Team and Groups

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Information about Team and Groups

Published on November 18, 2008

Author: kanwalgurleen


Team and Groups : Team and Groups Course Instructor: Kanwal Gurleen Lecturer, LSB Group versus Team : Group versus Team Group Two or more members with a clear leader who perform independent jobs with individual accountability, evaluation, and rewards. Team A small number of members with shared leadership who perform interdependent jobs with both individual and group accountability, evaluation, and rewards. Benefits of Groups : Benefits of Groups Exhibit 10–1 Level of Effort: groups often unleash enormous energy and creativity. Satisfaction of Members: groups reduce boredom and often increase people’s feelings of dignity and self-worth. Expanded Knowledge and Skills: groups gain the intellectual resources of several members. Group Performance Model : Group Performance Model Group EffectivenessBased on Two Outcomes Productive Output Personal Satisfaction 1 2 Group Types : Group Types Formal Recognized (and established) by the organization. Informal Self-formed, not officially recognized by the organization. Functional Groups Members from a limited organizational area. Cross-Functional Groups Members from different organizational areas and/or levels. Group Types (cont’d) : Group Types (cont’d) Command Consists of managers and their employees. Task Groups Consists of employees selected to work on a specific objective. Task Force Temporary group formed for a specific purpose. Standing Committee A permanent group that works on continuing organizational issues. Formal Work Groups : Formal Work Groups Vertical: Composed of manager and subordinates in a formal chain of command. Sometimes called a functional team. May include three or four levels. Formal Work Groups : Formal Work Groups Horizontal: Drawn from several departments Given a specific task May be disbanded after the task assignment is complete Two most common types of teams are: Tasks forces Committees Task Force &Committee Advantages : Task Force &Committee Advantages Allow for exchange of information. Generate suggestions for coordinating units that are represented. Development of new ideas and solutions for existing problems. Assist in the development of new practices and policies. Work Group Characteristics : Work Group Characteristics Size-- Ideal size is thought to be 7. Variations of from 5 to 12 typically are associated with good team performance. Small teams (2-4 members) show more agreement, ask more questions. Large teams (12 or more) tend to have more disagreements. Member Roles-- Task specialist role spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal. Socio-emotional role support team members’ emotional needs. Two things to be aware of: Five Stages of Team Development : Five Stages of Team Development Forming: Orientation, break the ice Leader: Facilitate social interchanges Storming: Conflict, disagreement Leader: Encourage participation Norming: Establishment of order and cohesion Leader: Help clarify team roles, norms, values Performing: Cooperation, problem solving Leader: Facilitate task accomplishment Adjourning: Task completion Leader: Bring closure, signify completion 2 3 5 4 1 Group Process : Group Process Group Process Refers to the patterns of interaction that emerge as members perform their jobs. Group Process Dimensions Include roles, norms, cohesiveness, status, decision making, and conflict resolution. Group Process (cont’d) : Group Process (cont’d) Group Roles Task roles Do and say things that directly aid the accomplishment of the group’s objectives. Maintenance roles Do and say things to develop and sustain the group process. Self-interest roles Do and say things to hurt the group and help the individual. Group Process (cont’d) : Group Process (cont’d) Group Norms The group’s shared expectations of its members’ behavior. Norms develop spontaneously through the interactions of group members. Compliance with norms is enforced by the group. Leaders should work toward maintaining and developing positive norms. Group Process (cont’d) : Group Process (cont’d) Group Cohesiveness The extent to which members stick together. Factors positively influencing cohesiveness: Agreement with and commitment to objectives Small size Homogeneity among group members Equal member participation Focus on external competition A successful group Group Process (cont’d) : Group Process (cont’d) Status within the Group Status is the perceived ranking of one member relative to other members in the group. Based on performance, job title, wage or salary, seniority, knowledge or expertise, interpersonal skills. High status members have a strong influence on the group and its performance. Meeting Leadership Skills : Meeting Leadership Skills Planning Meetings Objectives Participants and Assignments Agenda Date, Place and Time Leadership Technology Conducting Meetings Three Parts of Meetings Identify Objectives Cover agenda items Summarize and review assignments Meeting Leadership Skills (cont’d) : Meeting Leadership Skills (cont’d) Handling Problem Members Silent Talker Wanderer Bored Arguer Determinants ofGroup Cohesiveness : Determinants ofGroup Cohesiveness Group interaction: the more time spent together, the more cohesive the group. Shared goals: if members agree on goals, the group will be more cohesive. Personal attraction to the group: similar attitudes and values, and enjoy being together. Causes of Group Conflict : Causes of Group Conflict Scarce Resources: include money, information, and supplies. Jurisdictional Ambiguities: conflicts emerge when job boundaries and responsibilities are unclear. Communication Breakdown: poor communications result in misperceptions and misunderstandings of other people and teams. Personality Clashes: personality clashes are caused by basic differences in personality, values, and attitudes. Power and Status Differences: occur when one party has disputable influence over another. Goal Differences: conflict often occurs simply because people are pursuing conflicting goals. Potential Cost of Groups : Potential Cost of Groups Free Riding: team members who attains benefits from group membership but do not do a proportionate share. Coordination Cost: time and energy required to coordinate the activities. Avoiding Groupthink : Avoiding Groupthink Ask all members to participate, especially if they have different views than those being adopted. Welcome all ideas. “There are no dumb ideas!” Ask one member to play “devils advocate”.

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