Published on January 21, 2008
XML Markup of Taxonomic Literature: XML Markup of Taxonomic Literature New Uses for Marked Texts: New Uses for Marked Texts Digital presentation of texts Link publications to specimen records “Surrogate” specimen catalogs Electronic Field Guides New aggregations of taxonomic data based on geography, ecology, etc. The Problem: The Problem 1.4 million described species 5 – 50 million undescribed species 3-4 billion museum specimens Very long cited half life Scarcity of comprehensive libraries – especially in developing world Steps Toward a Solution: Steps Toward a Solution Digital Page Images + metadata Full Text Search Structuring Document Content (SGML/XML) BioOne Sample: ABSTRACT Since their discovery by Western explorers traveling to Madagascar in the 17th century, the ruffed lemurs have undergone numerous taxonomic revisions. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it was intermittently suggested that black-and-white and red ruffed lemurs hybridize in nature. Despite the fact that a natural hybrid zone has never been documented, this suggestion has played a large role in designating the two forms as subspecies of the single species Varecia variegata. Through a review and synthesis of historical documents, taxonomic literature, museum collections, menagerie and zoo records, recent survey work, genetic data, and vocalization data, we examine the evidence for a natural hybrid zone and suggest taxonomic revisions. Our work indicates a more extensive hybrid zone than previously suggested—but one in which hybridization is the exception rather than the rule. Furthermore, our findings warrant upgrading the black-and-white ruffed lemur and the red ruffed lemur from subspecies to full species, Varecia variegata (Kerr, 1792 ) and Varecia rubra (E. Geoffroy, 1812 ). Our results support the current captive breeding practices of U.S. and European zoos participating in the ruffed lemur “Species Survival Plan” and the “European Endangered Species Programme”. Lastly, and possibly most importantly, we can now set specific geographic priorities for conserving the habitat of these highly endangered lemurs in northern Madagascar. American Museum Novitates: No. 3376 BioOne Sample ITIS Result: http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=572873 ITIS Result Slide8: http://diglib1.amnh.org TEI Lite Tags Used in the AMNH Congo Project: TEI Lite Tags Used in the AMNH Congo Project <TEI.2> the root element for a TEI document <text> the text itself <front> introductory material <body> the main part of the document <back> any back matter Slide12: <div> the major divisions of the paper, including taxonomic treatments <table>, <row>, and <cell> tabular data <figure> and <figDesc> illustrations <p> paragraphs <head> titles of sections <note> notes in the text <pb> page breaks Slide13: <TEI.2> <text> <body> <head>AN UNDESCRIBED GALL-MAKING HEMIPTERON (TINGITIDÆ) FROM AFRICA<note n="1">Scientific Results of The American Museum of Natural History Congo Expedition. Entomology, No. 10.</note> BY CARL J. DRAKE</head> <div> <head><name type=“taxon”>Copium hamadryas</name>, new species</head> <p>Elongate, moderately robust, pale cinereous, the elytra with a few fusco-brownish markings. Antennæ long, stout, strongly clavate, dark olive-brown beneath numerous silvery scales; first segment faintly curved, a little lighter in color, considerably thicker and almost twice as long as the second; third segment very strongly clavate, slightly more than one and one-fifth times the length of the fourth, densely covered with minute, scale-like, silvery hairs; fourth segment very stout, long, slightly curved, pointed at the apex, the surface minutely roughened, covered with numerous, very small, scale-like, silvery hairs and densely clothed with moderately long, dusky brown hairs interspersed with several longer and more erect hairs...</p> … Taxon X: Taxon X <treatment> <nomenclature> <name> <authority> <synonymy> The Treatment Body: The Treatment Body <!ELEMENT treatment_body (materials_examined | diagnosis | description | etymology | biology-ecology | distribution | div | p | pb)*> <Materials_Examined>: <Materials_Examined> place collected date collected sex/life stage number of specimens collector museum catalog number field number Materials Examined: Materials Examined <materials_examined>HOLOTYPE (<sex>female</sex>) and ALLOTYPE (<sex>male</sex>) taken from galls (one specimen in each gall) formed by this insect on the inflorescence of Clerodendron species. <name type="place"> Thiensville, Belgian Congo, Africa </name>, <collection_date>June 3, 1915 </collection_date> by <collector>Dr. Joseph Bequaert</collector>(label no., n. c. <cat_no>7734</cat_no>) in <museum>The American Museum Natural History, New York City, N. Y. </museum>PARATYPES, taken with types, in American Museum and Drake collections. </materials_examined> A Simplification: A Simplification <materials_examined>HOLOTYPE (female) and ALLOTYPE (male) taken from galls (one specimen in each gall) formed by this insect on the inflorescence of Clerodendron species. <name type=“place”>Thysville, Belgian Congo, Africa</name>, June 3,<year_collected>1915</year_collected>, by Dr. Joseph Bequaert (label no., n. c. 7734) in The American Museum Natural History, New York City, N. Y. PARATYPES, taken with types, in American Museum and Drake collections</materials_examinied> A Useful Result: A Useful Result Name: Copium hamadryas Place Collected: Thysville, Belgian Congo, Africa Year Collected: 1915 Museum: American Museum of Natural History Taxonomic Catalog Markup: Taxonomic Catalog Markup Dense, highly structured data High level of uniformity across catalogs Useful addition to “catalog of life” Catalog Sample: Catalog Sample ALCECORIS McAtee and Malloch TYPE SPECIES: Alcecoris periscopus McAtee and Malloch, 1924 (monotypy) Alcecoris McAtee and Malloch, 1924A:80 [n. gen., descr.] Alcecoris: McAtee and Malloch, 1932A:64 [syn.] Alcecoris: Eyles, 1971A:942 [List] globosus Carvalho, 1951 Alcerocoris globosus Carvalho, 1951J:390, figs. 1, 3a [n. sp., descr., DV, fig. head] • South India: Nandidrug Hill Alcecoris globosus: Eyles, 1971A:942 [List] periscopes McAtee and Malloch, 1924 Alcecoris periscopus McAtee and Malloch, 1924A:81 [n. sp., descr., host] • Timor Alcecoris periscopus: Eyles, 1971A:942 [List] ARCHEMYIOMMA Herczek TYPE SPECIES: Archemyiomma carvalhoi Herczek, 1993 (orig. design.) Archemyiomma Herczek, 1993A:26 [n. gen., descr.] carvalhoi Herczek, 1993 (Amber Fossil) Archemyiomma carvalhoi Herczek, 1993A:27, figs. 7, 8 [n. sp., descr., figs. head-pronotum] • Baltic amber fossil ARISTOTELESIA Carvalho TYPE SPECIES: Aristotelesia carioca Carvalho, 1947 (orig. design.) Aristotelesia Carvalho, 1947D:255 [n. gen., descr., disc.] Aristotelesia: Eyles, 1971A:942 [List] carioca Carvalho, 1947 Aristotelesia carioca Carvalho, 1947D:257, figs. 1-7 [n. sp., descr., DV, MG] • Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Aristotelesia carioca: Eyles, 1971A:942 [List] Proposed Taxonomic Catalog DTD: Proposed Taxonomic Catalog DTD <!ELEMENT author (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT authority (author, date, bib_id?)> <!ELEMENT bib_id (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT comment (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT date (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT dist (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT fix (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT head (name, author?, date?, fix?)> <!ELEMENT name (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST name status (valid | syn) #IMPLIED > <!ELEMENT ref ((name | date | author | authority)+, bib_id?, comment?, dist?)> <!ATTLIST ref level CDATA #IMPLIED > <!ELEMENT ref_group (ref+)> <!ELEMENT taxon (head, (type? | ref_group | taxon)*)> <!ATTLIST taxon level (family | genus | species | subfamily | tribe) #REQUIRED > <!ELEMENT taxon_catalog (taxon)*> <!ELEMENT type (name, authority, fix?)> Electronic Title Page: Electronic Title Page http://diglib1-staging.amnh.org/pub_devel/etp_template2.html Links to multiple versions of documents Hidden Metadata IP information Author’s e-mail/web page Order information Errata/Addenda/Revised editions Reviews
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