Tag Ontologies

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Information about Tag Ontologies
Technology

Published on July 21, 2009

Author: echo4ngel

Source: slideshare.net

Description

I tried to explain what tag is, why we need ontologies for tagging, Newman's Tag Ontology, Gruber's Conceptual Model, MOAT, Common Tag, what folksonomy is, and SCOT.

Tag Ontologies Bridging the Semantic Web and the Social Web James G. Kim jgkim@jayg.org July, 2009

So, Let’s Talk about Tags! Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/somefool/3373796396/

Tag?

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/celloc/3572696095/

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/adulau/2124178869/

Tag |tag| noun a non-hierarchical keyword or term verb ( tagged |tøgd|, tagging |tøgɪŋ|) assign a tag to a piece of information or resources Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/abbyladybug/1253054966/

Personal information management (PIM) Information Social Architecture Software Organizing info so Computer-mediated others can find collaboration and sharing Tagging Social metadata Personal Information Management Organizing your information to get things done Figure 1.9 Much of Source:interestTagging: People-Powered Metadata for of Social Web the Gene Smith, in tagging is because the the way

Why Tagging Matters?

It’s Popular. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthewfield/2306001896/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Popular. “Today, practically anyone who uses a computer or the Internet is exposed to tagging in some way.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthewfield/2306001896/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Multifaceted. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/missizss/2418518837/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Multifaceted. “As tagging grows in popularity, the idea that the same thing can exist in multiple places will be the norm.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/missizss/2418518837/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Social. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/2868952310/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Social. “Through the most popular tags, we can see a kind of rough consensus on the subject of the resouce.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/2868952310/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Flexible. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samuelr/3040787155/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

It’s Flexible. “Tagging offers organizations a way to learn, understand, and adopt the vocabulary of their communities.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samuelr/3040787155/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

Basic Model

User Resource Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

User Resource “Taggers create the tags, and sometimes they add resources.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

User Resource “As long as we have a way to uniquely identify something, it can be tagged.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

User Resource “Because tagging is open-ended, tags can be just about any kind of term.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

User Resource Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

However

Source: David Simonds, The Economist

Let’s Share Tags!

Value by Sharing

Collaborative Sharing Across Multiple Applications Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3088582622/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges

Collaborative Filtering Based on Tagging Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/moosterbroek/2948816723/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges

Connecting People Based on Tagging Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jmcphers/117976932/ Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

How Do We Do This?

Tag Ontologies

Ontology is NOT a Taxonomy Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebusybrain/2492945625/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges

Ontology Makes Semantic Agreement Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mujitra/2933605871/ Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data

Semantic Agreement Enables Useful Composition Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ejpphoto/2314610838/ Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data

System A says a tag is a property of a document. System B says a tag is an assertion by an individual with an identity. Does it mean anything to combine the tag data from these two systems? Nah. If system A and B agree that a tagging is an assertion tagged(tag, resource, user), they share, exchange, and reuse tagging data across the systems. Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data

Richard Newman’s Tag Ontology

s w a g s ot ut e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

s w a g s ot ut “Taggers are foaf:Agents.” e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

s w a g s ot ut “Taggings reify the n-ary relationship e between a tagger, a tag, a resource, and a date.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

s w a g s ot ut “Tags are members of a Tag class. e Tags have names.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

s w a g s ot ut “We do not attempt to implement plurals or synonymity e at this stage, as these are subjective assessments of a tag.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

s w a g s ot ut e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tom Gruber’s Conceptual Model

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) “Notably, Gruber defines the source as the scope of namespaces or universe of quantification for objects” Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/

Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “Scope of Tagging assertion: universal or rel to source?” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/

Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “Scope of tag.name: universal or rel to source?” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/

Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “I suggest that tags are modeled through URIs.” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/

Limits of Tagging

Ambiguity of Tags Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/202092577/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

Heterogeneity of Tags Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/131086453/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

Flat Organization of Folksonomy Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimmediaart/582429985/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

Because of Independence

How Do We Overcome These?

vs. tagcommons

Use Common Tags

Source: Anja Jentzsch et al., http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-lod/2009Mar/0042.html

MOAT: Meaning of A Tag

Tagging(User, Resource, Tag, Meaning) Local Meaning Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data

tags:RestrictedTagging http://tags.moat- project.org/tag/paris rdf:type tags:associatedTag tags:name http://example.org/ tagging/1 paris moat:tagMeaning tags:taggedBy http://sws.geonames.org/ tags:taggedResource 2988507/ http://example.org/alex http://example.org/ post/1 Figure 2: Tagging and the local meaning of a tag Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data

Meaning(Tag) = {(Meaning, {User})} Global Meaning Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data

visiting online have France ? betting ? <htt del.icio.us query del.icio.us query 3. 3.1 paris tagged http://www.parissportifs.com/ Vario mant tagged tagged mode work http://paris.fr http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Hilton or lin focus a mo to re its fr Figure 1: User perception and tag search mode plian Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data m lar

http://tags.moat- Semantic We project.org/tag/paris [6] H. Halpin, V. tags:associatedTag and semantic http://example.org/ tags:name tagging/1 of the 1st Sem paris Workshop (SA moat:tagMeaning [7] S. Handschuh tags:taggedBy Semantic We tags:taggedResource http://sws.geonames.org/ Intelligence a 2988507/ 2003. http://example.org/alex [8] C. Hayes and sioc:topic identify topic geonames:parentFeature http://example.org/ post/1 International (ICWSM 07) http://sws.geonames.org/ [9] J. Kahan and http://example.org/julie 3017382/ RDF infrastru Proceedings o http://tags.moat- World Wide W moat:tagMeaning project.org/tag/france tags:taggedBy ACM Press. tags:associatedTag [10] H. Kim, J. Br Building a Ta tags:name http://example.org/ tagging/2 sioc:topic Ontology. In Symposium o france tags:taggedResource Stanford Univ [11] A. Mathes. F http://example.org/ and Commun post/2 http://www.a mediated-com Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data December 200

User creates content and tag it Client queries the MOAT server <http://sws.geonames.org/4402452/> Server returns the set for global meaning URIs User chooses local meaning URI <http://sws.geonames.org/2988507/> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris_Hilton> tags:associatedTag User saves the content http://example.org/ http://tags.moat- tagging/1 project.org/tag/paris moat:tagMeaning Content enters tags:taggedResource http://sws.geonames.org/ the Semantic Web 2988507/ tags:taggedBy http://example.org/ post/1 http://example.org/alex Figure 3: Global architecture Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data .3 Implementations

Source: Common Tag, http://commontag.org/

“Common Tags are defined using RDFa, a standard format for expressing structured data within HTML.” Source: Common Tag, http://commontag.org/

Make Tags Commons

Folksonomies

css ajax webdesign Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

css ajax webdesign “Folksonomy has become a popular term to describe the bottom-up classification systems that emerge from social tagging.” Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

HIV ccr5 cxcr4 Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

Harrison Ford Indiana Jones Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

Harrison Ford Indiana Jones “There are no formal relationships in a folksonomy, other than perhaps “degree of relatedness.” Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

“Tagging is done independently.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnjoh/2470964935/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

“Tags are aggregated.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ception/356449209/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

“Relationships are inferred.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/albany_tim/3042619548/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

“Any inference method is valid (though some are better than others).” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannem/3312115991/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web

SCOT: Social Semantic Cloud of Tags

Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

“The SCOT (Social Semantic Cloud of Tags) ontology is aimed to represent the structure and semantics of a set of tags and promotes their global sharing.” Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging

Reference: Haklae Kim et al., SCOT Ontology Specification

Taxonomy vs. Folksonomy?

Web as a Platform Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tweng/2407653120/

Federated Ontology

ww.semanticdesktop.org/ontologies/nao/ontologies/2007/08/15/nrl# SIOC Tag Ontology MOAT Alice Bob Bob's SCOT bookmark (1) Create content Alice's bookmark Tag Tag sparql semantic web sw (2) Tag content Local meaning (4) Export tagcloud http://dbpedia.org/resource/ (3) Give meaning Semantic_Web sw Global Meaning Social bookmarking site Co-occurence http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Semantic_Web sparql Photo sharing site Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Bob and Alice's content + tags http://bobalice.com/ tagcloud scot:composed_of scot:composed_of SCOT http://bob.com/ SIOC SCOT + Tag Ontology tagcloud http://alice.net/ http://iswc2008.org tagcloud http://bob.com/ tags:taggedResource scot/semanticweb scot:contains scot:tagging_activity scot:tagging_activity scot:contains scot:aggregated_tag scot:has_usergroup http://alice.net/scot/sw http://alice.net/ Tag Ontology tags:taggedResource http://bobalice.com/ tagging/1 usergroup http://bob.com/ tagging/1 tags:associatedTag tags:associatedTag sioc:has_member sioc:has_member tags:taggedBy scot:aggregated_tag tags:name tags:taggedBy tags:name http://bob.com/tag/ http://alice.com/ semanticweb http://bob.com/ http://alice.net/ tag/sw sw semantic web user user moat:hasMeaning moat:hasMeaning http://bobalice.com/ meaning/1 moat:tagMeaning moat:meaningURI moat:tagMeaning http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Semantic_Web MOAT Fig. 5. Federation among RDF vocabularies Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces

Challenges The First Step? Scope of Namespace Negative Tags “It’s not true that tagger1 tagged object2 with tag3.” Metatagging Tagging(Term, Term, Tagger)? Tagging(Tagger, Term, Tagger)? User Experience Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ambersphoto/3484193590/

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