singularity is Near

Leveraging Technology Requires … Commitment Willingness to change … How we view the classroom How we view the role of the teacher What we teach and when How we use student data

Commitment

Willingness to change …

How we view the classroom

How we view the role of the teacher

What we teach and when

How we use student data

Leveraging Technology Delivers … the very best education individualized for each student on the curve

the very best education

individualized

for each student on the curve

A Teacher’s Perspective … “ It’s independently run. I turn it on in the morning and it pretty much through the rest of the day, gives them their time on it and evaluates where they need to be the next day.” - Shannon Skipper, Pre-K Teacher, Gadsen, Alabama

Teacher Experience

> 450 Hours of Instruction

Ways Programs Deliver Instruction Menu Linear / Predetermined Adaptive (Mastery-based) 1 2 3 4 From Chutes and Ladders by Milton Bradley

Waterford Delivers Instruction Automatically individualized for each student From Chutes and Ladders by Milton Bradley

Waterford’s Sequencing Lesson Pre-assessment Song Book Instruction Practice Extended Practice Assessment Did the student master the learning objective?

Sequencing within a Lesson “ Successful” Sara Continue to the next lesson

Sequencing within a Lesson “ Needs Help” Sam Mark this lesson to automatically try again later

Sequencing between Lessons Automatic Review Automatic Review Try Again “ Successful” Sara “ Needs Help” Sam 1 2 3 1 4 1 2 3 2 1

Teacher Reports Averages Student progress, usage, and skill performance Highlighted areas of concern

Averages

Student progress, usage, and skill performance

Highlighted areas of concern

Meet “Miss Waterford” One-on-one instruction tailored for each student … … Proven methods, endlessly patient, FUN, responsive, private, equitable

One-on-one instruction tailored for each student …

… Proven methods, endlessly patient, FUN, responsive, private, equitable

The Data Understand types of efficacy studies Review examples with Waterford

Understand types of efficacy studies

Review examples with Waterford

Understanding Terms Random Assignment : a technique for assigning subjects to different treatments (or no treatment). Control Group the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied.

Random Assignment :

a technique for assigning subjects to different treatments (or no treatment).

Control Group

the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied.

Study Designs

Quasi Experiments Pretest Posttest Nonequivalent Group .  Control and treatment Group assignment by convenience Pretest and posttest

Pretest Posttest Nonequivalent Group . 

Control and treatment

Group assignment by convenience

Pretest and posttest

Commons Lane Elementary Pre and Posttest (Terra Nova) Participants (K and 1 st ): Commons Lane (treatment) – 20 students per class; approx. 80 Halls Ferry (control) – 13 students per class; approx. 80 Non-equivalents Class size (favors the control) Pretest scores (Commons Lane kindergarteners had lower pretest scores) Example

Pre and Posttest (Terra Nova)

Participants (K and 1 st ):

Commons Lane (treatment) – 20 students per class; approx. 80

Halls Ferry (control) – 13 students per class; approx. 80

Non-equivalents

Class size (favors the control)

Pretest scores (Commons Lane kindergarteners had lower pretest scores)

Commons Lane – Kindergarten Results Commons Lane = 3 times the gains! Example

Commons Lane – 1 st Grade Results Commons Lane = 2 times the gains! Example

Hecht and Close (Florida) Pre and Posttest Participants: inner city & rural public schools with low SES (“at risk” students) 42 Kindergarteners (treatment) 34 Kindergarteners (control) Treatment: Six months on Reading Level One Example

Pre and Posttest

Participants: inner city & rural public schools with low SES (“at risk” students)

42 Kindergarteners (treatment)

34 Kindergarteners (control)

Treatment:

Six months on Reading Level One

Hecht and Close - Definitions Effect sizes (ES): tell how different two groups are. ES = 0.2: small difference ES = 0.5: medium difference ES = 0.8: large difference Finding : Best Predictors of Future Reading Ability Segmenting and blending phonemes Example

Effect sizes (ES): tell how different two groups are.

ES = 0.2: small difference

ES = 0.5: medium difference

ES = 0.8: large difference

Finding : Best Predictors of Future Reading Ability

Segmenting and blending phonemes

Hecht and Close - Results  Segmenting ES = 1.14  Blending ES = 1.13  Word Reading ES = 1.11  Invented Spelling ES = 1.19  Print Concepts  Letter Name  Letter Sound  Letter Writing “… Computer assisted instruction provides a cost effective way to teach at-risk children.” Example

 Segmenting ES = 1.14

 Blending ES = 1.13

 Word Reading ES = 1.11

 Invented Spelling ES = 1.19

 Print Concepts

 Letter Name

 Letter Sound

 Letter Writing

Hecht and Close - Results Confident in Results: Exact amount of time each student used Waterford Computer delivers identical experience Individualized Reports show exactly how students performed Studying Computer-Based Instruction Example Studying Classroom Instruction

Confident in Results:

Exact amount of time each student used Waterford

Computer delivers identical experience

Individualized

Reports show exactly how students performed

Hecht and Close Sited in: Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel “ Found that … Amount of exposure children had to [Waterford] contributed to individual differences in phonemic awareness and spelling.” Example

Sited in: Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel

“ Found that … Amount of exposure children had to [Waterford] contributed to individual differences in phonemic awareness and spelling.”

Quasi Experiments Time Series Designs .  One group of subjects Pretested and posttested at different intervals.  The purpose might be to determine long-term effect of treatment and therefore the number of pre- and posttests can vary from one each to many. 

Time Series Designs . 

One group of subjects

Pretested and posttested at different intervals. 

The purpose might be to determine long-term effect of treatment and therefore the number of pre- and posttests can vary from one each to many. 

Hillcrest Elementary Demographic: Title 1 School (low SES) Before Waterford: Below district average reading scores 75% of students were in two lowest reading categories: below basic (more then 50%) and basic Example

Demographic:

Title 1 School (low SES)

Before Waterford:

Below district average reading scores

75% of students were in two lowest reading categories: below basic (more then 50%) and basic

Hillcrest Elementary - Results Two years after Waterford: trend reversed. 75% students in top two categories: Proficient and Advanced Three years after Waterford: the first class to use all three levels of Waterford from kindergarten to second-grade reached the third-grade and had the highest reading scores of all 36 schools in the district! Example

Two years after Waterford: trend reversed.

75% students in top two categories: Proficient and Advanced

Three years after Waterford:

the first class to use all three levels of Waterford from kindergarten to second-grade reached the third-grade and had the highest reading scores of all 36 schools in the district!

Hillcrest Elementary - Results Kindergarten Student Rankings on the Utah State Core Assessment Test Number of Students 1996* Example

State of Idaho Participants: 8 Idaho School Districts 3,394 students (treatment) 2,413 students (historical control) Test scores (IRI) over 4 years Example

Participants: 8 Idaho School Districts

3,394 students (treatment)

2,413 students (historical control)

Test scores (IRI) over 4 years

State of Idaho – Results More Use = Higher Gains 36 37 38 39 44 49 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Control 0–1000 1001– 1500 1501– 2000 2001– 2500 2500+ Usage (Minutes) Average Gain Waterford recommends 15 min per day = 2250 min Example

State of Idaho - Results Lowest third (at-risk) experienced the most gains (>1.0 effect size ). Finishing the level had a larger effect size than SES, motivation, and tutoring. Example

Lowest third (at-risk) experienced the most gains (>1.0 effect size ).

Finishing the level had a larger effect size than SES, motivation, and tutoring.

A Midwest School (Indiana) Pretest and Posttest Participants: 46 first grade students (year 2001) - Treatment 47 first grade students (year 2000) - Control Historical control is nice because it reduces the variance from teachers. Example

Pretest and Posttest

Participants:

46 first grade students (year 2001) - Treatment

47 first grade students (year 2000) - Control

Historical control is nice because it reduces the variance from teachers.

A Midwest School - Results Evaluated students by how they performed on the pretest: High scores Moderate scores Low scores All treatment students outperformed their control counterparts … but the low treatment outperformed the moderate control on the posttest! Example

Evaluated students by how they performed on the pretest:

High scores

Moderate scores

Low scores

All treatment students outperformed their control counterparts … but the low treatment outperformed the moderate control on the posttest!

A Midwest School - Results 660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 Grade 1 Grade 2 Control – High Control – Moderate Control – Low Exp – High Exp – Moderate Exp – Low Example

True Experiments “The Gold Standard” Random treatment and control Testing to measure change in both groups Only research method that can adequately measure the cause and effect relationship

“The Gold Standard”

Random treatment and control

Testing to measure change in both groups

Only research method that can adequately measure the cause and effect relationship

True Experiments Post Equivalent Groups. Treatment and control Randomized assignment to groups Posttest administered to measure difference R = Randomized participants N = Not-randomized participants O = Test X = Treatment

Post Equivalent Groups.

Treatment and control

Randomized assignment to groups

Posttest administered to measure difference

True Experiments Pretest Posttest Equivalent Groups Treatment and control Randomized assignment to group Pretest to measure difference before the study takes place Posttest to measure effect of treatment R = Randomized participants N = Not-randomized participants O = Test X = Treatment

Pretest Posttest Equivalent Groups

Treatment and control

Randomized assignment to group

Pretest to measure difference before the study takes place

Posttest to measure effect of treatment

True Experiments in Education One review showed that not even 1 percent of dissertations in education or of the studies archived in ERIC Abstracts involved randomized experiments. http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/3384446.html

One review showed that not even 1 percent of dissertations in education or of the studies archived in ERIC Abstracts involved randomized experiments.

True Experiments in Education

Challenges for True Experiments in Education Random sample Parents School staff / Well-meaning teachers Fidelity of implementation Teacher abilities Classroom set up Scheduling

Random sample

Parents

School staff / Well-meaning teachers

Fidelity of implementation

Teacher abilities

Classroom set up

Scheduling

Tucson – Math and Science Participants: 5 Title 1 schools in Tucson Unified School District Free and reduced lunch rate 88.5%-97.5% 22 classrooms 338 students total Treatment and Control Random assignment of classrooms Pretest and Posttest SAT10 Math and the environment (science) tests Example

Participants:

5 Title 1 schools in Tucson Unified School District

Free and reduced lunch rate 88.5%-97.5%

22 classrooms

338 students total

Treatment and Control

Random assignment of classrooms

Pretest and Posttest

SAT10 Math and the environment (science) tests

Tucson Results by classroom 4.95 6.10 11.37 10.44 7.85 Diff 92.6% 97.5% 98.3% 90.6% 88.5% Free & Reduced Lunch 29.1% 6.21 1.26 E WEMS Control 49.0% 13.02 6.92 D WEMS Control 22.5% 14.23 2.86 C WEMS Control 39.2% 13.43 2.99 B WEMS Control 16.0% 8.84 .99 A WEMS Control ELL Gain School Example

Tucson Results define terms NCE (Normal Curve Equivalent) Where a student falls on a normal curve Indicates a student’s rank compared to other students on the same test Range from 1-99 with mean of 50 In a normally distributed population, if all students make exactly one year of progress, NCE gain would be zero even though raw score increased. Example

NCE (Normal Curve Equivalent)

Where a student falls on a normal curve

Indicates a student’s rank compared to other students on the same test

Range from 1-99 with mean of 50

In a normally distributed population, if all students make exactly one year of progress, NCE gain would be zero even though raw score increased.

Tucson Results by subject Math Science Example

Tucson Results by gender Example

Tucson Results by ELL status Example

Tucson Results by ELL status Waterford ELL students had the lowest pretest scores and the highest posttest scores! Example

Qualitative Research Uses “naturalistic” methods interviewing observation focus groups No statistical or quantitative procedures Goals behavior in natural setting perspective of the research participant meanings people give to their experience

Uses “naturalistic” methods

interviewing

observation

focus groups

No statistical or quantitative procedures

Goals

behavior in natural setting

perspective of the research participant

meanings people give to their experience

Madisonville Consolidated Independent School District Teachers report higher interest in reading They report that children now argue over who is allowed to go to the reading centers, when previously there was little interest shown in reading activities. Teachers report improved home/school connection; parents support program 100% (survey) Increased student academic self-esteem Waterford supports and supplements existing curriculum Waterford is user friendly Anecdotes of improved phonemic awareness and reading readiness skills Example

Teachers report higher interest in reading

They report that children now argue over who is allowed to go to the reading centers, when previously there was little interest shown in reading activities.

Teachers report improved home/school connection; parents support program 100% (survey)

Increased student academic self-esteem

Waterford supports and supplements existing curriculum

Waterford is user friendly

Anecdotes of improved phonemic awareness and reading readiness skills

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