taxonomy

50 %
50 %
Information about taxonomy
Entertainment

Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Prudenza

Source: authorstream.com

Taxonomy: The Science of Classification: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy: The Science of Classification - using the library as a metaphor to demystify the process of portal taxonomy development. Why A Taxonomy?: Oracle: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Why A Taxonomy?: Oracle University Portal ~ Oracle10g AS Taxonomy: Oracle portal requirement Perhaps most crucial component of the portal project Taxonomy not understood: perception highly specialised technical mechanism Initial reaction buy in consultancy? Misconception: Taxonomy silo Taxonomy only required for portal Why A Taxonomy?: Issues: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Why A Taxonomy?: Issues Taxonomy concepts not understood by colleagues – “We need one, how to we design and build?”. The late realisation that a taxonomy was required to service other institutional requirements like the FOI publication scheme and ‘Records Management’. Folly to build taxonomy focusing on Oracle portal requirements – “What happens if we change our portal platform?”. Our Backgrounds: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Our Backgrounds Chris Milne, Academic Librarian Information Retrieval / Classic texts Sayers, W. C. B. 1975. Sayers’ manual of classification for librarians. 5th ed. London: Deutsch Rowley, J. E. 1987. Organising knowledge: an introduction to information retrieval. Aldershot: Gower. Hunter, E. J. and Bakewell, K. G. B. 1983. Cataloguing. 2nd ed. London: Bingley. Our Backgrounds: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Our Backgrounds Dave MacCabe, IT Specialist User requirements analysis Business analysis Software development Web development Database design Blended Approach: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Blended Approach Taxonomy development at UAD will Use combination of Librarianship & IT skills sets Librarianship skills sets Information retrieval: designed to support users information seeking behaviour IT skills sets What can be achieved with technology? Workshop Outline: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Workshop Outline Generate a more rounded view, clearer perspective of taxonomy development Looking to share our experiences and gather the experiences of others We don’t have all the answers! Workshop Elements (1): Taxonomy: The Science of Classification x 2 Surveys to ascertain: Range of skills sets available to portal / taxonomy teams Business drivers for developing / deploying taxonomies x 2 Presentations Taxonomy: theoretical background Information retrieval techniques related to taxonomy development Workshop Elements (1) Workshop Elements (2): Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Workshop Elements (2) x 3 Activities Discussion of survey results (x 2) Applying a taxonomy and meta-data to fixed-term contract example materials General / concluding discussion on project team skills sets and the use of Library staff Skill Sets:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Skill Sets: Ourselves, our teams and our institutions. Useful Questions?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Useful Questions? What skills to we have? Do we think they are appropriate? What are the institutional perceptions of the skills required? Is it a converged service project? Will the team be supplemented by external consultancy? Presentation:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Presentation: The theoretical background to taxonomies and metadata Aim: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Aim To set the scene for the key activity, I’m going to try to sprint down the road from basic theoretical constructs to a concrete portal example. What is a Taxonomy ?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification What is a Taxonomy ? A systematic way of classifying knowledge A structure of concepts (hierarchical?) A common language for sharing knowledge An artificial, formal construct acting as a symbolic model of an information domain Examples Linnaeus’ plant taxonomy Organic compounds Dictionary Break: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Dictionary Break TAXONOMY “[Taxonomy is] the science of classification according to a predetermined system used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis or information retrieval.” Ravid, Y. (2002) Dictionary Break: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Dictionary Break ONTOLOGIES Descriptions of the meaning and nature of things, a superset of taxonomies – “a formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” KNOWLEDGE MAPS Used for knowledge representation – both visual and conceptual Why have a Taxonomy ?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Why have a Taxonomy ? Essential for knowledge management Coping with “infoglut” Faster information retrieval and improved productivity Sharing of knowledge and comparison of knowledge bases and, of course, for us… Content management for institutional portals In fact …: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification In fact … “A good taxonomy helps to inject order into the chaos and anarchy of a typical intranet or website.” Organisational Drivers: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Organisational Drivers The costs, both financial and organizational, of poor access to information The requirement for ‘regulatory’ compliance (for example Freedom of Information, Records Management) The requirement to manage the organization effectively. Higher levels of productivity in knowledge workers In fact …: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification In fact … “[taxonomies are] a strategic imperative for any organization looking to manage and exploit its knowledge more effectively” Taxonomic Issues …: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomic Issues … “Hierarchical” “Key concepts” The FOI Scheme: A Hierarchy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification The FOI Scheme: A Hierarchy Issues with Hierarchies: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Issues with Hierarchies Hierarchy classification limitations Enforced Classification Scattering Matches “information seeking” behaviour? Implicit navigation Drives development (e.g. Oracle “pages”, “tabs”) Matches “information seeking” behaviour? Width .v. depth Seeking behaviour Don’t forget publishing behaviour! General Issues: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification General Issues “Push” .v “Pull”. “Google thinking”. Management by exception Role-specific delivery Dictionary Break: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Dictionary Break METADATA “meta-data (or "meta data") Data aboutdata. In data processing, meta-data is definitional data that provides information about, or documentation of, other data managed within an application or environment.” The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © 1993-2004 Denis Howe Metadata & Key Words: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Metadata & Key Words Dictionary Break: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Dictionary Break THESAURUS “Labelling and relating objects and groups of objects with appropriate words and concepts” as an aid to “knowledge indexing and retrieval” Student Coursework (1): Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Student Coursework (1) Student Coursework (2): Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Student Coursework (2) Key References ?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Key References ? Many texts – very few offer any practical advice just theoretical perspectives on the knowledge management area. Obtain practical advice from portal development environment documentation. MUST READ – Wyllie, J and Skyrme, D. J. “Taxonomies: Frameworks for Corporate Knowledge”, London: Ark Group, 2003. Taxonomy Project Drivers:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy Project Drivers: Or, “What are we trying to achieve, and why?” Useful Questions?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Useful Questions? Why do commercial organizations develop taxonomies, and are there similarities are there with HE? Who are the information consumers (students, staff, local business, general public, special interest bodies)? What are the real information needs and how do they arise? What technical infrastructure is being considered and/or used: does this place limitations on, or help the process of taxonomy development? Presentation:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Presentation: Applying classification, cataloguing and indexing techniques to organise and retrieve information within portals Aim: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Aim Provide a clearer perspective on the processes surrounding the development of a portal taxonomy, using the analogy of classification, cataloguing and indexing techniques as deployed in libraries to manage information The Problem: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification The Problem Taxonomy concepts initially not understood by colleagues We need one, how to we design and build? Reference document outlining “rules” for taxonomy development Use Oracle9iAS Portal as Your Knowledge Exchange Core Themes Identified: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Core Themes Identified Primary Taxonomy: concerned with Visual presentation of information and services to users Navigation Logical arrangement, two ‘primary’ concerns How do we expect users to find, and retrieve information? How can the organisation of information, be designed in such a way to support institutional objectives? e.g. developing deeper engagement with the University Supermarket Taxonomy: designed to create zones, and protect goods Core Themes Identified: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Core Themes Identified Virtual Taxonomy: concerned with Development of meta-data to support retrieval via search-engine Building indexes, describing information and services Creation of an alternative approach to finding and retrieving information, not supported by any ‘natural’ limitations within the Primary Taxonomy Core Themes Identified: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Core Themes Identified Imperative: develop an understanding of users information requirements and information seeking behaviour How will people look for content? How will people use content to support their jobs? How to people expect content to be organised and described? What is the structure of the organisation? Role of Organising Content?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Role of Organising Content? Organising on-line information attributed to IT solutions Parallels with the role of a “Web Master” i.e. technical skills set Role of Librarianship incorporating “established” Information Retrieval techniques used for hundreds of years to organise the complexities of library collections worldwide frequently overlooked Classic Information Retrieval: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Classic Information Retrieval Faceted / Non-faceted Classification Pre-coordinate & Post-coordinate Indexing Citation Order Principle of Inversion Cataloguing Thesauri / Subject Headings Automatic Indexing A Taster: Principle of Inversion: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification A Taster: Principle of Inversion “In an analytico-synthetic classification, the implementation of the Principle of Increasing Concreteness requires that the facets in the facet formula of a basic class should be in the decreasing sequence of concreteness. If the scheme has rounds of facets, the facets in each round should be in the decreasing sequence of concreteness” S.R. Ranganathan's Prolegomena to Library Classification (2e) (1957). Taxonomy & Information Retrieval Equivalents: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy & Information Retrieval Equivalents Primary Taxonomy (equivalent to) Pre coordinated indexing Example: Dewey Decimal Classification Within portal: Predefined grouping of content and services, users have a predefined path to follow to find and retrieve information by virtue of what clicks they have to make and [hypertext] links to follow Taxonomy & Information Retrieval Equivalents: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy & Information Retrieval Equivalents Virtual Taxonomy (equivalent to) Post coordinated indexing Example: Library Catalogue (OPAC not card) Within portal: User decides how to find and retrieve information via the selection of keywords and index terms, applied to a search engine Example: Library Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Example: Library Taxonomy Primary Taxonomy (i.e. How users see / approach the physical library stock) Users approach Library stock via ‘collection’ Level 1 Short Loans Level 2 Reference Materials / Law Lending stock Level 3 Lending Stock Level 4 Journals Each collection organised by subject, using Dewey Decimal Classification Anticipates that users need to find materials based on subject, with related items being found together Supports information retrieval by browsing Characteristics: Primary Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Characteristics: Primary Taxonomy Supports users, logical subject approach to retrieving information Organisation by Dewey Decimal Classification stable framework, adaptable for new subject areas e.g. Computer Games Limitations: Primary Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Limitations: Primary Taxonomy Scattering Classified works can only appear in one place within a library Works organised by citation order i.e. order in which the various facets are presented in a compound subject Medium – Period – Style - Country Leads to scattering works of related subject In this example items on Country will be scattered throughout the collection Primary Taxonomy Will : Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Primary Taxonomy Will Influence the physical design of the Portal Pages / Sub Pages, Regions and Tabs are the tools available in Oracle 10G to underpin a Primary Taxonomy Virtual Taxonomies can be implemented to support user requirements not provided for in the Primary Taxonomy More than One Taxonomy?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification More than One Taxonomy? Library restricted to a single Primary Taxonomy due to nature of physical stock Electronic environment, Portal will support multiple taxonomies This could depend on the user entering the Portal e.g. different view for member of academic staff, student, support staff Example: Library Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Example: Library Taxonomy Library Catalogue (OPAC) (Virtual Taxonomy) Supports alternative means of accessing materials in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the Primary Taxonomy i.e. search by: Author(s) Subject heading(s) Various facets that each item represents can be included, whereas the Primary Taxonomy (Dewey classification) centres on primary subject area Title Series Catalogue Search Indexes: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Catalogue Search Indexes Randle, Kevin D. UFO crash at Roswell / -- New York : Avon 1998. 328p. ; 19cm  ISBN 03807-619-6-3 (pbk) : £6.99 : CIP entry (Jun.)   Unidentified flying objects.Unidentified flying objects - Sighting and encounters - New Mexico - Roswell.Unidentified flying objects - Censorship - United States. I. Schmitt, Donald R. II. Title. Virtual Taxonomy ~ Catalogue: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Virtual Taxonomy ~ Catalogue Meta-data equates to the Subject, Author, Title, Series entries used within a library catalogues Controlled search terms (vocabulary) to improve recall E-commerce see Electronic Commerce Alternative retrieval mechanism aiming to overcome limitations of classification scheme employed e.g. Author search Virtual Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Virtual Taxonomy Meta-data Describing portal content via: Attributes Categories Perspectives Creating indexes for search engines in Oracle 10G, providing an alternative ‘virtual’ taxonomy to supplement the ‘primary’ taxonomy Again, similar concept to the Library catalogue Taxonomy Design / Content Analysis: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy Design / Content Analysis Anticipated user behaviour i.e. who will use the Portal and how will people expect to find and use the Portal’s information and services This can be identified via “content analysis” e.g. how will students expect to find a past paper? If students cannot ‘click’ their way to a past paper, how can the Virtual taxonomy be used to quickly, efficiently, intuitively provide the desired information? Taxonomy Design / Content Analysis: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy Design / Content Analysis Is your Taxonomy required to support other institutional objectives e.g. FOI, Records Management? How will this effect index design & construction i.e. selection of meta-data? Index under document type related to FOI publication scheme? Suggested Steps: Designing UAD Portal Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Suggested Steps: Designing UAD Portal Taxonomy What do we need to organise? What is going into the Portal Content / Document Analysis FOI / Records Management functionality! Decide how best to organise material Organisation will support design objective i.e. deepening student engagement with the University Efficient information retrieval(Logical groupings) Suggested Steps: Designing UAD Portal Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Suggested Steps: Designing UAD Portal Taxonomy Identify gaps in the Primary Taxonomy Starting point to think about best approach to designing the Virtual Taxonomy to support alternative paths for our users Primary Taxonomy will scatter documents and services, how will your meta-data / search engine approach bridge these problems External examiners reports may be organised in the Primary Taxonomy by School Other users may wish to see all these reports as a single group Meta-data element “document type” to support retrieval of all external examiner reports Conclusions: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Conclusions Information retrieval techniques developed to organise complexities of human knowledge Techniques applied to libraries and specialised collections remain valid and can be successfully applied to organise knowledge within portals Taxonomy: the Science of Classification: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Taxonomy: the Science of Classification Opportunity to bring together the combined skills sets of ‘Information Professionals’ and ‘Web developers’ to develop a relatively inexpensive ‘in-house’ solution to taxonomy development, minimising the requirement to draw upon external consultancy. Skill Sets:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Skill Sets: Can “traditional” information retrieval skills-sets be usefully applied to support taxonomy creation? Useful Questions?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Useful Questions? Have you previously considered using librarians to support portal / taxonomy development? If not, would you now consider using librarians to support portal / taxonomy? Do “today’s” librarians retain these “classic” information retrieval skills? Key Activity:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Key Activity: - Applying meta-data and recognising relevant information consumers Activity Topic: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Topic Deliberately “left field” so we can focus on the process rather than the information itself. The use of fixed-term employment contracts in higher education institutions. Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Part 1 – Technical Briefing: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Part 1 – Technical Briefing Following on from the mini-talks already delivered, I want to pose a series of questions that we need to address in Part 3 of this activity. Useful to have these questions in mind during the background details that follow. Actually a good, “real world” example but only because you’ll need to get involved in minutiae across the institution. Regulatory Compliance: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Regulatory Compliance the Freedom of Information Act the Data Protection Act the Disability Discrimination Act ? How do we manage compliance with :- Internal Information Consumers: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Internal Information Consumers Who needs this content? How will they use it? How should it be delivered (”push” .v.”pull”)? How do these information consumers look for information? How should you best organize content to meet user requirements and institutional objectives? External Information Consumers: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification External Information Consumers Who will search for this content? How will they use it? How do these information seekers look for information? What will be the context of the search and what constitutes related content? Information Lifecycle: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Information Lifecycle How frequently do you anticipate it will change? How can we ensure appropriate classification of updates? How should the updated information be delivered to internal and external seekers? Finally, the content…: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Finally, the content… Our example is the use of fixed-term employment contracts. Chris will now provide the relevant background on this topic. Key Activity:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Key Activity: - Applying meta-data and recognising relevant information consumers Activity Topic: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Topic Deliberately “left field” so we can focus on the process rather than the information itself. The use of fixed-term employment contracts in higher education institutions. Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Background: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Background Significant concern as to the high degree of use of FTCs within HE (40%) Sector Reviews of HE (Dearing, Bett) Funding Councils Trade Unions HEIs instructed to reduce reliance of FTCs Legislation / Guidance: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Legislation / Guidance EC Fixed-term Work Directive 1999/70/EC UK SI: 2002 no 2034 JNCHES Guidance Agreed standard between University employers association and recognised trade unions as to use and management of FTCs within HE Issues: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Issues Clear evidence to suggest that HEIs remain heavily reliant on use of FTCs Introduction of legislation, JNCHES guidelines and pressure from funding councils has not led to any significant reduction in use Culture of over dependence Contract research funding Blunt tool to avoid performance management Information: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Information Typically HEIs require to improve information flow re FTCs to improve Awareness of obligations as employers / managers Ensure employees aware of the protection now afforded to them under law Remove culture of dependence Monitor use Demonstrate ethical HR policies to funding council Key Activity:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Key Activity: - Applying meta-data and recognising relevant information consumers Activity Topic: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Topic Deliberately “left field” so we can focus on the process rather than the information itself. The use of fixed-term employment contracts in higher education institutions. Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Activity Organization: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Activity Organization Part 1 – Technical Briefing Part 2 – Background Information Part 3 – Applying a taxonomy and meta-data Part 3 – Applying a Taxonomy: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Part 3 – Applying a Taxonomy Group discussion. Final Discussion:: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Final Discussion: Project team skill sets and the use of library staff. Learning Outcomes: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Learning Outcomes A clearer perspective on the processes surrounding the development of a portal taxonomy, using the analogy of classification, cataloguing and indexing techniques as deployed in libraries to manage information A realisation that the combined skills sets of 'information professionals' and 'Web developers' can be brought together to develop a relatively inexpensive 'in-house' solution to taxonomy development minimising the requirement to draw upon external consultancy Useful Questions?: Taxonomy: The Science of Classification Useful Questions? Are we happy with the vocabulary surrounding taxonomies and portals? Are there key references? Do we have the appropriate skill sets available already in the information management professions in our institution?

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Taxonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Science. Taxonomy (biology), a branch of science that encompasses the description, identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms
Read more

Taxonomie – Wikipedia

International Association for Plant Taxonomy; Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) The Taxonomicon; Numerische Taxonomie in Linguistik ...
Read more

Taxonomy (biology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Taxonomy in the Middle Ages was largely based on the Aristotelian system with additions regarding the philosophical and existential order of creatures.
Read more

Taxonomy | Define Taxonomy at Dictionary.com

noun, plural taxonomies. 1. the science or technique of classification. 2. a classification into ordered categories: a proposed taxonomy of educational ...
Read more

dict.cc | taxonomy | Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch

Übersetzung für taxonomy im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc.
Read more

Taxonomy - definition of taxonomy by The Free Dictionary

Inxight and New Taxonomy Partners Provide Faster, More Accurate Information Discovery; Alliances With Factiva, Indraweb, KAPS Group, Taxonomy Warehouse and ...
Read more

Taxonomy | Definition of Taxonomy by Merriam-Webster

1: the study of the general principles of scientific classification : systematics 2: orderly classification of plants and animals according to their ...
Read more

Home - Taxonomy - NCBI - National Center for Biotechnology ...

Provides a taxonomy browser, taxonomy resources and other information.
Read more

Taxonomies « WordPress Codex

What is a taxonomy? Taxonomy is one of those words that most people never hear or use. Basically, a taxonomy is a way to group things together. For example ...
Read more

dict.cc Wörterbuch :: taxonomy :: Deutsch-Englisch ...

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzung für taxonomy im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch).
Read more