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Information about TBLT

Published on February 18, 2008

Author: Calogera

Source: authorstream.com

What is task-based language teaching?:  What is task-based language teaching? David Nunan The English Centre University of Hong Kong Overview:  Overview TBLT - Theoretical/conceptual considerations A framework for TBLT Examples Syllabus design considerations A pedagogical sequence for introducing tasks Theoretical/conceptual considerations:  Theoretical/conceptual considerations Traditional ‘synthetic’ approaches Different parts of the language are taught separately and step by step so that acquisition is a process of gradual accumulation of parts until the whole structure of language has been built up. (Wilkins, 1976: 2) Theoretical/conceptual considerations:  Theoretical/conceptual considerations Communicative ‘analytical’ approaches Prior analysis of the total language system into a set of discrete pieces of language that is a necessary precondition for the adoption of a synthetic approach is largely superfluous. … [Such approaches] are organized in terms of the purposes for which people are learning language and the kinds of language that are necessary to meet these purposes. (Wilkins, 1976: 13) A Framework for TBLT :  A Framework for TBLT Pedagogical tasks Rehearsal tasks Activation tasks Enabling skills Language exercises Communicative activities Real-world / target tasks Nunan, D. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle / Thomson Learning Examples:  Examples Real world task Call the airline and reconfirm a reservation you have. Check other details, such as time of departure, and time you have to be at the airport. Examples:  Examples Rehearsal task Write your resume and exchange it with another student. Study the positions available advertisements in the newspaper and find a job that would be suitable for your partner. Examples:  Examples Activation task Work with three other students. You are on a ship that is sinking. You have to swim to a nearby island. You have a waterproof container, but can only carry 20 kilos of items in it. Decide which of the following items you will take. (Remember, you can’t take more than 20 kilos with you.) (con’t) Examples:  Examples Activation task (con’t) Examples:  Examples Enabling skills Teach vocabulary Comedies, horror films, action movies, romances, thrillers, dramas Teach structures What kind of movies do you like? I like_____________. Do you like__________? Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Examples:  Examples Language exercise Fill in the blanks with these words: boring, romance, Annie McDowell, Chocolate and Roses _______ is a terrible actress. Her new movie is _______. It’s a ______, but it’s also extremely ________. Examples:  Examples Communicative activity Find someone who …. Syllabus design considerations:  Syllabus design considerations Tasks Macrofunctions Microfunctions Grammar Look at the map. You are at the hotel. Ask your partner directions to the bank. You are having a party. Tell your partner how to get from the school to your home. Exchanging goods and services Asking for and giving directions Wh-questions. Imperatives Syllabus design considerations:  Tasks Macrofunctions Microfunctions Grammar Role play. You are in a clothing store and have $150 to spend. Look at the clothing items on the worksheet. Find out the prices, and decide what to buy. Exchanging goods and services Asking about and stating prices How much / how many Yes/no questions Listen to the automated ticketing service for ‘What’s on around town this weekend’. Make a list of movies, and concerts and how much they cost. Work with three other students and decide where to go. Group work discussion and decision-making task. Look at a set of ‘to let’ ads., and decide on the most suitable place to rent. Syllabus design considerations Syllabus design considerations:  Tasks Macrofunctions Microfunctions Grammar You are at a party. Introduce your partner to three other people. Role play. You are taking part in a job interview. Your partner will ask you about yourself. Answer his / her questions. Socializing Exchanging personal information Stative verbs Demonstrative: This Syllabus design considerations A target task:  A target task Group work discussion and decision making task. Look at a set of ‘to let’ ads., and decide on the most suitable place to rent. A pedagogical sequence for introducing tasks Step 1:  A pedagogical sequence for introducing tasks Step 1 Step 1 Create a number of schema building tasks that introduce initial vocabulary, language and context for the task. Example Look at newspaper advertisements for renting accommodation. Identify key words (written as abbreviations), and match people with accommodation. Step 2:  Step 2 Give learners controlled practice in the target language vocabulary, structures and functions. Example Listen to a model conversation between two people discussing accommodation options and practice the conversation. Practice again using information from the ads. In step 1. Step 2 Step 3:  Step 3 Give learners authentic listening practice. Example Listen to several native speakers inquiring about accommodation and match the conversations with newspaper ads. Step 3 Step 4:  Step 4 Focus learners on linguistic elements – e.g. grammar and vocabulary Example Listen again to conversations and note intonation contours. Use cue words to write complete questions and answers involving comparatives (cheaper, closer, more spacious etc.) Step 4 Step 5:  Step 5 Provide freer practice. Example Pair work information gap role play. Student A play the part of a potential tenant. Make a note of needs and then call rental agent. Student B plays the part of a rental agent. Use ads., and offer partner suitable accommodation. Step 5 Step 6:  Step 6 Pedagogical task Example Group work discussion and decision making task. Look at a set of ads., and decide on the most suitable place to rent. Step 6 Principles of TBLT - Scaffolding:  Principles of TBLT - Scaffolding Scaffolding Lessons and materials should provide supporting frameworks within which the learning takes place. At the beginning of the learning process, learners should not be expected to produce language that has not been explicitly taught. Principles of TBLT - Task dependency - Recycling:  Task dependency Within a lesson, one task should grow out of, and build upon the ones that have gone before. Recycling Recycling language maximizes opportunities for learning and activates the ‘organic’ learning principle. Principles of TBLT - Task dependency - Recycling Principles of TBLT - Active learning - Integration:  Active learning Learners learn best by actively using the language they are learning. Integration Learners should be taught in ways that make clear the relationships between grammatical form, communicative function, and semantic meaning. Principles of TBLT - Active learning - Integration Principles of TBLT - Reproduction to creation:  Reproduction to creation In reproductive tasks, learners reproduce language models provided by the teacher, the textbook or the tape. These tasks are designed to give learners mastery of form, meaning and function, and provide a basis for creative tasks. In creative tasks, learners are recombining familiar elements in novel ways. Principles of TBLT - Reproduction to creation Principles of TBLT - Reflection:  Reflection Learners should be given opportunities to reflect on what they have learned and how well they are doing. Principles of TBLT - Reflection

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