Published on February 23, 2014
Words and word classes Pronouns verbs adjectives Adverbs conjunctions preposition
Content words are the ones that carry the information
Grammatical words are words that contribute to the grammatical structure
Affixation Understand Understanding Understood Misunderstanding
Collocations Once again The biggest threat
Homonyms I like it A place like that
Homophones Meat and meet Tale and tail
Homographs Live concert I live in Norway
Synonyms age old
antonyms Young old
Hyponyms Police officer is a occupation
Co-Hyponyms Occupations Police officer Firefighter
Lexical fields Christmas Christmas eve Christmas tree Lights Carols
How are words learned? We have to learn it at two levels Form and meaning
Form Form means knowing the written and spoken form of a word.
Meaning Meaning refers to the meaning of the words and how they are used.
Most frequent words Knowing the 200O most frequent words in the English language provide familiarity with 9 of every 10 words of spoken and written English
Words are stored randomly in our brains Short term memory Working memory Long term memory
Short term memory: retains the information for a few seconds Working memory: retaining long enough to perform operations Long term memory: it can be
Information can be ensured in our brains through: Repetition Personal organizing Imaging Motivation Attention Affective depth
Forgetting words At the beginning 80 % of the words are forgotten within 24 hours and it gradually slows down.
Mistakes Form related: My girlfriend is very hungry with me Meaning related: I like to see the TV
Things that make learnig difficult Pronunciation Spelling Grammar Length Meaning Range
The optimum number of words studied at one time Difficult words: small list sizes Easy words :large list sizes
Repeating aloud helps retention better than Repeating silently and even repeting aloud with written recall. Seibert(1927)
Sources of words Incidental Learning Intentional Learning
Monoligual dictionaries are encouraged more than bilingual dictionaries (Hartman 1991)
How to present vocabulary Translation : very economical Illustrating: concrete words Explaining meaning: through examples, synonyms, full
Error Categories Affixation errors: I felt unsatisfy. Compounding errors: I took a two floor bus and crossed the city in the highest floor. Error of multi -word units: we have also a buses network. Collocation errors: I don’t like when they do mistakes Phrasal verbs error: Don’t get up you Idiom error: I don’t like to blow my own horn
The Lexical Approach A Syllabus should be organized around meanings. The most frequent words. Word typically co-occurs with other words.
Teaching lexical chunks The sentences I don’t understand and I don’t know are learned before students have been taught the grammar rules of the simple present
Testing Vocabulary Multiple choice test
Conceptualized multiple choice test
Gap fill test
Production Vocabulary test
Language Learning Theories Person Task Context Strategy
Method and Approaches in vocabulary learning
Grammar Translation Method It received criticism because it neglected the learning of realistic and oral language
The Direct Method Use of every day vocabulary Grammar is taught inductively Teaching points were introduced orally.
The Natural Approach acquisition will not take place without comprehension of vocabulary (Krashen)
The Audio-Lingual Method Items are selected according to its simplicity and familiarity and new words are introduced through drills
False Assumptions All words have an equivalent in other languages. A word is a single meaning unit. All words have a real and basic meaning and others are figurative.
Traditional vocabulary lists rarely provide context, students are thus unprepared to use the words they have learned in isolated units in any approximation to authentic communication (Wilga Rivers)
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