teacher attendance and absenteeism

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Published on February 1, 2011

Author: kgwesson

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Teacher AttendanceKim WessonJacksonville State University : Teacher AttendanceKim WessonJacksonville State University IL 610 Dr. William Kiser Improving teacher attendance.. : Improving teacher attendance.. This research project addresses the problem of teacher absenteeism . This problem affects the budget, student performance and procedural routines . Teacher absenteeism is a major financial expense . An examination of teacher attendance research demonstrates that teacher attendance and absenteeism issues are an obstacle to student achievement and are linked to lowered student performance. Kim Wesson school provides services for children with disabilitiesages 3-21 : school provides services for children with disabilitiesages 3-21 Kim Wesson Kim Wesson Teachers are needed on the job : Teachers are needed on the job Teachers meet the needs of children birth to 21. Kim Wesson A variety of therapists and interventionists are here…. : A variety of therapists and interventionists are here…. When one is absent it disrupts the work, schedules and routines of others Kim Wesson Our work is often collaborative. Therefore attendance is important. : Our work is often collaborative. Therefore attendance is important. . Due to the interrelated nature of the work performed by each professional, any absences may present problems, such as scheduling issues or data collection, for other professionals with whom they collaborate. Kim Wesson Teachers, therapists, adaptive PE for a preschool, day school, kindergarten, state agency and Head Start are on one campus. : Teachers, therapists, adaptive PE for a preschool, day school, kindergarten, state agency and Head Start are on one campus. There are teachers which stay here, and others who travel around. Kim Wesson This school is literally the standard for special education excellence in the State of Alabama. : This school is literally the standard for special education excellence in the State of Alabama. Our teachers work very hard and are very well trained. This work is very personal to us. Kim Wesson Some of our students are very young, others are growing up. We have to be on the job for them to experience progress and continuity. They depend on us. : Some of our students are very young, others are growing up. We have to be on the job for them to experience progress and continuity. They depend on us. Kim Wesson For the purposes of this research, the attendance of eleven teachers within the main building in self-contained classes will be examined. : For the purposes of this research, the attendance of eleven teachers within the main building in self-contained classes will be examined. Kim Wesson Teacher absenteeism is viewed as a problem for nine identifiable reasons:1.Unlike other professions or positions, a teacher is indispensable and his or her classroom must be covered and students supervised. 2. The portion of a student’s education spent under a substitute is significant. 3. There is a financial expense associated with a teachers absence that must be absorbed by the school as substitutes must be paid.4. The process of locating, hiring, and placing substitute teachers is a logistic and tactical feat in itself. Kim Wesson : Teacher absenteeism is viewed as a problem for nine identifiable reasons:1.Unlike other professions or positions, a teacher is indispensable and his or her classroom must be covered and students supervised. 2. The portion of a student’s education spent under a substitute is significant. 3. There is a financial expense associated with a teachers absence that must be absorbed by the school as substitutes must be paid.4. The process of locating, hiring, and placing substitute teachers is a logistic and tactical feat in itself. Kim Wesson 5. Substitute teachers, on average, are less trained and prepared than classroom teachers. : 5. Substitute teachers, on average, are less trained and prepared than classroom teachers. 6.Teacher absenteeism has been researched and associated with lowered student achievement. 7. Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. 8.High rates of teacher absenteeism have been associated with low achieving teachers and schools. 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. Kim Wesson Teacher Absences over two years : Teacher Absences over two years Figure 2 Comparison of Teacher Absences 2008-2009 School Year and 2009-2010 School Year Yellow- Year one (2008-2009) Pink- Year two (2009-2010) This figure compares the numbers of teacher absences of teachers within the main building by month, for two school years. The absences for the 2008-2009 school year are represented by yellow bars; the 2009-2010 school year’s teacher absences are represented by pink bars. This figure shows that overall, there is a slight improvement from 2008-2009 to 2009-2010, but in October, November, January, February and March of the second school year, 2009-2010, saw individual months of spiked absence rates compared to the 2008-2009 (previous) school year. August and September of both years were the closest in number of absences. May saw the most improvement from one year to the next. Yellow is year one/ pink is year two : Yellow is year one/ pink is year two Kim Wesson SO WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THIS PROBLEM? : SO WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THIS PROBLEM? An examination of the literature shows that this is a worldwide and growing problem. Most research on teacher attendance has not been conducted within education, but within labor and economics. : Most research on teacher attendance has not been conducted within education, but within labor and economics. Kim Wesson The issue of teacher absenteeism is an increasing worldwide problem as the teacher shortage grows : The issue of teacher absenteeism is an increasing worldwide problem as the teacher shortage grows This problem is at its worst in developing nations. Kim Wesson Teacher absenteeism is much worse in developing nations-20% + : Teacher absenteeism is much worse in developing nations-20% + Disease affecting faculty, war, security threats and transportation issues are factors. Kim Wesson Nine reasons a serious, worldwide issue……. : Nine reasons a serious, worldwide issue……. Let’s examine this issue. 1. Unlike other professions or positions, a teacher is indispensable and his or her classroom must be covered and students supervised. : 1. Unlike other professions or positions, a teacher is indispensable and his or her classroom must be covered and students supervised. This can happen at any time in a school. Kim Wesson In the event of a security threat to your school, students need to be with trained adults with whom they are familiar. : In the event of a security threat to your school, students need to be with trained adults with whom they are familiar. Remember your last lockdown? Remember 9/11? Students need to be and feel safe. Kim Wesson Having students supervised and monitored by qualified adults familiar with proper procedures, including safety and emergency procedures, and not a stream of substitutes is not only an educational and financial issue but a safety and security issue (Whitehead 2009). : Having students supervised and monitored by qualified adults familiar with proper procedures, including safety and emergency procedures, and not a stream of substitutes is not only an educational and financial issue but a safety and security issue (Whitehead 2009). Kim Wesson As new and different security threats arise worldwide, the global problem of teacher absenteeism becomes more serious than ever. : As new and different security threats arise worldwide, the global problem of teacher absenteeism becomes more serious than ever. Trained teachers are needed with students. Who do you want with your students during a lockdown? WHO DO YOU WANT WITH YOUR OWN CHILD? Kim Wesson 2.The portion of a student’s education spent under a substitute is significant. One full year of the average American student’s K-12 education is taught by substitute teachers.( Utah State University 2010) (Pitcoff 2003). : 2.The portion of a student’s education spent under a substitute is significant. One full year of the average American student’s K-12 education is taught by substitute teachers.( Utah State University 2010) (Pitcoff 2003). That’s a year of school. Or more. Kim Wesson 3. There is a financial expense associated with a teachers absence that must be absorbed by the school as substitutes must be paid. : 3. There is a financial expense associated with a teachers absence that must be absorbed by the school as substitutes must be paid. What else could we be doing with the money we are spending on substitutes? Kim Wesson This is a time of budget cuts. : This is a time of budget cuts. Substitute teacher pay varies widely throughout the United States. Depending on the level of pay and rate of teacher absence, this can become a major expense to the school. Nationwide, over $2 billion per year is spent paying substitute teachers . Kim Wesson \4. The process of locating, hiring, and placing substitute teachers is a logistic and tactical feat in itself. It seems simpler to have put a man on the moon, and may have cost less than we spend on substitutes. The Apollo 11 project cost $24 billion. We are spending $ 2 billion per year, every year, on subs. : \4. The process of locating, hiring, and placing substitute teachers is a logistic and tactical feat in itself. It seems simpler to have put a man on the moon, and may have cost less than we spend on substitutes. The Apollo 11 project cost $24 billion. We are spending $ 2 billion per year, every year, on subs. Kim Wesson Substitute requirements vary from one district to the other. Qualifications and credentials vary dramatically. The pool of applicants may be very limited. : Substitute requirements vary from one district to the other. Qualifications and credentials vary dramatically. The pool of applicants may be very limited. Kim Wesson Kim Wesson 5. Substitute teachers, on average, are less trained and prepared than classroom teachers. 90% of districts nationwide spend less than four hours training substitute teachers. “Straight to the moon.” : 5. Substitute teachers, on average, are less trained and prepared than classroom teachers. 90% of districts nationwide spend less than four hours training substitute teachers. “Straight to the moon.” Kim Wesson Once located, subs must be correctly matched with school, student population, subject matter, and teacher . : Once located, subs must be correctly matched with school, student population, subject matter, and teacher . Kim Wesson HOW LONG DOES THAT TAKE? : HOW LONG DOES THAT TAKE? Kim Wesson The problem of excessive, avoidable teacher absenteeism makes this more challenging than necessary. (Utah State University, 2010). : The problem of excessive, avoidable teacher absenteeism makes this more challenging than necessary. (Utah State University, 2010). How much does your school pay each sub per day? This is on top of teachers’ salaries. Kim Wesson The pool of applicants nationwide is very limited. : The pool of applicants nationwide is very limited. There are not enough Substitutes on anybody else’s call list, either. There simply are not enough anywhere. Kim Wesson 6.Teacher absenteeism has been researched and associated with lowered student achievement. : 6.Teacher absenteeism has been researched and associated with lowered student achievement. This is most noticeable and significant in urban school settings. Two of the ten most stressful jobs have been identified as urban school administrators and urban high school teachers, and higher absenteeism is associated with workplace stress.. (Sorenson, 2007) Ten days of teacher absence has been shown to reduce urban students’ math scores by three and one-third percent of a standard deviation. (Miller, 2008) An examination of teacher attendance research demonstrates that teacher attendance and absenteeism issues are an obstacle to student achievement and are linked to lowered student performance. : An examination of teacher attendance research demonstrates that teacher attendance and absenteeism issues are an obstacle to student achievement and are linked to lowered student performance. Most teachers are unaware of this. Kim Wesson In addition, there's evidence that the absences in the months preceding the achievement test have a greater impact on achievement. (Wheelan, 2008). Conclusion: we need teachers at work, but especially BEFORE testing : In addition, there's evidence that the absences in the months preceding the achievement test have a greater impact on achievement. (Wheelan, 2008). Conclusion: we need teachers at work, but especially BEFORE testing Kim Wesson Kim Wesson “A 5 percent increase in theteacher’s absence rate reduces learning by 4 to 8 percent of average gains over the year.” (Das, 2007). : “A 5 percent increase in theteacher’s absence rate reduces learning by 4 to 8 percent of average gains over the year.” (Das, 2007). Absences up=scores down. Kim Wesson We need school staff on the job. : We need school staff on the job. In this day of high stakes testing, a small variation of test scores’ averages can be significant to the entire school. Kim Wesson Conversely, an implementation of student achievement improvement has been shown to improve teacher attendance.( Kremer 2008). : Conversely, an implementation of student achievement improvement has been shown to improve teacher attendance.( Kremer 2008). Kim Wesson Ten days of teacher absence has been shown to reduce urbanstudents’ math scores by 3.3% of a standard deviation. (Miller, 2008). : Ten days of teacher absence has been shown to reduce urbanstudents’ math scores by 3.3% of a standard deviation. (Miller, 2008). Ten days seems to be the threshold. Kim Wesson This is significant since 1/12 of a student’s education is under a substitute. : This is significant since 1/12 of a student’s education is under a substitute. Kim Wesson 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. : 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. “Hoorah! A substitute!” Kim Wesson 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. Educators on all levels require much more training. The average sub receives 4 hours of training. Can this sub teach this class? : 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. Educators on all levels require much more training. The average sub receives 4 hours of training. Can this sub teach this class? Kim Wesson 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. Can your subs use this technology? : 7.Well trained, qualified substitutes are difficult to locate. Can your subs use this technology? Kim Wesson 8.High rates of teacher absenteeism have been associated with low achieving teachers and schools. “Our teachers were out half the time and we turned out OK.” : 8.High rates of teacher absenteeism have been associated with low achieving teachers and schools. “Our teachers were out half the time and we turned out OK.” Kim Wesson 8. Low achieving schools and high teacher absenteeism go hand-in-hand. : 8. Low achieving schools and high teacher absenteeism go hand-in-hand. It’s a vicious cycle. These two statistics feed on each other. Low achieving schools make teaching stressful; stressful schools result in high teacher absenteeism; high teacher absenteeism reduces student achievement which contributes to low achieving schools. Kim Wesson 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. : 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. Teacher absenteeism rates may vary significantly from one school to another, and are influenced by group norms within the staff. Studies show that absenteeism is influenced by workplace absence norms. (Bradley, 2007). “IF YOUR BUDDY STAYS OUT ALL THE TIME WHY SHOULDN’T YOU.” WE NEED TO ESTABLISH TRENDS OF GOOD ATTENDANCE Kim Wesson 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. : 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. “Absenteeism places unrealistic demands on reliable staff members in human service organizations, possibly influencing morale and maintenance of a positive work environment.” (Luiselli, 2009). “WHEN THERE’S A SLACKER ON THE TEAM THE OTHER MEMBERS WORK HARDER AND WEAR DOWN.” WE NEED TO ESTABLISH TRENDS OF GOOD ATTENDANCE Kim Wesson 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. : 9. Teachers’ absences influence other teachers to be absent. One’s absence makes the others’ work more tiring and stressful, contributing to absenteeism. Studies show workplace norms of attendance develop over time. “Golf again Friday?” ““G Kim Wesson Factors which influence teacher absenteeism. As these factors change, so can teacher absence patterns. This figure illustrates factors which research indicates affect school workplace norms of teacher attendance rates. Bradley, Lund and Sorenson (2007) and Shapira-Lishchinsky (2009) all confirm that certain school factors affect teacher attendance. : Factors which influence teacher absenteeism. As these factors change, so can teacher absence patterns. This figure illustrates factors which research indicates affect school workplace norms of teacher attendance rates. Bradley, Lund and Sorenson (2007) and Shapira-Lishchinsky (2009) all confirm that certain school factors affect teacher attendance. Kim Wesson THERE ARE TEACHER ATTENDANCE PREDICTORS : THERE ARE TEACHER ATTENDANCE PREDICTORS Teachers with better credentials, such as those high test scores, Masters’ degrees, National Board Certification, or educational backgrounds from prestigious colleges, choose to call in less. (Clotfelter, 2008). “GENERALLY THE MORE DEGREES ON THE WALL THE MORE DAYS ON THE JOB.” Absenteeism rates and attendance rates seem to follow definite identifiable trends and patterns within districts and schools. : Absenteeism rates and attendance rates seem to follow definite identifiable trends and patterns within districts and schools. Absenteeism begets absenteeism for many reasons. It is a vicious cycle. Kim Wesson WHAT SCHOOLS ARE AT RISK? : WHAT SCHOOLS ARE AT RISK? WHY IS ABSENTEEISM WORSE AT SOME SCHOOLS THAN OTHERS? WHAT TRENDS DOES THIS FOLLOW? Kim Wesson Urban high school teachers in America are at great risk. : Urban high school teachers in America are at great risk. Stress is a factor, as is morale. Kim Wesson Kindergarten and preschool teachers have been shown in labor studies to be at greatest risk of long-term sickness. Is this due to increased exposure to germs or teacher stress? : Kindergarten and preschool teachers have been shown in labor studies to be at greatest risk of long-term sickness. Is this due to increased exposure to germs or teacher stress? Kim Wesson Stress is a significant factor in teacher absenteeism. : Stress is a significant factor in teacher absenteeism. Special education Is stressful work. Two of America’s ten Most stressful Jobs are inner city high School teacher And principal Kim Wesson Reasons special education is more stressful than other areas of education : Reasons special education is more stressful than other areas of education Kim Wesson High rates of teacher absenteeism is associated with low performing schools. DO YOU WANT THIS TO BE YOUR SCHOOL? : High rates of teacher absenteeism is associated with low performing schools. DO YOU WANT THIS TO BE YOUR SCHOOL? Kim Wesson This figure illustrates the cyclical relationship existing between teacher absenteeism and high stress levels within low achieving schools. Increased stress within the school increases teacher absenteeism; increased teacher absenteeism decreases student achievement; decreased student achievement causes increased stress; and the cycle repeats itself (Sorenson, 2008). : This figure illustrates the cyclical relationship existing between teacher absenteeism and high stress levels within low achieving schools. Increased stress within the school increases teacher absenteeism; increased teacher absenteeism decreases student achievement; decreased student achievement causes increased stress; and the cycle repeats itself (Sorenson, 2008). Kim Wesson Low achieving schools are now very stressful for staff, and schools with a stressful atmosphere have higher rates of teacher absenteeism. : Low achieving schools are now very stressful for staff, and schools with a stressful atmosphere have higher rates of teacher absenteeism. These area schools where teachers are needed most. Did yours make AYP? Kim Wesson Teachers who perceive a problem with administrators’ fairness or ethics are more likely to call in…. : Teachers who perceive a problem with administrators’ fairness or ethics are more likely to call in…. “JUST WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?” Kim Wesson ADMINISTRATORS’ BEHAVIOR CAN INFLUENCE ATTENDANCE : ADMINISTRATORS’ BEHAVIOR CAN INFLUENCE ATTENDANCE “Certain attributes of the workplace, such as organizational and administrative ethics, and levels of stress, have been identified with absence patterns.” (Shapira-Lishchinsky ,2009) (Sorenson, 2007). Kim Wesson Adding to teacher stress worsens the problem in most schools.“ : Adding to teacher stress worsens the problem in most schools.“ Kim Wesson Teachers do respond positively to sick-day buy-backs and financial incentives for perfect attendance : Teachers do respond positively to sick-day buy-backs and financial incentives for perfect attendance “ DID YOU SAY reward?” Kim Wesson Teachers also demonstrate control over sick days depending on the number of sick days available.“CUTTING MY DAYS???” : Teachers also demonstrate control over sick days depending on the number of sick days available.“CUTTING MY DAYS???” Kim Wesson Attendance is better when morale is higher. : Attendance is better when morale is higher. Kim Wesson What is causing teacher absenteeism in special education? : What is causing teacher absenteeism in special education? FIGURE 1 Overlapping factors which contribute to teacher absenteeism. This diagram illustrates overlapping factors which contribute to teacher absenteeism. These factors influence teacher absenteeism not only individually but also synergistically by compounding stressors in the teaching environment (Sorenson, 2007). These factors include a high poverty rate of student body, as expressed in per cent of students receiving free or reduced price lunch; the fact it is a human service organization; students with kindergarten age and/or ability level; presence of high school students; an urban school setting; and special education population (Alabama State Department of Education, 2010). Factors which increase teacher stress TCC Figure 1 : Factors which increase teacher stress TCC Figure 1 Kim Wesson SO what about absenteeism at my school? : SO what about absenteeism at my school? Data has been collected regarding workplace absenteeism for the past two years under the present school administrator. Kim Wesson Slide 70: For the purposes of this research, an examination of attendance of 11 classroom teachers of self-contained classes within the main building of the day school will be considered. It is most difficult to locate trained, qualified substitutes for this group of teachers. Two have post-Master’s educational level; two have Bachelor’s degrees, and seven have Master’s degrees. All have extensive training and professional development in educational issues related to special education. Their students are grouped by age, grade and ability level, and are in self-contained classrooms. All teachers but one are female. Only three are mothers who have children living at home; one is actively involved with a handicapped adult child. Four have no children; two have children who are largely independent or do not live with the parent during the school year. One of the four teachers with no children is the primary caregiver of an elderly parent. Six teach elementary grades and five teach secondary grades. Each teacher has at least one teacher’s aide. The physical requirements of the secondary teachers is greater, as students are physically larger and heavier. Each has the same number of breaks during the week. Kim Wesson Two year trend : Two year trend Data has been collected regarding workplace absenteeism for the past two years under the present school administrator (Table 1). Data has been collected and presented for the self-contained homeroom teachers within the main hallway of the school for the purpose of this study. Additionally, information has been organized regarding the cost of substitutes for the same absent teachers (chart 2). During the 2008-2009 school year, ten teachers were absent a total of 133.5 days, for a total of 13 ½ days each. After simply discussing the need for improved attendance with teachers and encouraging them to do their best to have improved attendance one time, this was improved during the 2009-2010 school year. During the 2009-2010 school year, eleven teachers were absent a total of 122 days, an average of 11 days each. This represents an improvement of two days. Kim Wesson SO what about absenteeism at my school? (2008-2009) : SO what about absenteeism at my school? (2008-2009) TEACHER MONTHLY ATTENDANCE PATTERN AT THE CHILDREN’S CENTER2008-2009 SCHOOL YEAR TO 2009-2010 SCHOOL YEAR 2008-2009 (10 Teachers) August:10; September: 71/2 ; October:16; November:12 ½ ;December:15 ;January:14 11/2February:14;March 8; April:15 ½ ;May 20 1/2 Kim Wesson SO what about absenteeism at my school? (2008-2009) : SO what about absenteeism at my school? (2008-2009) During the 2008-2009 school year, ten teachers were absent a total of 133.5 days, for a total of 13 ½ days each . That’s around $9,450. Kim Wesson 2009-2010 (11 Teachers) : 2009-2010 (11 Teachers) August 9; September 6; October 21; November 18; December 4 1/2*One teacher goes out on maternity leave January19 ½ February 20 March 14 1/2 April 8 ½ May7 As of 05/12/2010 That’s $8, 540. Kim Wesson 2- year pattern : 2- year pattern The greatest improvements were noted in teacher attendance during the months of December and May, both months of long breaks or vacations. During the 2008-2009 school year, the absence rate for December was 15 and may was 20.5. During the 2009-2010 school year, December had a drop of 10 ½ days of absence to an improvement rate of 4 1/2 days. During the 2008-2009 school year, the absence rate for May was 20 ½. During the 2009-2010 school year, May had a drop of 13 ½ days of absence to an improved rate of 7. Kim Wesson November? : November? The month of November, associated with Thanksgiving, was an anomaly in the overall pattern of improved teacher attendance under the school’s new administration. November saw a significant increase in teacher absenteeism. During the 2008-2009 school year, there were 12 ½ teacher absences during the month of November. During the 2009-2010 school year, there were 18 ½ absences in November, a significant 50% increase. Kim Wesson Yellow year one/ Pink year two : Yellow year one/ Pink year two Two year trend, illustrated Kim Wesson THIS IS EXPENSIVE, but is improving. : THIS IS EXPENSIVE, but is improving. This data is considerably significant when considering the financial expense of paying substitutes and budgetary constraints of a public school system, especially during times of proration. WHAT ARE THEY THINKING? Let’s find out. : WHAT ARE THEY THINKING? Let’s find out. A simple eleven “yes/no” -question survey with two open-ended questions regarding teacher attendance was developed to elicit information regarding teacher attendance practices among ten of the eleven teachers in the main building of The Children’s Center. The survey follows. Kim Wesson SURVEY : SURVEY This survey is part of a research project. This is strictly for a school assignment. Please take a moment and complete this survey. Your name and identity are anonymous. Please answer “Yes” or “No.” ______ I see teacher and staff absenteeism is a problem in American public education. ______I think adults are absent too often at my school. ______I know how many days I have taken this year. ______I have taken days for reasons other than illnesses. ______I think an organized wellness program, such as exercise, would help cut our absenteeism. ______I think if I made more money my attendance would be better. ______ I always take all of my personal days. ______I try to “save up” my days. ______I feel that employees who have perfect attendance deserve recognition. ______I feel that rewarding good attendance in some way would improve my attendance. ______I think that the Employee Assistance Program will assist in raising attendance. In the space below, please write in any ideas you have about improving overall employee attendance in schools in general, not just the school you work in. In this space, please write any reasons you seen that people stay out of work other than illness which can be avoided. Kim Wesson SURVEY RESULTS : SURVEY RESULTS The results of the survey are as follows. Question 1 ______ I see teacher and staff absenteeism is a problem in American public education. Results: 8/10 (80%) responded “yes,” 2/10 (20%) responded “no.” Question 2 _______ I think adults are absent too often at my school. Results: 8/10 (80%) responded “yes,” 2/10 (20%) responded “no.” Question 3 ______I know how many days I have taken this year. Results: 9/10 (90%) responded “yes,” 1/10 (10%) responded “no.” Question 4______I have taken days for reasons other than illnesses. Results: 6/10 (60%) responded “yes,” 4/10 (40%) responded “no.” Question 5______I think an organized wellness program, such as exercise, wouldhelp cut our absenteeism. Results: 4/10 (40%) responded “yes,” 6/10 (60%) responded “no.” Question 6______I think if I made more money my attendance would be better. Results: 10/10 (100%) responded “no.” Question 7______ I always take all of my personal days. Results: 10/10 (100%) responded “no.” Question 8______I try to “save up” my days. Results: 8/10 (80%) responded “yes,” 2/10 (20%) responded “no.” Improving Teacher/Staff Attendance at The Children’s Center 24 Question 9______I feel that employees who have perfect attendance deserve recognition Results:8/10 (60%) responded “yes,” 2/10 (20%) responded “no.” Question 10______I feel that rewarding good attendance in some way would improve my attendance. Results: 5/10 (50%) responded “yes,” 4/10 (40%) responded “no.”One employee wrote n/a Question 11______I think that the Employee Assistance Program will assist in raising attendance. Results: 5/10 (50%) responded “yes,” 3/10 (30%) responded “no. ”One indicated uncertainty with a question mark and one left a blank then wrote at the bottom that he or she did not know what the Employee Assistance Program was. Kim Wesson SURVEY RESULTS : SURVEY RESULTS In the space below, please write in any ideas you have about improving overall employee attendance in schools in general, not just the school you work in. RESULTS: Four wrote nothing. Three suggested punishments: a letter in the personnel file; being required to sign attendance agreements and being fired if the agreements were broken; and being denied pay for days of absence over a reasonable limit within one school year. One suggested more strictly enforcing rules which the Board already has in place and two suggested positive supports. In this space, please write any reasons you seen that people stay out of work other than illness which can be avoided. Seven saw colleagues or self taking days for reasons other than illness. Two mentioned “mental health days.” One mentioned other teacher’s “burnout.” Two mentioned children/child- related issues other than children’s physical illness. Two mentioned weather: one stated other teachers are absent if it is raining excessively, one stated they will be absent if the weather is beautiful. Two wrote nothing, indicating they did not see others taking days off for reasons that could be avoided. No one mentioned outside professional development. Kim Wesson What month is the biggest problem? : What month is the biggest problem? References : References Aarons, D. I. Study Probes Educator Absences. Education Week v. 29 no. 20 (February 3 2010) p. 8-9. Black, S. (2009). The Absentee Teacher. American School Board Journal, 196(9), 48-49. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Bradley, S., Green, C., & Leeves, G. (2007). Worker absence and shirking: Evidence from matched teacher-school data. Labour Economics, 14(3), 319-334. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2006.05.002. Caruso, J., Cassel, J., & Blumsack, K. (2009). Your district had a problem with teacher absenteeism?. American School Board Journal, 196(11), 56. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database. Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H., & Vigdor, J. (2009). Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying about in the United States?. Education Finance and Policy, 4(2), 115-149. Retrieved from ERIC database. Das, J., Dercon, S., Habyarimana, J., & Krishnan, P. (2007). Teacher Shocks and Student Learning. Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 820-862. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Kim Wesson References, continued : References, continued Hallam, S. (2007). Evaluation of Behavioural Management in Schools: A Review of the Behaviour Improvement Programme and the Role of Behaviour and Education Support Teams. Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 12(3), 106-112. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00442.x. Kremer, Michael. (2009). Incentives to Learn. Review of Economics and Statistics. 91(3), 437-456. Lund, T., Labriola, M., & Villadsen, E. (2007). Who is at risk for long-term sickness absence? A prospective cohort study of Danish employees. Work, 28(3), 225-230. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Luiselli, J., Reed, F., Christian, W., Markowski, A., Rue, H., St. Amand, C., et al. (2009). Effects of an Informational Brochure, Lottery-Based Financial Incentive, and Public Posting on Absenteeism of Direct-Care Human Services Employees. Behavior Modification, 33(2), 175-181. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Maddern, K. (2009). Special schools may be forced to break law over ‘rarely cover’. The Times Educational Supplement, 4. Retrieved from Education Full Text database. Miller, R., Murnane, R., & Willett, J. (2008). Do worker absences affect productivity? The case of teachers. (cover story). International Labour Review, 147(1), 71-89. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database Kim Wesson References : References Miller, R., Murnane, R., & Willett, J. (2007). Do teacher absences impact student achievement? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series. Working Paper 13356. Cambirdege, Massachusetts. Müller, K., Alliata, R., & Benninghoff, F. (2009). Attracting and Retaining Teachers: A Question of Motivation. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37(5), 574-599. doi:10.1177/1741143209339651. Shapira-Lishchinsky, O.,& Rosenblatt, Z. (2009). Perceptions of Organizational Ethics as Predictors of Work Absence: A Test of Alternative Absence Measures. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(4), 717-734. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9977-8. Sorenson, R. (2007). Stress Management in Education: Warning Signs and Coping Mechanisms. Management in Education, 21(3), 10-13. Retrieved from ERIC database. Tomblin, Juanita L. (1962). The School that Love Built .B.W. Enterprises, Cantonment, Florida, 32533. Whitehead, D. (2009). Teacher, where Are You?. Childhood Education, 85(4), 242-B.Retrieved from ERIC database. Whelan, Debra L. (2008). Teacher Absenteeism Affects Student Achievement. School Library Journal. Accessed 5/7/2010. Kim Wesson

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Report: Teacher Absenteeism Can Hurt Student Achievement Many teachers missed 18 or more school days, or about 10 percent of the school year.
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Measuring the Effect Teacher Absenteeism Has on Student Achievement at A ... that the teacher attendance rate has a negative effect on student achievement.
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Teacher Absence as a Leading Indicator of Student ... it’s plausible that achievement gaps can be attributed, in part, to a teacher attendance gap.
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