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Tanks

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Information about Tanks
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Published on November 8, 2007

Author: Danior

Source: authorstream.com

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TANK REHABILITATION: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL:  Abhishek Sharma R.Sakthivadivel Frank van Weert TANK REHABILITATION: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL TANKS- Focusing on Issues :  TANKS- Focusing on Issues A lot of money is being spent on rehabilitation of tanks and much of it is loans. In light of this 2 issues merit examination: What is the worth of tanks today? Is the present method of rehabilitation the best? How best to decide upon an appropriate method of rehabilitation? Slide3:  As an engineering system, it is historically one of the oldest, ingenious and yet simple in irrigation engineering design. As an agricultural system, it is distinct in cropping practices, varieties and water management. As a social system, tank serves and benefits various groups and sections of the community such as farmers, fishermen, artisans,animal rearers- especially women. Tanks: Important Position in Irrigation and in the local ecosystem Performance Of Tanks:  Performance Of Tanks Physical condition of the tanks have deteriorated Supply channels have got heavily encroached, silted and affected by weed growth Siltation of the tank bed has taken place leading to significant reduction in storage capacity In all poorly performing tanks the condition of the field channels, sluices, bund etc. is poor. Farmers seem to maintain only those tanks which fill up regularly. Performance Of Tanks:  Performance Of Tanks Neglect of tanks by government Investment on tanks has been an insignificant portion of the total investment on minor irrigation Control of tanks by the government has alienated farming communities from maintenance of tanks- especially supply channels Legalizing catchment cultivation and myopic electricity supply policies have led to the decline of tanks Present Practice of tank Rehabilitation:  Present Practice of tank Rehabilitation Formation of tank water user association. Participation of stakeholders form the very beginning of rehabilitation process. Initially tank rehabilitation means rehabilitation of the tank proper with its distribution system. Later supply channel was also included for modification The World Bank funded Karnataka Community Based Tank Management Project consists of three components: 1) undertaking tank system improvements; 2) establishing an enabling environment for the sustainable, decentralized management of tank systems; and 3) strengthening community-based institutions to assume responsibility for tank system development and management (World Bank, 2002). Performance Of Tanks:  Performance Of Tanks Coming in of canals schemes and well and tubewell irrigation has led to a decline of tanks. Tanks have gone dry in areas where tubewell irrigation has come up in a big way. The catchment area has gone through a massive change. All of the catchment in most stand alone tanks is being cultivated. In addition rapid construction in the catchment in the form of roads, buildings etc. have further reduced the runoff. Performance Of Tanks:  Performance Of Tanks Coming in of canals schemes and well and tubewell irrigation has led to a decline of tanks. Tanks have gone dry in areas where tubewell irrigation has come up in a big way. The catchment area has gone through a massive change. All of the catchment in most stand alone tanks is being cultivated. In addition rapid construction in the catchment in the form of roads, buildings etc. have further reduced the runoff. Performance Of Tanks:  Performance Of Tanks Socio- Political cum cultural change has affected tank management. Land holding size in the command has shrunk Land holdings have become heterogeneous in terms of caste and class compositions through transactions of land leading to a breakdown of old power relations Government has made landownership in the catchment legal by giving Pattas Present Practice of tank Rehabilitation:  Present Practice of tank Rehabilitation A Vaidyanathan: (Rehabilitation) Schemes are designed unmindful of the differences in the needs and possibilities between tanks. The schemes are planned piecemeal …. (As a result) The programs for tank irrigation in recent decades have been inadequate in scale, misconceived in design, poor in implementation and dubious in their impact. Factors not received adequate attention in the present process:  Factors not received adequate attention in the present process Tank is a multiple use and multiple user system with contrasting and conflicting objectives. Institutional design is complex. The tank system has changed radically and is always in dynamic flux. Changes not adequately accounted for in the process. Tank system is an embedded system in a watershed context. Has both on-site and off-site impacts. Off-site impact not fully accounted. Various Rehabilitation Alternatives:  Various Rehabilitation Alternatives No one approach seems to be workable in all parts. Traditional rehabilitation agenda Innovations like Percolation ponds Catchment rehabilitation There are instances of combining new with old- South Bihar , Narmada canal Tambraparani, the Vaigai and Palar basins Questions arising out of present tank rehabilitation process:  Questions arising out of present tank rehabilitation process What should be the framework under which tank rehabilitation be looked into? How should tank rehabilitation be planned, designed, implemented and managed? Pre- requisites for answering the issues- A Knowledge Based Approach:  Pre- requisites for answering the issues- A Knowledge Based Approach A clear understanding of the existing water cycle within a tank system and in the watershed in which it is embedded. An understanding of the use rights of water among different users and between the systems in a watershed context. Institutions now existing and operating at the tank and watershed level. Components of Water-Use Cycle (Gundlur Tank):  Components of Water-Use Cycle (Gundlur Tank) ET Irrigation-26.4 ham Runoff-60 ham Losses-9 ham Changes in Gundlur tank and command/catchment areas:  Changes in Gundlur tank and command/catchment areas Components of Water-Use Cycle (Gundlur Tank):  Components of Water-Use Cycle (Gundlur Tank) Component 1: Watershed Profile:  Component 1: Watershed Profile Purpose: Understanding the system in respect of socio- economic profile, existing institutions and water use rights. Implications: Age distribution of command area farmers Caste and class wise land holding patterns Kinds of water allocation mechanisms- within agriculture and between sectors- drinking, livestock, agriculture etc. Method: Broad questionnaire survey Focused group discussions Secondary data Component 2: Water Accounting:  Component 2: Water Accounting Purpose: Understanding the present water use cycle status and water accounting parameters. Implications: If water is not reaching is it because- Rainfall has changed Supply channels are damaged Cropping patterns have changed Method: Evolving Secondary data Group discussions Primary data collection on physical parameters- measurements of selected wells etc. Matching primary data with softer information collected Component 3: Analyzing Alternatives:  Component 3: Analyzing Alternatives Purpose: Setting up different scenarios; arriving at an acceptable rehabilitation plan for each tank system through participation. Implications: More awareness for the stakeholders Conflict resolution Building up better and appropriate institutions for tank management Method: Simulation model for decision support Comparative analysis Evolving Component 4: Decision Turnover:  Component 4: Decision Turnover Purpose: Turning over the scheme to stakeholders for operation, maintenance and management Implications: If water is not reaching is it because- Strengthening of stakeholders Reduction in institutional capital requirement Method: Using stakeholders, NGO’s and Government for implementing the scheme Evolving Implications of a Knowledge Based Approach:  Implications of a Knowledge Based Approach Choosing between various rehabilitation alternatives- A tank in the upper reaches of the watershed may need traditional rehabilitation while a downstream tank might need to be converted to a percolation pond. Coming up with innovative solutions for scarcity management- Tank water markets aided by the fact that there are existing, clearly defined water rights in tanks. Growing crops in only a small area if the tank has not filled up and then sharing it according to land holdings. Eg. Sri Lanka Alternating between channels for water supply. Eg. Andhra Pradesh Implications of a Knowledge Based Approach:  Implications of a Knowledge Based Approach Doing appropriate rehabilitation- In a piecemeal approach the chances of overdoing rehabilitation is high because it ignores offsite impact of tanks. Understanding the worth of tanks- Only when linkages between all components of watershed are understood can the actual worth of tank systems be understood- eg. For drinking water needs, as flood regulators etc. TANKS- Focusing on Issues (Dr. Shakthi):  TANKS- Focusing on Issues (Dr. Shakthi) A lot of money is being spent on rehabilitation of tanks and much of it is loans. In light of this 2 issues merit examination: What is the worth of tanks today? Is the present method of rehabilitation the best? How best to decide upon an appropriate method of rehabilitation? Slide26:  Thank You

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