Tales of Three Cities - Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia

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Information about Tales of Three Cities - Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia

Published on November 3, 2016

Author: Joe_Onn_Lim

Source: slideshare.net

1. TROPICAL CITIES Team members: Chia Cheng Wei 0322091 Iche Dunstan Omari 0323347 Ivan Ling Chyi Rui 0313583 Kooi Yong Kai 0323512 Lee Xiang Loon 0322090 Lee Zu Jing 0325706 Lim Joe Onn 0318679 Lo Jia Woei 0318585 Pua Kai Jing 0313995 TALES OF 3 CITIES Instructor: Dr Sucharita Srirangam

2. GEORGETOWN Capital of Penang Population 500,000 One of Malaysia’s oldest cities

3. Location of Georgetown, Penang in Peninsular Malaysia

4. HISTORY Founded by Sir Francis Light in 1786 Expansion from Fort Cornwallis, first permanent built structure of Georgetown Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

5. Urban morphology climatic design Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

6. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

7. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

8. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

9. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

10. BUFFER ZONE CORE ZONE Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

11. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

12. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism Georgetown is shaped by its interaction with the rest of the world

13. Early Shophouse Style 1800 – 1850’s Early Transitional Style 1840 – 1900’s Early Straits Eclectic Style 1890 – 1920’s Late Straits Eclectic Style 1920 – 1940’s Neo-Classical Style - Early 20th century Art Deco Style 1930 – 1950’s Early Modern Style - Post war Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

14. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

15. HERITAGE tangible intangible eclectic fusion diverse Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

16. TOURISM income places to explore job opportunities for locals

17. Roles of Organization Established by the Penang State Government in April 2010 to spearhead efforts to ensure that George Town's legacy will not be lost. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

18. Major Objectives • Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites • Create a culturally engaging atmosphere • Successfully implement sustainable tourism Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

19. Vision The convergence of an intelligent and sustainable heritage city that belongs to Penang, Malaysia and all humanity. Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

20. Idealized vs Reality Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

21. CASE STUDIES No.1: LEBUH CHULIA Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

22. No.2: CLAN JETTIES Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

23. No.3: JALAN MASJID KAPITAN KELING Introduction // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

24. Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites Lebuh Chulia

25. Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

26. Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

27. • One of the oldest streets in George Town • Stretches across both UNESCO Heritage Buildings Category I and II zones • Acquired the name by 1798 • Was extended in the late 19th century following extensive land reclamation that results in Chulia Street Ghaut • The epicentre of budget accommodation in George Town today • Shophouses on the left side carry odd-number address and even-number address on the right Photo source: George Town World Heritage Incorporated Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

28. Architecture of a Shophouse • The dominant building type within the Core Zone of George Town is shophouses • Shophouses can be traced to the Chinese immigrants from southern coastal provinces of China • Knowledge and methods of building construction adapted to Malaysian urban shophouses • Blending the influences from the Dutch, Malay and British with own culture to create a unique architecture Photo source: http://nosurplus.blogspot.my/ Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

29. Typical Urban Shophouses in George Town 1. Covered five-foot walkways at ground floor level façade 2. Opulent ornamentation on the façade by the use of Chinese and European motifs 3. Profusion of use of tiles, stucco, and timber as materials for construction 4. Shoplot at ground level with storage, backyard, and central air-well for ventilation 5. Bedrooms, living, dining and kitchen at first floor level, capped by a jack roof Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

30. 1840 – 1850 • Under British ruling, connected walkways to the street edges became restricted • The guideline was that the measurements had to be at least five foot wide, hence the name five-foot way • Raffles’ verandah-way regulation was applied since 18th century to provide pedestrians with a walkway indented into the building ground floor • Verandah-way to maintain unity and provide an additional room • Five-foot way was ‘semi-closed’ with bamboo screens to reduce the radiation of the roads from entering the shophouse • Flat façade and minimal ornamentation • Shuttered windows • Built using masonry Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

31. Air-well Air-well Typical Early Transitional Style shophouse section Diagram visualising the effects of radiation screens Five-foot way Recessed area below the first floor of the building that is designed as public space. Air Wells Long shophouse buildings with two pitched roofs or more, separated the pitches with an air well, to allow ventilation and cooling of the spaces below. “ “ ” ” Five-foot way – George Town World Heritage Incorporated (GTWHI) Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

32. 1950 – onwards • Influenced by trends from Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier and Mies Van der Rohe • Built with reason, form by character and aesthetic quality • Abstract relationship of solid surfaces • Design moved away from craftsmanship but local influences maintained to form unique modern style • Large, clean cut openings and usage of glass windows • Built using reinforced concrete Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

33. Early Transitional Style (1840 – 1850) • Two storeys building • Introduction of five-foot way • Flat-façade • Minimal ornamentation • Radiation screens • Masonry Early Modern Style (1950 – onwards) • Three or more storeys building • Motivated and simple modernist design • Design moved away from craftsmanship • Local influences still used but transformed into a unique modern style • Reinforced concrete Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

34. Urban Morphological of Chulia Street • Morphology of Chulia Street – physical change and the evolution of the way of life brought upon by modernisation • Tram tracks have been sealed and Chulia Street has become a busy vehicular passageway connecting Jalan Penang to Beach Street • Modernisation has unavoidably impacted the streetscape character. Roadside parking and modern utilities make up part of the visual character of Chulia Street Chulia Street looking from the Love Lane junction Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

35. Cultural Context On Site From Various Architectural Designs Cultural effects of traditional architecture Traditional buildings have divisional usage for either housing or commercial purposes • Division of private and public spacing • Patterns and orientation of applications of various usage and occupancy • Creation of topology of geometrical local network of function • Reflection of local site contents and attributes • Monumental represent of origin influences, significance and importance Cultural effects of modern/contemporary architecture The discard and reject of traditional materials usage , exclusion of cultural contents and celebration of modern industrial methods • Concentrated pattern of applications • Simplicity of spacing and circulation • Ease of accessibility and function • Introduction of a new concept and class-less influence (Top) Chulia Street in the past (Bottom) New buildings and usage in Chulia Street today Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

36. • Original traditional buildings in Chulia Street have attributes of historical influences and social order formed by historic events that creates cultural progress of many terms • Construction and introduction of a modern building design may change the point of view and experience of a person in the terms of site elements • A visible shift of building’s original attributes • Disrupts the significance and identity of a traditional shophouse Construction Of Modern Contemporary Building Traditional (Low density) Modern (High density) Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

37. • Some shophouses in Chulia Street had been affected by damages from arson, urban decay and during World War 2 • Local site content has been shifted due to the erection of modern and contemporary buildings instead of rebuilding and restoring the original buildings • Elements of Chulia Street were affected by such buildings due to caused inconveniences and shift in economic and circulation of the site • Affects the livelihood of the inhabitants • Construction of new buildings also makes the site adapting to a more commercial economy instead of creating a more socio-economical atmosphere for the inhabitants to inherit their past generation’s heritage • Hence, creating inconveniences for the locals in their daily commuting around the area also affecting the behaviour of the inhabitants Depreciation of Traditional Shophouses in Modern Buildings (Top) Modern hotels constructed in between a row of traditional buildings and symbolise tourism (Bottom) A row of abandoned shophouses due to loss by effects of new modern businesses Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

38. Special Area Plan (SAP) is a plan prepared for the George Town World Heritage Site (GTWHS) to guide and control development within the area. The SAP shall acts as a conservation management plan for GTWHS. – George Town World Heritage Incorporated (GTWHI) “ ” Photo source: onlypenang.com Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

39. Importance of five-foot way in shophouses Traditional shophouses with semi-public/private transitional zone on both sides of Chulia Street as a: • Partially enclosed space between shop and street • Continuity for human circulation and movement with shelter from rain • Sunshade space to ground floor • Multi-functional space for roadside small traders • Important feature for urban culture life • Strong urban image Destruction of five-foot way due to modernisation • Contemporary development destroys pedestrian walkway connectivity • Intimacy character of the traditional streetscape destroyed by provision of roads • Cultural and historical significance of a Chinese shophouse are impacted • No longer acting as shelter for heat and rain Five-foot Way Streetscape Introduction Into Urban Fabric Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

40. • Development of Chulia Street leads to users using automobiles to travel rather than by foot even for short distances • Due to lack of provision of five-foot ways in modern buildings • Other forms of pedestrian facilities available but not comprehensive to link up with others to form a workable system • Contributes to the lack of communal harmony and social integrity among the residents of Chulia Street Lack of Five-foot Ways In Modern Buildings (Top) Sketch visualizing the comparison of the existence of five-foot ways in buildings (Bottom) Five- foot ways in the past and now Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

41. • Bizarre and striking colours • Lost of historical character of shophouse • Not having a design uniformity among shophouses • Attract attention for businesses (bright colours and huge signage) • Newer and taller buildings acting as a landmark New Styles of Facades In Modern Buildings No longer unique and recognizable while also not representing George Town Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

42. Height of Infill and New Buildings Special Area Plan (SAP)’s Permitted Height guideline says: “Height of compatible infill development is dependent on the height of the lower adjacent building.” • New infill buildings did not strictly follow the guidelines • Hotels and corporate office buildings along Chulia Street such as the Asas Dunia building • Promote tourism rather than considering the needs of locals and urban density increases in these infill (Top) Asas Dunia office building in Chulia Street (Bottom) Permitted height of infill buildings Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

43. Building Sustainability and Elements Special Area Plan (SAP)’s Permitted Height guideline says: “Air-well shall be maintained as part of the design with flexible roof to allow day lighting and natural ventilation.” • Newer buildings lack such feature and were not following the guidelines • Covering or removing the air well, and usage of zinc roof • Removal of rear courtyards • Heavily depending on electronic and mechanical ventilation • Hot air stays in the building • Affecting the sustainability and the surrounding buildings and its elements Old buildings had the capability for natural ventilation Newer buildings in some cases affect the capabilities of the surrounding buildings Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

44. Preserved shophouses Preserved shophouses New, modern shophouse Newly built shophouses fail to comply with Special Area Plan (SAP) guidelines Majority of new infill shophouses do not retain the original features of a Early Transitional Style implemented by the British, local authority and GTWHI upon rebuilt. Discontinuity along the street of Lebuh Chulia Identify, Protect & Preserve Built Form of Heritage Sites // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

45. To successfully implement sustainable tourism Clan Jetties

46. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

47. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism Waterfront society House on stilts

48. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

49. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

50. Ong Lim Chew TanLee Mixed clan Yeoh Peng Aun Koay

51. Road Houses Temple Land Sea Sea

52. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

53. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism The jetties were established at a time when Penang's maritime trade was booming. Chinese immigrants who came to Penang in the early 19th century worked at the docks as coolies and boat operators ferrying passengers.

54. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism Passive design implemented. Gaps between wood planks allow sea breeze into the houses.

55. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

56. What is sustainable tourism? Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The positive of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development is a positive experience for local people; tourism companies; and tourists themselves. Source: World Tourism Organization To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

57. Originally Currently • Water taxis • Tourism • Trading • Fishing • Transportation of goods • Festivals Activities To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

58. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

59. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

60. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

61. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

62. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

63. Koay Jetty To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

64. Destroyed by fire! To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

65. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

66. To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

67. Mangrove swamp To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

68. Sacrificed for low cost flats! To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

69. Originally Currently • 9 jetties • 6 jetties remain • Mangrove swamp present • Low-cost flats built, destroying green areas • Houses cater specific clans • Population consists of all ages • Trading oriented, each jetty had its own niche and function • Communities expand naturally • Houses converted into shops catering tourists • Senior citizens remain as youngsters move to cities • Tourism oriented, social sustainability lost • Low-cost flats create conflict in place making To successfully implement sustainable tourism // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

70. Create a Culturally Engaging Atmosphere

71. JALAN MASJID KAPITAN KELING Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

72. JALAN MASJID KAPITAN KELING • Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling was historically, rich and varied interactions between communities of different origins, cultural traditions and faiths. • Used to be the very edge of town, bordered by Light street, Beach street and Chulia street. Now names Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling, names after the Indian Muslim mosque along it, is one of the George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site core zone. • Street wears a European character, followed by Chinese and Indian Muslim, Which are clearly separated by the religious sites on site. Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

73. GODDESS OF MERCY TEMPLE (1835) THE ANGLICAN CHURCH OF ST GEORGE (1818) SRI MAHA MARIAMMAN HINDU TEMPLE (1833) KAPITAN KELING MOSQUE (1801) Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

74. KUAN YIN ENCLAVE • Retail of prayer paraphernalia, idols and charms. • Chinese vegetarian restaurants. • Activities supporting the temple and its users. LITTLE INDIA • South and Northern Indian Restaurants. • Textiles and related trade. • Worker’s accommodation. • Cultural products and services. LEBUH ACHEH MOSQUE ENCLAVE • Activities supporting the temple and its users. • Residential or Commercial with Residential. • Compatible arts and culture related activities. KONGSI ENCLAVE • Activities supporting the mosque and the Muslim community, preferably Haj related. MASJID KAPITAN KELING AND GOLD BAZAAR ENCLAVE • Activities relating to gold and gem trade. • Indian Muslim restaurants. • Activities supporting the mosque and the Muslim community services. SPECIAL ZONE Zone with highest concentration of OUVs and Category 1 buildings within the WHS. Area warrants strictest form of land use Source: George Town Special Area Plan Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

75. MATRIX OF NON- PERMISSIBLE ACTIVITIES • Special zones have no exceptions for any non- permissible activities. • However, a budget hotel exists on site. Source: George Town Special Area Plan Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

76. OPEN SPACE AND LANDSCAPE DESIGN To make streets pedestrian priority, and to provide adequate public open spaces and connectivity for the comfort of all non private- vehicle user. SHARED STREETS Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

77. Chingay Giant Flag Carrying in December Tua Peh Kong 15th Day of 1st Chinese New Year End Point Streets as shared spaces. Practices, performances and rituals create richness of the culturally eclectic landscape of the historic settlements. Temporary public use of the street should be maintained and encouraged. Source: George Town Special Area Plan Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

78. EXISTING GREEN/ PUBLIC OPEN SPACE Series of parks and public open spaces are proposed in addition to existing public open spaces. These proposed network of public open spaces are interconnected via a landscaped pedestrian network. Well maintained parks and landscaped elements are essential for the livelihood and liveability of George Town. The park offers the residences a space of recreation and leisure, as well as helping to maintain ecological balance and reduce pollution. Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

79. Lebuh Carnarvon and Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling, with high volume vehicles, are proposed as tree lined streets with sidewalks for the pdestrian,. As of the printing of this document, the planting of trees on the median Lebuh Carnarvon has been completed. Pedestrian Priority lanes are built to have streets that promote a safe, comfortable, convenient and barrier free connectivity for all road users with primary consideration for pedestrian. Hence, it creates a more safer and comfortable walkways for the tourist and local citizen to carry out activities. Proposals have been suggested to make all roads one way except for Lebuh Chulia and Lebuh Light. Tree Lined Pedestrian Priority Streets Pedestrian Priority Streets Two way road Intro nodes connectivity. Source: George Town Special Area Plan Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

80. Upgrading and revitalisation of back lanes for pedestrian use, or even commercial use where applicable BACKLANES WITH ACTIVITIES LINE CLEAR NASI KANDAR LORONG PASAR – LORONG CHULIA BACK LANE (UPGRADE) CHULIA STREET – MUNTRI STREET BACK LANE (NEW) LEBUH CARNARVON – JALAN PINTAL TALI (UPGRADE) Source: George Town Special Area Plan Create a culturally engaging atmosphere // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

81. Chinese temple Chinese community Hotel Indian temple Indian-Muslim community Mosque Muslim community Community layer

82. Junctions Chinese temple Chinese community Hotel Indian temple Indian-muslim community Mosque Muslim community

83. Public space Chinese temple Chinese community Hotel Indian temple Indian-muslim community Mosque Muslim community • To increase green public open space in the city.

84. Pedestrian walkway Chinese temple Chinese community Hotel Indian temple Indian-muslim community Mosque Muslim community • To have streets that promote a safe, comfortable, convenient and barrier free connectivity for all road users.

85. Nodes Chinese temple Chinese community Hotel Indian temple Indian-muslim community Mosque Muslim community

86. conclusion Conclusion // Ideas & Theories in Urbanism

87. references IMAGES Ahad Z., & Chan, B. (2015, July 7). The Chinese tourists in high spirits at Chew Jetty in Weld Quay. Retrieved from The Star Newspaper July 7, 2015 Blandon, A. (n.d.) Clan Jetties along Weld Quay, Penang. Retrieved from http://soultravelers3.typepad.com/.a/6a00e5502a950788330176175498bb970c-pi Chan, R. (n.d.). Retrived from http://www.ronniechanphoto.com/featured/featured-article/itemlist/tag/pre%20wedding Chng, K.K. (n.d.). Sketches of Georgetown, Penang. Chong, F.G. (n.d.). Artworks. Retrieved from www.deviantart.com Chong, F. G. (n.d.). What’s the Plan? Retrieved from https://www.behance.net/gallery/26792187/Whats-the-plan-Penang-(Short-comic) Druys (2014, September 22). Retrieved from https://marriedtoourbackpacks.wordpress.com/2014/09/22/penang-malaysia/ Gaffney, J. (2015, February 18). Retrieved from https://asiatextilejourney.wordpress.com/ Goon, T. (n.d.). Panorama. Retrieved from https://www.behance.net/gallery/925954/PANORAMIC-PENANG Lam, C. (2013, August). Retrieved from http://connie-stillbelieve.blogspot.my/2013/08/georgetown-penang-street-art-mural.html Liew, C. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.deviantart.com/art/Penang-Clan-Jetties-309331285 Lim, R. (2014, Febuary 17). Brightly-lit Lee Jetty. Retrieved from https://penangtapestry.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/hean-boo-thean101.jpg Nostalgic Malaya (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/438467713694943275/ Ong, S. (2015, February 5). Retrieved from http://www.penangstory.net.my/mino-content-paperong.html Shloke. (2012, September 1). Retrieved from http://s426.photobucket.com/user/myshloke2/media/Penang%20August%202012/BLOG_0196.jpg.html Tan, L. (2014, February 12). Retrieved from http://lewistanblogger.blogspot.my/2014/02/12.html Tan, R. (2015, August 19). Penang Mural Defaced. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2015/08/19/mural-in-penang-defaced/ Teh, E. (2016, July). Retrieved from http://penangmonthly.com/tag/clan-jetties/ The Star. (July, 2015). Retrieved from http://www.pulaupinang.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/chew-jetty-the-star.jpeg

88. Tye, T. (2013, February 6). Retrieved from http://www.penang-traveltips.com/sri-saujana-macallum-street-ghaut.htm Water Taxis (March, 2011). Retrieved from http://www.pulaupinang.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/water-taxi-in-Penang-resurface.jpg Zen, J. (2014, February 13). Chew Jetty. Retrieved from http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- zvru0zGO754/Uv3Qq7S164I/AAAAAAAA1qo/xN4DCHlAp10/s1600/19+Chew+Jetty+Temple+Pai+Ti+Kong+Jade+Emperorr+Festival+Penang- 100.jpg DOCUMENTS AJM Planning and Urban Design Group (2011). George Town, Historic Cities of Straits of Malacca: Draft Special Area Plan. Georgetown, Penang: AJM Den Teuling, M.J. (2009). Rebirth of the Malacca Shophouse: A typological research: Traditional Values in a Contemporary World. Retrieved from Delft University of Technology Repository. Effect of Culture on Architectural Expression. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://architexturez.net/doc/az-cf-168644 George Town Special Area Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://www.gtwhi.com.my/resource/important- documents/george-town-special-area-plan.html Georgetown Attractions (n.d.). Clan Jetties in Penang. Retrieved from http://www.penang.ws/penang-attractions/clan-jetties.html Guidelines for the Conservation Areas & Heritage Buildings. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://penangshophouse.com.my/?page_id=106 Modernity in tradition: Reflections on building design and technology in the Asian vernacular. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095263514000715 Penang Travel Guide (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.penang-discovery.com/attraction/clan_jetties/ The Traditional Elements and Modern Architectural Design. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2016, from http://www.scientific.net/AMR.243- 249.6562 Tourism Ministry of Penang (2009, August 21). Chew Jetty – A Stroll Down a Living Heritage Community. Retrieved from http://www.visitpenang.gov.my/portal3/what-to-see/attractions/chew-jetty.html World Tourism Organization (n.d.). Defining Sustainable Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/sustour-define.html Yeang, K. (1987). The Tropical Verandah City. Petaling Jaya, Selangor: Longman

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