Teaching Speaking & Listening

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Information about Teaching Speaking & Listening

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: irwyn12

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presented to EFL teachers in Santa Ana, El Salvador

Teaching Speaking & Listening through Communicative Activities Erin Lowry English Language Fellow Workshop for Universidad Católica del Occidente November 12, 2007

The Challenge To integrate skills To provide opportunities for authentic communication contexts To give a reason for communication (information gaps) To assess these skills in an objective manner

To integrate skills

To provide opportunities for authentic communication contexts

To give a reason for communication (information gaps)

To assess these skills in an objective manner

TEACHING LISTENING

What Makes Listening Difficult? Clustering Redundancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm, and intonation Interaction

Clustering

Redundancy

Reduced forms

Performance variables

Colloquial language

Rate of delivery

Stress, rhythm, and intonation

Interaction

Principles for Teaching Listening Expose Sts to different ways of processing information Bottom-up vs. Top-down Expose Sts to different types of listening Teach a variety of tasks Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity Helgeson, 2003

Expose Sts to different ways of processing information

Bottom-up vs. Top-down

Expose Sts to different types of listening

Teach a variety of tasks

Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity

Types of Classroom Listening Reactive Intensive Responsive Selective Extensive Interactive Brown, 2001

Reactive

Intensive

Responsive

Selective

Extensive

Interactive

Principles for Designing Listening Techniques Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating Use authentic language and contexts Carefully consider the form of listeners’ responses Encourage the development of listening strategies Include bottom-up and top-down listening techniques Brown, 2001

Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating

Use authentic language and contexts

Carefully consider the form of listeners’ responses

Encourage the development of listening strategies

Include bottom-up and top-down listening techniques

Successful Listening Activities Purpose for Listening A form of response (doing, choosing, answering, transferring, condensing, duplicating, extending, conversing) Repetition depends on T objectives and students’ level A motivating listening text is authentic and relates to students’ interests and needs Have the skills integrated Stages: Pre-task , While-task, Post-task

Purpose for Listening

A form of response (doing, choosing, answering, transferring, condensing, duplicating, extending, conversing)

Repetition depends on T objectives and students’ level

A motivating listening text is authentic and relates to students’ interests and needs

Have the skills integrated

Stages: Pre-task , While-task, Post-task

Listening Strategies Teach student how to listen Looking for keywords Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning Predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse Associating information with one’s existing background knowledge (activating schema) Guessing meanings Seeking clarification Listening for the general gist For tests of listening comprehension, various test-taking strategies

Teach student how to listen

Looking for keywords

Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning

Predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse

Associating information with one’s existing background knowledge (activating schema)

Guessing meanings

Seeking clarification

Listening for the general gist

For tests of listening comprehension, various test-taking strategies

Easy-to-plan Pre-Listening Activities Brainstorming Think-Pair-Share Word Webbing/Mind Mapping Team Interview

Brainstorming

Think-Pair-Share

Word Webbing/Mind Mapping

Team Interview

Easy-to-plan Listening Tasks Agree or disagree (with explanation) Create Venn diagrams List characteristics, qualities, or features Strip story (sequencing game) Match speech to visuals Compare and contrast to another speech or text Give advice

Agree or disagree (with explanation)

Create Venn diagrams

List characteristics, qualities, or features

Strip story (sequencing game)

Match speech to visuals

Compare and contrast to another speech or text

Give advice

More Listening Tasks Compare and contrast to your own experience Create your own version of the missing section Plan a solution to the problem Share reactions Create a visual Reenact your own version

Compare and contrast to your own experience

Create your own version of the missing section

Plan a solution to the problem

Share reactions

Create a visual

Reenact your own version

Easy to Plan Post-listening Assessments Guess the meaning of unknown vocabulary Analyze the speaker’s intentions List the number of people involved and their function in the script Analyze the success of communication in the script Brainstorm alternative ways of expression

Guess the meaning of unknown vocabulary

Analyze the speaker’s intentions

List the number of people involved and their function in the script

Analyze the success of communication in the script

Brainstorm alternative ways of expression

TEACHING SPEAKING

Distinctive Feature Syllable PHONOLOGY MORPHOLOGY SYNTAX DISCOURSE STRESS RHYTHM INTONATION

What Makes Speaking Difficult? Clustering Redundancy Reduced forms Performance variables Colloquial language Rate of delivery Stress, rhythm & intonation Interaction

Clustering

Redundancy

Reduced forms

Performance variables

Colloquial language

Rate of delivery

Stress, rhythm & intonation

Interaction

Principles of Teaching Speaking Beginners Provide something for the learners to talk about Create opportunities for students to interact by using groupwork or pairwork Manipulate physical arrangements to promote speaking practice Bailey, 2005

Provide something for the learners to talk about

Create opportunities for students to interact by using groupwork or pairwork

Manipulate physical arrangements to promote speaking practice

Principles of Teaching Speaking Intermediate Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning Design both transactional and interpersonal speaking activities Personalize the speaking activities whenever possible Bailey, 2005

Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning

Design both transactional and interpersonal speaking activities

Personalize the speaking activities whenever possible

Principles of Teaching Speaking Advanced Help learners to combine fluency and accuracy Encourage learners to take reasonable risks when speaking Provide opportunities for learners to notice the gap Bailey, 2005

Help learners to combine fluency and accuracy

Encourage learners to take reasonable risks when speaking

Provide opportunities for learners to notice the gap

Tasks & Materials Conversations, guided conversations & interviews Information gap & jigsaw activities Scripted dialogues, drama, & role-play Logic puzzles Picture-based activities Physical actions in speaking lessons Extemporaneous speaking

Conversations, guided conversations & interviews

Information gap & jigsaw activities

Scripted dialogues, drama, & role-play

Logic puzzles

Picture-based activities

Physical actions in speaking lessons

Extemporaneous speaking

Questions? Email: [email_address] Website: http://elowry.wikidot.com Blog: http://irwyn12.blogspot.com

Email: [email_address]

Website: http://elowry.wikidot.com

Blog: http://irwyn12.blogspot.com

References Bailey, K.M. (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking . New York: McGraw-Hill. Bishop, G. (2006). AP State English Lecturers Retraining Program Teacher’s Handboook . Senior ELF Seminar Series given in Hyderabad, India. Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy . White Plains, NY: Longman. Helgesen, M. (2003). Listening. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching . New York: McGraw-Hill. Liao, X.A. (2001). Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms. EL Forum, 39 (4). Retrieved from http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol39/no4/p38.htm . Lynch, T. (2003). Communication in the language classroom . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Slagoski, J.D. (2006). Teaching Listening Skills. Senior ELF Seminar given in Samara, Russia. Retrieved from http://slagoski.googlepages.com/downloadpresentations .

Bailey, K.M. (2005). Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking . New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bishop, G. (2006). AP State English Lecturers Retraining Program Teacher’s Handboook . Senior ELF Seminar Series given in Hyderabad, India.

Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy . White Plains, NY: Longman.

Helgesen, M. (2003). Listening. In D. Nunan (Ed.). Practical English Language Teaching . New York: McGraw-Hill.

Liao, X.A. (2001). Information Gap in Communicative Classrooms. EL Forum, 39 (4). Retrieved from http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol39/no4/p38.htm .

Lynch, T. (2003). Communication in the language classroom . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (eds.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Slagoski, J.D. (2006). Teaching Listening Skills. Senior ELF Seminar given in Samara, Russia. Retrieved from http://slagoski.googlepages.com/downloadpresentations .

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