Published on February 12, 2008
TecEco – Kyoto Opportunities: TecEco – Kyoto Opportunities I will have to race over some slides but the presentation is always downloadable from the TecEco web site if you missed something. John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. Canadian Kyoto Opportunities: Canadian Kyoto Opportunities The Kyoto treaty came in to force on the 16th February, 2005. Under the treaty, Canada has agreed to reduce its annual emissions over the period 2008-2012 to a level 6 percent below actual emissions for 1990. However Canada, one of the first countries to sign, has increased emissions by 20% since 1990 Canada can meet these impossible objectives? Its not just about shutting down power stations Sequestration is important The masonry industry can play a major role as Canada has the resources and markets close at hand to take advantage of the Kyoto treaty by generating carbon credits through delivering more sustainable, technically innovative masonry product based on magnesium oxide and supplying resources to other countries to enable them to meet their Kyoto objectives doing likewise. A Demographic Explosion : A Demographic Explosion ? Developed Countries Undeveloped Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet is exploding. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Global Temperature Anomaly: Global Temperature Anomaly The Techno-Process: The Techno-Process Our linkages to the bio-geo-sphere are defined by the techno process describing and controlling the flow of matter and energy. It is these flows that have detrimental linkages to earth systems. Detrimental affects on earth systems Global Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater systems, salinity and global biological diversity have all been substantially affected. Ecological Footprint: Ecological Footprint Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable as a species and must change our ways Canada Before Settlement: Canada Before Settlement Canada Now: Canada Now Habitat removal Cows - methane Vehicles - carbon dioxide Cities Immediate and polluted water run-off. Air pollution. Carbon dioxide and other gases. Other wastes. Huge linkages. Huge impacts Canada with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort: Canada with a Little Lateral Thinking & Effort Evolution away from using trees – paperless office Vehicles – more efficient and using fuel cells Cities: Porous pavement prevents immediate and polluted run-off. Carbon dioxide and other gases absorbed by TecEco eco-cements. Less wastes. Carbon based wastes converted to energy or mulches and returned to soils. Buildings generate own energy etc. TecEco technology provides ways of sequestering carbon dioxide and utilizing wastes to create our techno - world Sequestration processes Less impacts Embodied Energy & Emissions: Embodied Energy & Emissions Embodied Energy The energy required to extract and process raw materials into finished building components. E.g. The energy required to mine clay, make bricks and then fire them is in the order of 4.7 GJ .t-1, concrete blocks come in lower at 2.1 Gj t-1(Tucker, S., 2002). Embodied Emissions The carbon dioxide released during the manufacture of finished building components. E.g. The embodied emissions of clay bricks are around .28 tonnes of carbon dioxide to the tonne of clay bricks (Tucker, S., 2002). Embodied Energy of Walling Systems: Embodied Energy of Walling Systems Source: Bill Lawson, 1996, Building Materials, Energy and the Environment, National Capital Printing Canberra Impact of the Largest Material Flow - Cement and Concrete: Impact of the Largest Material Flow - Cement and Concrete Concrete made with cement is the most widely used material on Earth accounting for some 30% of all materials flows on the planet and 70% of all materials flows in the built environment. Global Portland cement production is in the order of 2 billion tonnes per annum. Globally over 14 billion tonnes of concrete are poured per year. Over 2 tonnes per person per annum Embodied Energy of Building Materials: Embodied Energy of Building Materials Downloaded from www.dbce.csiro.au/ind-serv/brochures/embodied/embodied.htm (last accessed 07 March 2000) Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly and has a relatively low embodied energy Average Embodied Energy in Buildings: Average Embodied Energy in Buildings Downloaded from www.dbce.csiro.au/ind-serv/brochures/embodied/embodied.htm (last accessed 07 March 2000) But because so much is used there is a huge opportunity for sustainability by reducing the embodied energy, reducing the carbon debt (net emissions) and improving properties. Most of the embodied energy in the built environment is in concrete. Emissions from Cement Production: Emissions from Cement Production Chemical Release The process of calcination involves driving off chemically bound CO2 with heat. CaCO3 →CaO + ↑CO2 ∆ Process Energy Most energy is derived from fossil fuels. Fuel oil, coal and natural gas are directly or indirectly burned to produce the energy required releasing CO2. The production of cement for concretes accounts for around 10%(1) of global anthropogenic CO2. (1) Pearce, F., "The Concrete Jungle Overheats", New Scientist, 19 July, No 2097, 1997 (page 14). Cement Production = Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Cement Production = Carbon Dioxide Emissions Sustainability: Sustainability Sustainability is a direction not a destination. Our approach should be holistically balanced and involve Everybody, every process, every day. Mineral Sequestration Eco-cements in cities + Waste utilization Geological Seques-tration Emissions reduction through efficiency and conversion to non fossil fuels + + Converting Waste to Resource: Converting Waste to Resource Take only renewables → Manipulate → Make → Use → Waste only what is biodegradable or can be re-assimilated Reuse Re-make Recycle [ ←Materials→ ] [← Underlying molecular flows →] Materials control: How much and what we have to take to manufacture the materials we use. How long materials remain of utility, whether they are easily recycled and how and what form they are in when we eventually throw them “away”. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. Problems in the global commons today include heavy metals, halogen carbon double bond compounds, CFC’s too much CO2 etc. Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability: Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability There is no such place as “away”, only a global commons The choice of materials in construction controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. Sustainability Through Materials Innovation: Sustainability Through Materials Innovation Problems in the global commons today can only be changed by changing the molecular flows underlying planetary anthropogenic materials flows in the techno-process so that the every day behaviors of people interacting in an economic system will deliver new more sustainable flows. This will not happen because it is the right thing to do. Pilzer's first law states that the technology paradigm defines resources. Changing the flow of materials therefore has to be economic. WBCSD President Björn Stigson 26 November 2004 “Technology is a key part of the solutions for sustainable development. Innovation and technology are tools for achieving higher resource efficiency in society.” Sustainability = Culture + Technology: Sustainability = Culture + Technology Increase in demand/price ratio for sustainability due to educationally induced cultural drift. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to innovative paradigm shifts in technology. Equilibrium shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth Sustainability is where Culture and Technology meet. Demand Supply Huge Potential for Sustainable Materials in the Built Environment: Huge Potential for Sustainable Materials in the Built Environment The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Building materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-45% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process. By including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. By including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources Innovative New Materials Vital: Innovative New Materials Vital It is possible to achieve Kyoto targets as the UK are proving, but we need to go way beyond the treaty according to our chief scientists. Carbon rationing has been proposed as the only viable means to keep the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere below 450 ppm. Atmospheric carbon reduction is essential, but difficult to politically achieve by rationing. Making the built environment not only a repository for recyclable resources (referred to as waste) but a huge carbon sink is an alternative and adjunct that is politically viable as it potentially results in economic benefits. Concrete, a cementitous composite, is the single biggest material flow on the planet with over 2.2 tonnes per person produced. Eco-cements offer tremendous potential for capture and sequestration using cementitious composites. MgCO3 → MgO + ↓CO2 - Efficient low temperature calcination & capture MgO + ↓CO2 + H2O → MgCO3.3H2O - Sequestration as building material ∆ TecEco Technologies: TecEco Technologies Silicate → Carbonate Mineral Sequestration Using either peridotite, forsterite or serpentine as inputs to a silicate reactor process CO2 is sequestered and magnesite produced. Proven by others (NETL,MIT,TNO, Finnish govt. etc.) Tec-Kiln Technology Combined calcining and grinding in a closed system allowing the capture of CO2. Powered by waste heat, solar or solar derived energy. To be proved but simple and should work! Direct Scrubbing of CO2 using MgO Being proven by others (NETL,MIT,TNO, Finnish govt. etc.) Tec and Eco-Cement Concretes in the Built Environment. TecEco eco-cements set by absorbing CO2 and are as good as proven. TecEco Economic under Kyoto? TecEco The TecEco Total Process: The TecEco Total Process Iron Ore. Silicate Reactor Process Silicic Acids or Silica Solar or Wind Electricity Powered Tec-Kiln CO2 for Geological Sequestration Oxide Reactor Process CO2 from Power Generation, Industry or CO2 Directly From the Air Magnesite MgCO3) Crushing Grinding Screening Magnetic Sep. Heat Treatment Serpentine Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 Crushing Grinding Screening Gravity Concentration Olivine Mg2SiO4 Magnesia (MgO) MgO for TecEco Cements and Sequestration by Eco-Cements in the Built Environment Other Wastes after Processing Simplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 → MgO + CO2 - 118 kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO2 → MgCO3 + 118 kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates) Magnesite (MgCO3) CO2 from Power Generation or Industry Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle Waste Sulfuric Acid or Alkali? Why Magnesium Compounds?: Why Magnesium Compounds? At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element. Magnesium oxide is easy to make using non fossil fuel energy and efficiently absorbs CO2 Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO2 is released or captured. A high proportion of water means that a little binder goes a long way. In terms of binder produced for starting material in cement, eco-cements are nearly six times more efficient. The magnesium industry in Canada is Languishing. TecEco Kiln Technology: TecEco Kiln Technology Grinds and calcines at the same time. Runs 25% to 30% more efficiency. Can be powered by solar energy or waste heat. Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together Captures CO2 for bottling and sale to the oil industry (geological sequestration). The products – CaO &/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated. Suitable for making reactive reactive MgO. TecEco Technology in a Post – Carbon Age: TecEco Technology in a Post – Carbon Age Drivers for TecEco Technology: Drivers for TecEco Technology Producer Push The opportunity cost of compliant waste disposal Profitability and cost recovery Technical merit Resource issues Robotics Research objectives Consumer Pull Environmental sentiment Cost and technical advantages? Competition? Government Influence Carbon Taxes Provision of Research Funds Environmental education Huge Markets Cement 2 billion tonnes. Bricks 130,000 million tonnes TecEco cements are the only binders capable of utilizing very large quantities of wastes based on physical property rather than chemical composition overcoming significant global disposal problems, and reducing the impact of landfill taxes. TecEco eco-cements can sequester CO2 on a large scale and will therefore provide carbon accounting advantages. TecEco kiln technology could be the first non fossil fuel powered industrial process Making Masonry More Sustainable: Making Masonry More Sustainable Ways of making bricks blocks pavers and mortars, the substance of the masonry industry, more sustainable are: Use product with much lower embodied energies and emissions and that preferably utilize wastes (e.g. fly ash, bottom ash, industrial slags etc.) Tec and Eco-Cements can achieve this. Capture emissions during the manufacture of cements which can be achieved with TecEco Tec-kiln technology. The Masonry Industry Taking Advantage of Kyoto: The Masonry Industry Taking Advantage of Kyoto The Canadian masonry industry is ideally placed to take advantage of the Kyoto protocol to solve the world’s global warming problem as the country: Making bricks, blocks, pavers and mortars using tec or eco-cements in Canada would help the country meet its Kyoto objectives and together with the raw materials required provide a new export. Canada: Canada: Is close by countries that are big emitters (Europe, the US) Has abundant Mg minerals suitable for a silicate reactor process to sequester CO2 from concentrated sources such as power stations etc. Has abundant non fossil fuel energy (hydro, wind) to power TecEco kilns Is close to markets that could use Mg carbonate products with associated carbon credits The Masonry Industry Business Opportunity: The Masonry Industry Business Opportunity The business opportunity is between The power industry who will be seeking to reduce carbon taxes What’s left of the once huge magnesium industry as it is a way of profitably using their reserves and tailings and the The masonry industry as it is a way of making highly exportable product. The Canadian government who can organize carbon credits Carbon dioxide has gone from $ 6.00 a tonne to $ 28 a tonne in six months since trading opened. Benefits of Adopting TecEco Technology: Benefits of Adopting TecEco Technology Canada can meet its Kyoto objectives and at the same time reduce its footprint and profitably make the built environment much more sustainable. There are a number of opportunities for improved sustainability that are relatively easily achieved: Utilizing wastes to make masonry products. Reducing emissions during the production of masonry. Sequestering carbon by utilizing carbon containing materials. Using the right sands for carbonating mortars to allow them to carbonate. Utilizing Wastes to Make Masonry Products: Utilizing Wastes to Make Masonry Products Many wastes can contribute physical property values. Take plastics for example which are collectively light in weight, have tensile strength and low conductance. Tec, eco and enviro-cements will allow a wide range of wastes to be used for their physical property rather than chemical composition. Tec, enviro and eco-cements are: low alkali reducing reaction problems with organic materials. stick well to most included wastes TecEco Binders - Solving Waste Problems: TecEco Binders - Solving Waste Problems There are huge volumes of concrete produced annually ( 2 tonnes per person per year.) An important objective should be to make cementitous composites that can utilise wastes. TecEco cements provide a benign low alkali environment suitable for waste immobilisation Many wastes such as fly ash, sawdust , shredded plastics etc. can improve a property or properties of the cementitious composite. There are huge materials flows in both wastes and building and construction. TecEco technology will lead the world in the race to incorporate wastes in cementitous composites TecEco Binders - Solving Waste Problems (2): TecEco Binders - Solving Waste Problems (2) TecEco cementitious composites represent a cost affective option for both use and immobilisation of waste. Lower reactivity less water lower pH Reduced solubility of heavy metals less mobile salts Greater durability. Denser. Impermeable (tec-cements). Dimensionally more stable with less shrinkage and cracking. Homogenous. No bleed water. TecEco Technology Converting Waste to Resource Role of Brucite in Immobilization: Role of Brucite in Immobilization In a Portland cement brucite matrix PC takes up lead, some zinc and germanium Brucite and hydrotalcite are both excellent hosts for toxic and hazardous wastes. Heavy metals not taken up in the structure of Portland cement minerals or trapped within the brucite layers end up as hydroxides with minimal solubility. The brucite in TecEco cements has a structure comprising electronically neutral layers and is able to accommodate a wide variety of extraneous substances between the layers and cations of similar size substituting for magnesium within the layers and is known to be very suitable for toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation. Layers of electronically neutral brucite suitable for trapping balanced cations and anions as well as other substances. Salts and other substances trapped between the layers. Van der waals bonding holding the layers together. Lower Solubility of Metal Hydroxides: Lower Solubility of Metal Hydroxides There is a 104 difference Reducing Emissions During the Production of Masonry Products: Reducing Emissions During the Production of Masonry Products The challenge is to reduce net embodied energy and chemical releases. One obvious direction is to utilize more renewable energy and especially non carbon cycle renewable energy such as solar and solar derived energy. Another is to eliminate gaseous emissions. Future sustainability improvements will also involve capturing gases during manufacture this is easiest for a magnesium component as demonstrated by my company using tec-kiln technology characterized by calcination and grinding in a closed system and the use of non fossil fuel energy. Sequestering carbon by utilizing carbon containing materials: Sequestering carbon by utilizing carbon containing materials During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. We all use carbon and wastes to make our homes! “Biomimicry” Sequestering Carbon as a Fiber, Filler or Massing Component: Sequestering Carbon as a Fiber, Filler or Massing Component Carbon wastes such as sawdust and plastic if taken to landfill eventually becomes methane which is a greenhouse gas 21 times worse than CO2. It would be better to reduce this kind of waste. As an alternative it could be used to create new building materials that permanently sequester the carbon component. Examples include products made with sawdust/chips and wood waste such as building panels and many sound reflecting or insulating panels In Australia a shareholder company in TecEco have made thousands of blocks utilising various wastes so there is no reason why this could not also be done in Canada. Utilizing Carbon as a Binder: Utilizing Carbon as a Binder The concept of using carbon as a binder is not new. Ancient and modern carbonating lime mortars are based on this principle. TecEco have now taken the concept a lot further however with the development of eco-cement which is based on blending reactive magnesium oxide with other hydraulic cements. Eco-cements only carbonate in porous materials like concretes blocks and mortars and this is why the masonry industry is so well placed to take advantage of the technology. Magnesium is a small lightweight atom and the carbonates that form contain proportionally a lot of CO2 and are stronger. The use of eco-cements for block manufacture, particularly in conjunction with the previously mentioned closed system kiln also invented by TecEco (The Tec-Kiln) would result in sequestration on a massive scale. As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F., 2002), “There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest”. Using the right sands for carbonating mortars to allow them to carbonate: Using the right sands for carbonating mortars to allow them to carbonate Most sands used today for 1:1:6 or 1:2:9 mortars for example are designed for hydraulic cements not carbonating lime or eco-cement mortars. They are designed to minimise the amount of paste required for cover They are not designed to allow air in and walls to “breathe” Non porous mortars will not carbonate so the lime or magnesium hydroxide component is doing little more than plasticize the mix. More strength through carbonation would be obtained if the right sands were used. John Harrison from TecEco will be presenting separately on this subject at this conference Summary: Summary Simple, smart and sustainable? TecEco cement technology has resulted in potential solutions to a number of problems with Portland and other cements including shrinkage, durability and corrosion and the immobilisation of many problem wastes and will provides a range of more sustainable building materials. The right technology at the right time? TecEco cement technology addresses important triple bottom line issues solving major global problems with positive economic and social outcomes.