Published on April 6, 2014
Sinan Bebishov Student Azerbaijan Teacher’s Institute of Mingechevir branch 07/211 groups Teaching Vocabulary 1
Key words: memory and storage systems, using language, choice of material, choice of task, group work, explicit vocabulary instruction, keyword method, word maps, root analysis. 2
3 Summary: At begin level, teachers frequently use explain and practice procedures. For examples, we might have individual pictures on flashcards showing people who are tired , sad, happy, frightened, exhausted, etc. We hold up a picture, point to it and say ‘tired …. She’s tired’, while miming a yawn. Then we model ‘tired’ and get the students to repeat it. Next, we point to the next picture and model ‘sad’. As the students learn more words, we conduct a cue- response drill, holding up different flashcards so that the students give the correct word. Students can then use the words in their own sentences. Then, the students always use more vocabularies about everything.
Introduction: 4 Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental, limited to presenting new items as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion. There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary, according to Gains and Redman the lists are as following:
5 1. Boundaries between conceptual meaning. 2. Polysemy. 3. Homonymy 4. Homophyny 5. Synonymy 6. Affective meaning. 7. Style, register dialect 8. Translation. 9. Grammar of vocabulary. 10. Chunk of language. 11. Pronunciation.
Memory and storage systems: 6 Understanding how our memory works might help us create more effective ways to teach vocabulary. Using language: Another strategy for some level learners is to turn their accept vocabulary items into productive ones . In order to do that, we need to refine their understanding of the item, exploring boundaries between conceptual meaning, polysemy, synonymy, style, register, possible collocation, etc., so that students are able to use the item accurately
Choice of material: 7 As both the Task-based and the lexical approach suggest, we wanted to use authentic material tp expose our students to rich, contextualised naturally-occurring language.
Choice of the task: 8 Ask we said earlier in part 2.3, we find it vital that students are given opportunities to use the language they are learning in a realistic context. Therefore, we have devised the final task to meet this participle.
Group work: 9 Working in groups help fostering learning independence, and specially in vocabulary work, learners can exchange knowledge, asking others to explain unknown items. We also hope that group work will be a motivating factor, as students talk about places they have been holiday to, trying to remember details together, exchanging impressions and even good memories.
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction. 10 There are as following: 1. Pre-teaching Vocabulary words: One of the most effective methods of helping children learn new vocabulary words is to teach unfamiliar words used in a text prior to the reading experience. Adults should preview reading materials to determine which words are unfamiliar. Then these words should be defined and discussed. 2. Repeated Exposure to Words. It may seem common sense that more times we are exposed to a word, the stronger our understanding becomes.
Keyword Method: 11 Like-pre-teach ing , the keyword method occurs before a child reads a particular text. In this method, unfamiliar words are introduce prior to reading.
Word maps: 12 The word map is an excellent method for scaffolding a child’s vocabulary learning. Like the other explicit instructional methods, the adult should preview reading materials to determine which words are unfamiliar. For each of these new vocabulary words the child creates a graphic organizer for the world.
Root analyses: 13 While root analysis is taught explicitly, the ultimate goal is for readers to use the strategy independently. Children should then be given practice analyzing words to determine their root and definition. When a reader is able to break down unfamiliar words into their prefixes, suffixes and roots they can begin to determine their meanings.
Implicit Vocabulary Instruction: 14 1. Incidental learning: Incidental vocabulary learning occurs all of the time when we read. 2. Context Skills: Context skills are the strategies that a reader uses for incidental vocabulary learning. Texts are full of “clues” about the meanings of words.
Useful vocabulary learning exercises that require little or no preparation 15 Word meaning Find the core meaning. The learners look at dictionary entries and find the shared meaning in the various senses of the word. Word parts The teacher writes words on the board and the learners cut them into parts and give the meanings of the parts. Word use: Suggest collocates The learners work together in pairs or small groups to list collocates for a given word. Word detectives A learner reports on a word he or she has found in their reading. They talk about the meaning, spelling, pronunciation, word parts, etymology, collocates and grammar of the word.
16 Choosing the words: 1 As words come up in class, one learner (the class secretary) has the job of noting them for future attention. 2 The teacher chooses words that have appeared in work in the last week or two. 3 The teacher chooses words that the learners need to know. Word form Spelling dictation The teacher says words or phrases and the learners write them. Pronunciation The teacher writes words on the board and the learners pronounce them getting feedback from the teacher. Each learner picks what word to say. Word parts The teacher writes words on the board and the learners cut them into parts and give the meanings of the parts.
Using method and materials…. 17 1. Using authentic materials 2. Using Online Resources 3. Using pictures 4. Using direct method 5. Research tools 6. Vocabulary notebooks 7. Using grammar-translation method
Suggestion and discussion: 18 I wrote some questions for discussion about this research work as lesson. 1. Why teach vocabulary? 2. How we learn our lesson’s text over vocabulary? 3. How many words which words to teach? 4. What vocabulary has own advantage and disadvantage? 5. What types of vocabulary do you know?
Conclusion: 19 Teachers need to take a broader view of what vocabulary instruction entails, and take proactive charge of both explicit and incidental vocabulary development. It is important to acknowledge the incremental nature of vocabulary learning, and to understand that an effective vocabulary learning program needs to be principled, long term, and have high vocabulary learning expectations. There will never be one “best” teaching method, but teachers will not go wrong following the overall principle of maximizing sustained engagement with words.
References: 20 Hall, C.J. (2002). The automatic cognate form assumption: Evidence for the parasitic model of vocabulary development. IRAL 40: 69-87. Hemchua, S. and Schmitt, N. (2006). An analysis of lexical errors in the English compositions of Thai learners. Prospect 21, 3: 3-25. Horst, M. (2005). Learning L2 vocabulary through extensive reading: A measurement study. Canadian Modern Language Review 61, 3: 355-382. Hulstijn, J. and Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning 51, 3: 539-558. Koda, K. (1997). Orthographic knowledge in L2 lexical processing. In Coady, J. and Huckin, T. (eds.) Second Language Vocabulary
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