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Tech2002lecweeksix0809

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Published on November 13, 2008

Author: The_Joker

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TECH2002 Studies in Digital Technology Lecture Week 6
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TECH2002 Studies in Digital Technology Lecture Week 6: Cyberculture and mundane cyborg practice Andrew Clay 6

How are people using technology to explore being cybernetic organisms (cyborgs), hybrids of the human and the machine? As ‘networked silicon intelligence embeds itself everywhere’, are we becoming ‘spatially extended cyborgs’ (Mitchell, 2003, pp.38-39) when we use technologies such as the internet or mobile phones?

How are people using technology to explore being cybernetic organisms (cyborgs), hybrids of the human and the machine?

As ‘networked silicon intelligence embeds itself everywhere’, are we becoming ‘spatially extended cyborgs’ (Mitchell, 2003, pp.38-39) when we use technologies such as the internet or mobile phones?

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Why do we want to connect to machines? How do we make the inanimate animate?

Why do we want to connect to machines?

How do we make the inanimate animate?

blueBook project (Manolis Kelaidis)

 

 

Intelligent textiles – air guitar t-shirt

Beyond the Human Popular culture is replete with images of quasi-human/machines. The cyborg is played out as a threat to humanity – to what it means to be human .

Popular culture is replete with images of quasi-human/machines.

The cyborg is played out as a threat to humanity – to what it means to be human .

 

 

Cyborg Cyborg – cyb ernetic org anism Hybrids of human-machine Cybernetic systems constitute cyborgs by using biology and technology Separable cyborg (pilot-aircraft, ear-hearing aid) Invasive cybernetic technologies – Kevin Warwick Prosthetic cybernetic technologies - Stelarc hybrid (Donna Haraway) bio-technological world

Cyborg – cyb ernetic org anism

Hybrids of human-machine

Cybernetic systems constitute cyborgs by using biology and technology

Separable cyborg (pilot-aircraft, ear-hearing aid)

Invasive cybernetic technologies – Kevin Warwick

Prosthetic cybernetic technologies - Stelarc

hybrid (Donna Haraway) bio-technological world

Kevin Warwick

Slide 13

 

http://www.kevinwarwick.org/

Stelarc A third virtual arm Muscles stimulated by computers Connection to robotic prosthetics He wants a third ear

A new physiological entity? A network of organic and technological parts in a cybernetic circuit

The body is trapped by gravity

Stelarc ‘ The body is neither a very efficient nor a very durable structure. It malfunctions often and fatigues quickly; its performance is determined by its age. It is susceptible to disease and is doomed to a certain and early death’. (Stelarc, 2000, p.561)

‘ The body is neither a very efficient nor a very durable structure. It malfunctions often and fatigues quickly; its performance is determined by its age. It is susceptible to disease and is doomed to a certain and early death’. (Stelarc, 2000, p.561)

Stelarc ‘ The body needs to be repositioned from the psycho realm of the biological to the cyber zone of the interface and extension – from genetic containment to electronic extrusion ’. (Stelarc, 2000, p.560)

‘ The body needs to be repositioned from the psycho realm of the biological to the cyber zone of the interface and extension – from genetic containment to electronic extrusion ’.

(Stelarc, 2000, p.560)

Stelarc ‘ It is time to question whether a bipedal, breathing body with binocular vision and a 1400cc brain is an adequate biological form. It cannot cope with the quantity, complexity and quality of information it has accumulated…, it is biologically ill-equipped to cope with its new extra-terrestrial environment ’. (Stelarc, 2000, p.561)

‘ It is time to question whether a bipedal, breathing body with binocular vision and a 1400cc brain is an adequate biological form. It cannot cope with the quantity, complexity and quality of information it has accumulated…, it is biologically ill-equipped to cope with its new extra-terrestrial environment ’. (Stelarc, 2000, p.561)

Cyberculture Lister et al. use the term ‘cyberculture’ in two distinct ways (2003, p.385): ‘ culture and technology’ from cybernetics, of how people live with technology in digital, mechanical and industrial structures theoretical study of the culture and technology of this ‘cyberculture’, and in particular an interest in the profound interrelationship between computer technology and culture in the contemporary world

Lister et al. use the term ‘cyberculture’ in two distinct ways (2003, p.385):

‘ culture and technology’ from cybernetics, of how people live with technology in digital, mechanical and industrial structures

theoretical study of the culture and technology of this ‘cyberculture’, and in particular an interest in the profound interrelationship between computer technology and culture in the contemporary world

Cyberculture Virtuality Cyborg bodies Identity Cyberspace Disembodiment / embodiment Cybernetics

Virtuality

Cyborg bodies

Identity

Cyberspace

Disembodiment / embodiment

Cybernetics

Cyberculture studies Computer and networked technologies biotechnology

Cyberpunk fiction 1984 disembodied cyberspace               

‘ technoculture’ increasing incidence of human-machine convergence and interface cyberculture computers and networks biotechnology robotics artificial intelligence (AI) genetics

Cybernetics Cyber – ‘to steer’ (Greek) [ kybernetes , steersman] The science of control and communication in animals and machines , biology and technology (Norbert Wiener) Control ‘ smart’ machines Cybernetic technologies Thermostats Ballistic missiles Search engines

Cyber – ‘to steer’ (Greek) [ kybernetes , steersman]

The science of control and communication in animals and machines , biology and technology (Norbert Wiener)

Control

‘ smart’ machines

Cybernetic technologies

Thermostats

Ballistic missiles

Search engines

Cybernetic Media Technologies Loop of constant information and energy exchange, a circuit of constancy of action and reaction Temporary situation of being ‘in the loop’ or ‘plugged in’ to media such as cinema or videogames

Loop of constant information and energy exchange, a circuit of constancy of action and reaction

Temporary situation of being ‘in the loop’ or ‘plugged in’ to media such as cinema or videogames

a simple circuit between the brain and the cinema, the spectator is a cybernetic subject of the physical cinema

Videogames as Cybernetic Media In gaming ‘ the circuit serves to reduce the possibilities of motion and action and to amplify the remaining actions through a delicate balance of feedback mechanisms… Cybernetically, then, interactivity is a false description of a process of the programmed elimination of possible actions, not of creating possibilities of actions’ (Lister et al., 2003, p.357)

In gaming

‘ the circuit serves to reduce the possibilities of motion and action and to amplify the remaining actions through a delicate balance of feedback mechanisms… Cybernetically, then, interactivity is a false description of a process of the programmed elimination of possible actions, not of creating possibilities of actions’

(Lister et al., 2003, p.357)

Cybernetic Bodies People are no longer separable from the saturation of biology-technology, individually and environmentally Technically a person with a surgical implant such as a pacemaker is a cyborg? But what we really mean by cyborg is a creature that is constituted wholly of biological and technological components

People are no longer separable from the saturation of biology-technology, individually and environmentally

Technically a person with a surgical implant such as a pacemaker is a cyborg?

But what we really mean by cyborg is a creature that is constituted wholly of biological and technological components

Cybernetic Bodies ‘ The contemporary intersection of the body, information and technology gives us a different body from the somewhat fixed and frail, if valiant body we were used to’ (Murphie and Potts, 2003, p.115)

‘ The contemporary intersection of the body, information and technology gives us a different body from the somewhat fixed and frail, if valiant body we were used to’ (Murphie and Potts, 2003, p.115)

Cyborg Issues Technology is increasingly integrated with the human body. Technology is used to augment or replace human physical functions. The ‘Frankenstein myth’ – are we acting outside of our moral capacity? Do our values change when we are hybrid human -machines? What kind of politics do we need to ‘control’ or ‘regulate’ the development of cyborgs? Are we now post-human ?

Technology is increasingly integrated with the human body.

Technology is used to augment or replace human physical functions.

The ‘Frankenstein myth’ – are we acting outside of our moral capacity?

Do our values change when we are hybrid human -machines?

What kind of politics do we need to ‘control’ or ‘regulate’ the development of cyborgs?

Are we now post-human ?

Cyborg Ethics If we can integrate the body with technology – do we need to reconsider the ethics of human action? What empathy do we have with ‘ animalistic ’ organisms if we have become ‘ technological ’ organisms? How do we consider our own identities if they are augmented by machines?

If we can integrate the body with technology – do we need to reconsider the ethics of human action?

What empathy do we have with ‘ animalistic ’ organisms if we have become ‘ technological ’ organisms?

How do we consider our own identities if they are augmented by machines?

Being Post-Human High-tech culture challenges the notion of the ‘human’. Boundaries between the ‘human’ and the ‘machine’ are transgressed . Cyborgs can undertake tasks and roles that humans cannot or do not want to do In embracing the cyborg we can re-define what it means to be human.

High-tech culture challenges the notion of the ‘human’.

Boundaries between the ‘human’ and the ‘machine’ are transgressed .

Cyborgs can undertake tasks and roles that humans cannot or do not want to do

In embracing the cyborg we can re-define what it means to be human.

http://www.michaelchorost.com

mobile privatization mobility personalisation

Audio technoculture From portables to wearables Internet dematerialisation of music From environmental audio to embodied audio cyborg?

From portables to wearables

Internet dematerialisation of music

From environmental audio to embodied audio cyborg?

‘ The second best part about the Nike+ running — the cool, video-game like part — is that you not only run, but you also get points for running . Your score ever-increases. Better still, if you set goals for yourself, you even get awesome virtual trophies and ribbons , resplendent in their vector beauty... And the coolest part about Nike+ running? Like any good online game, you can challenge your friends. First to 100 miles? Fastest 5-mile time? Your call’ http://www.cabel.name/2006/08/multiplayer-game-of-year.html

‘ cyberculture in general is a highly physicalist environment in which the lines dividing biology from technology are erased by biotechnology, art and surgery. If cyberculture has a bias, then, it is not towards disembodiment but towards physicality’ (Lister et al., 2003, p.376)

‘ cyberculture in general is a highly physicalist environment in which the lines dividing biology from technology are erased by biotechnology, art and surgery. If cyberculture has a bias, then, it is not towards disembodiment but towards physicality’

(Lister et al., 2003, p.376)

Me++ William J. Mitchell the transformation of wireless technology in the hundred years since Marconi--the scaling up of networks and the scaling down of the apparatus for transmission and reception This transformation has, in turn, changed our relationship with our surroundings and with each other. ubiquitous, inescapable network interconnectivity a world governed less and less by boundaries and more and more by connections

William J. Mitchell

the transformation of wireless technology in the hundred years since Marconi--the scaling up of networks and the scaling down of the apparatus for transmission and reception

This transformation has, in turn, changed our relationship with our surroundings and with each other.

ubiquitous, inescapable network interconnectivity

a world governed less and less by boundaries and more and more by connections

The cyborg self Mitchell suggests that there is a particular embodiment of technology through machines and computer networks that have extended our bodies as machines so that we have become part-machine or cyborgs: I construct, and am constructed, in a mutually recursive process that continually engages my fluid, permeable boundaries and my endlessly ramifying networks. I am a spatially extended cyborg. (Mitchell, 2003, p.39)

Mitchell suggests that there is a particular embodiment of technology through machines and computer networks that have extended our bodies as machines so that we have become part-machine or cyborgs:

I construct, and am constructed, in a mutually recursive process that continually

engages my fluid, permeable boundaries and my endlessly ramifying networks. I am a

spatially extended cyborg.

(Mitchell, 2003, p.39)

When I sat down to make a list of audio technoculture I wrote this: Living room radio 45rpm vinyl ‘ rock and roll’ Transistor radio Audiocassette reproducibility Walkman mobility CD digitization MP3 compression MP3 player Napster Podcasting Last.fm

When I sat down to make a list of audio technoculture I wrote this:

Living room radio

45rpm vinyl

‘ rock and roll’

Transistor radio

Audiocassette reproducibility

Walkman mobility

CD digitization

MP3 compression

MP3 player

Napster

Podcasting

Last.fm

Internet as technoculture? Web 2.0 and audio technoculture? Case study Last.fm From broadcast to network? A different physicality of audio technology?

Web 2.0 and audio technoculture?

Case study Last.fm

From broadcast to network?

A different physicality of audio technology?

Last.fm and the cyborg self? Martin Stiksel, co-founder Last.fm ‘ It’s a new music movement driven by the people, allowing everybody to become a DJ, and every musician to be played right next to Michael Jackson, if their music is up to it’ (Benedictus, 2006)

Martin Stiksel, co-founder Last.fm

‘ It’s a new music movement driven by the people, allowing everybody to become a DJ, and every musician to be played right next to Michael Jackson, if their music is up to it’ (Benedictus, 2006)

Social music networks and the cyborg self Network flows of information about music tastes Connectivity between music consumers and producers (playlists and artists) Expanding musical knowledge in your taste spectrum From audience to DJ An online radio station that ‘knows’ you through your musical tastes (identity)

Network flows of information about music tastes

Connectivity between music consumers and producers (playlists and artists)

Expanding musical knowledge in your taste spectrum

From audience to DJ

An online radio station that ‘knows’ you through your musical tastes (identity)

media/theory (Moores, 2005) structuration, routines, traditions, dailiness, seriality, scheduling, ordinariness , hourliness, lifetime, eventfulness globalisation, stretching, medium, shrinking, unevenness, network, flow, empires, permeability, virtuality typology, mix, intimacy, grief, pathologisation, sociability, conversationalisation, face, friendliness, doubling connotation, multiaccentuality, decoding, export, acts, context, technologies, tastes, fallacy, authentication trust, inattention, reflexivity, risk, labour, performativity, MUDding, community, diasporas, dwellings

structuration, routines, traditions, dailiness, seriality, scheduling, ordinariness , hourliness, lifetime, eventfulness

globalisation, stretching, medium, shrinking, unevenness, network, flow, empires, permeability, virtuality

typology, mix, intimacy, grief, pathologisation, sociability, conversationalisation, face, friendliness, doubling

connotation, multiaccentuality, decoding, export, acts, context, technologies, tastes, fallacy, authentication

trust, inattention, reflexivity, risk, labour, performativity, MUDding, community, diasporas, dwellings

ordinariness Settled, familiar, known, taken-for-granted character of daily use of media Television and radio – ‘ordinary’ media Habitual, mundane, underwhelming predictable enjoyment But this has been learned as the technology has been incorporated into everyday life Are we learning to make network media ordinary? What is extraordinary about new media?

Settled, familiar, known, taken-for-granted character of daily use of media

Television and radio – ‘ordinary’ media

Habitual, mundane, underwhelming predictable enjoyment

But this has been learned as the technology has been incorporated into everyday life

Are we learning to make network media ordinary?

What is extraordinary about new media?

Podcasting – ordinary – extraordinary?

Mundane cyborg practice (Petersen, 2007) Human-computer-internet action

Human-computer-internet action

‘ always on’ broadband internet has allowed it to become a mundane technology of ‘constant connectivity’ ‘ mundane cyborg practice’ of human-computer-internet action Study of 6 broadband users (students, unemployed academics) at 4 homes 48 hours of observation per home Home – network of household connection Time – habitual, repetitive browsing (news, blogs, email, IM) as part of the patterns of the day Multifunctional spontaneous use as part of the everyday routines of home – as a flow and mixing of study, work, leisure Remediation of previous tasks Restructure of physical setting – closeness to computers Ubiquitous computing and mobile phones : ‘ the experience of computing becomes more and more physical and material, underlining the fact that we will still go about our lives as mundane cyborgs’ (Petersen, 2007, p.89)

‘ always on’ broadband internet has allowed it to become a mundane technology of ‘constant connectivity’

‘ mundane cyborg practice’ of human-computer-internet action

Study of 6 broadband users (students, unemployed academics) at 4 homes

48 hours of observation per home

Home – network of household connection

Time – habitual, repetitive browsing (news, blogs, email, IM) as part of the patterns of the day

Multifunctional spontaneous use as part of the everyday routines of home – as a flow and mixing of study, work, leisure

Remediation of previous tasks

Restructure of physical setting – closeness to computers

Ubiquitous computing and mobile phones :

‘ the experience of computing becomes more and more physical and material, underlining the fact that we will still go about our lives as mundane cyborgs’ (Petersen, 2007, p.89)

Conclusion How do you use computers as part of your everyday life as a ‘mundane cyborg practice? Do you feel as though you are part of a growing technoculture or cyberculture? What is the ordinariness or extraordinariness of human-computer-internet action?

How do you use computers as part of your everyday life as a ‘mundane cyborg practice?

Do you feel as though you are part of a growing technoculture or cyberculture?

What is the ordinariness or extraordinariness of human-computer-internet action?

Bibliography Benedictus, L. (2006) Last.fm, Martin Stiksel [WWW] Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/weekend/story/0,,1939028,00.html (Accessed 6 November 2006). Lister, M. (et al.) (2003) New Media: A Critical Introduction , London and New York, Routledge. Mitchell, W. J. (2003) Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City , Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. Moores, S. (2005) Media/Theory , London and New York, Routledge. Murphie, A. and Potts, J. (2003) Culture & Technology , Basingstoke, Palgrave. Petersen, S. M. (2007) Mundane Cyborg Practice: Material Aspects of Broadband Internet Use, Convergence 13:1. pp.79-91. Stelarc (2000) From Psycho-Body to Cyber-Systems: Images as Post- Human Entities, in Bell, D. and Kennedy, B. (Eds) The Cybercultures Reader , London and New York, Routledge.

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