TALIS Research Study

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Published on April 22, 2018

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TALIS Research Study: TALIS Research Study Danielle Courtemanche Texas Tech University EDCI 6360 Introduction to Research Topic: I ntroduction to R esearch T opic If pre-service teachers had more chances to see the daily routines of a classroom teachers though practicum opportunities or observations of mentor teachers, they may have a better understanding of the in’s and out’s of this career. Due to a better understanding, they may be more equipped to handle being a teacher and therefore, be more satisfied in their job leading to retaining in the career longer term. Research Question: Research Question Does the number of classroom practice as a part of a teaching program ( ie . student teaching, practicum teaching, and observations of cooperating teacher) impact overall job satisfaction? Classroom Practice Job Satisfaction Theoretical Framework: Theoretical Framework Using Bandura’s ( 1977 ) ), self-efficacy, one’s judgment of his or her capabilities in teacher is based on 4 factors. The most important on being “experience.” If a teacher has self-efficacy and feels that they are strong in their teaching abilities will this lead to them rating their job satisfaction higher? Literature Review: Literature Review Brown, Lee, and Collins (2015) explored pre-service teachers’ feelings/perceptions of their preparedness to teach at elementary schools. Pre-service teachers were provided a pre and post survey. The pre-service teachers indicated on the surveys being in a classroom and teaching lessons to real kids is was key to them feeling ready for their own classroom. The most beneficial aspect of student teaching was observing a mentor teacher in action by seeing them instruction and manage student behavior. The relationship between teaching efficacy and preparation related to student teaching was statistically significant. Continued Literature Review: Continued Literature Review Wilks and Ross (2014) felt that there needs to be a joint process between schools and universities to have continuous field experience. Universities will be able to keep in touch with the reality of teaching in the 21 st century, while students do not have to imagine what being a teacher will be like since they will get “on the job” experiences. Fifteen students engaged in “shadowing.” They were placed with a mentor teacher that taught the subject areas they were studying. They followed the teacher around for the whole day for six weeks and were able to write down notes of observations in a provided journal. Students reported feeling more prepared and less anxious for teaching at the conclusion of this study (Wilks & Ross, 2014). Students were able of viewing curriculum, instruction, and classroom management in authentic settings while receiving a theoretical context from their university classes. Variables: Variables Identification of TALIS Questions as Variables The Teacher Questionnaire was used from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey to identify two questions that would provide data could be used for this study. The questions selected include : TT2G12C 12c. Were the following elements included in your formal education or training? Part C states Classroom practice (practicum, internship or student teaching) in the subject(s) I teach   TT2G46J 46. {Finally, }we would like to know how you generally feel about your job. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements ? Part J states All in all, I am satisfied with my job. Participants and Data Source: Participants and Data Source Lower secondary teachers and leaders of schools in 200 schools per country/ economy were randomly selected to complete the Teacher Questionnaire from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey. The survey was conducted between September and December 2012 for countries in the southern hemisphere and between February and June 2013 for countries in the northern hemisphere (OECD, 2014). In total, there was 14,583 lower secondary teacher participants. TALIS asked questions about how teachers were recognized, participation in professional development, beliefs and attitudes toward teaching, as well as job satisfaction. The responses from these surveys will help countries review and define policies for developing a high-quality teaching workforce (OECD, 2014). Recoding Data: Recoding Data Some of the responses missing were invalid or missing. These scores were represented with a 7 or a 9. Based on the TALIS user guide, 7 means the participant did not get to that question and 9 represents they skipped the questions. I had to recode these variables so they would not skew the results. I recoded by defining the old and new values. If there is a 7 or 9, I had these variables go system missing. The values are still present just do not impact the data. Data Analysis: Data Analysis In order to determine if there were differences in the mean scores with the classroom practice and job satisfaction, an AVONA was conducted. AVONA was chosen since because there is more than two groups. I am comparing the means of job satisfaction amongst three groups since the responses for “Classroom practice (practicum, internship or student teaching) in the subject(s) I teach” could be yes for all, yes for some, and no.” The groups are the independent variable and job satisfaction was the dependent variable. First, a box plot for each independent variable was calculated. Then an AVONA and post hoc test was used to measure mean differences. A post hoc test was calculated to see where the differences between the groups lied, only if the AVONA was overall statistically significant. Finally I ran a homogeneity of the data. A statistically significant level was determined at the standard levels of α = .05 and .001.   Box Plot: Box Plot ANOVA: ANOVA ANOVA School Climate/ About your job/ All in all, I am satisfied with my job   Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 12.741 2 6.371 19.588 .000 Within Groups 4541.013 13962 .325     Total 4553.755 13964       Post Hoc Test: Post Hoc Test   Dependent Variable: School Climate/ About your job/ All in all, I am satisfied with my job Tukey HSD (I) Background/ Elements included in formal education or training/ Classroom practice in the subject(s) I teach (J) Background/ Elements included in formal education or training/ Classroom practice in the subject(s) I teach Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound Yes, for all subject(s) I teach Yes, for some subject(s) I teach .061 * .011 .000 .03 .09 No -.047 .022 .073 -.10 .00 Yes, for some subject(s) I teach Yes, for all subject(s) I teach -.061 * .011 .000 -.09 -.03 No -.108 * .023 .000 -.16 -.05 No Yes, for all subject(s) I teach .047 .022 .073 .00 .10 Yes, for some subject(s) I teach .108 * .023 .000 .05 .16 *. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. Discussion : D iscussion The significance level based on the AVONA is .000 which is less than .05. Therefore, I can reject the null hypothesis and state that there is significance between classroom practice prior to their own classroom and job satisfaction. All group’s means were in the 3’s indicating most teachers “agreeing” or “strongly” agreeing with being satisfied overall with their job. Some classroom experience had the lowest job satisfaction at 3.23, compared to 3.29 for experience in all subject areas and 3.34 with no experience. Though I believed prior to this test that there was a relationship I was surprised to examine the means and find those with no classroom practices rated job satisfaction higher than those with some and all subject experience. My thinking was that if a teacher had a significant amount of on the job experience during their training and still decided to continue on with that job after completion of their degree, they may have higher job satisfaction than someone with less experience since they were more aware of the demands of having their own classroom. I wonder how much group samples impacted the means. Limitations and Validity of Results: Limitations and Validity of Results Only 754 teachers reported no prior classroom practice versus 9515 teachers for all subjects and 3696 for some subjects. There was a statistically significant difference found on the homogeneity of variance. This could be due to the groups being compared vary greatly in size . Though there is a statistically significant relationship between classroom experience and job satisfaction, this relationship is not very strong since the group means are similar, all being in the low 3’s. Also the differences between the groups is only significant when comparing those with “some classroom experience” which is odd because it is not clear cut of no experience or experience having higher job satisfaction. Therefore, more data will be needed to make a strong case that the two variables are related. This additional data could included follow-up questions on their classroom practice experiences, such as how involved the mentor teacher was in providing feedback and the types of roles they were doing in the classroom (ex. working with small groups of students or providing the teacher with additional prep help with upcoming lessons by preparing activities). Future Research: Future Research Future research could involve having a more equally represented population samples between those who had classroom practice and those who did not. Possible participants could be recruited from particular programs such as University of Phoenix (an online alternative institution with limited practicum expectations and a significantly less student teaching requirement) with a traditional university such as Michigan State University. Michigan State University requires a one year teaching internship . Examine the relationship of classroom practice and job satisfaction with elementary teachers, who teach a variety of subject areas and may require more prior support in all of those content subjects. References: References Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 , 191–215. Brown , A. L., Lee, J., & Collins, D. (2015) Does student teaching matter? Investigating preservice teachers’ sense of efficacy and preparedness. Teaching Education, 26 (1), 77-93 . Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education , 57 (3), 300-314. Hammond, C. & McCallum, F. (2009). Interdisciplinarity : Bridging the university and field of practice divide. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34 (2), 50-63. Hardman, M. (2009). Redesigning the preparation of teachers within the framework of an integrated program model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 , 583-587. Kee , A. N. (2012). Feelings of preparedness among alternatively certified teachers: What is the role of program features? Journal of Teacher Education, 63 (1), 23-38. OECD. (2014). A teachers’ guide to TALIS 2013: Teaching and learning international survey. TALIS . OECD Publishing; http ://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264216075-en. Wilks, J. & Ross, K. (2014 ). alauable thing you can do”: Threading informal classroom experiences into secondary pre service teacher education. . Teacher Education Quarterly, 41 (2), 93-106.

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